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Dintb Coition— popular 'Reprint 




Ke- szo 

EncyclopsBdia Britamiica.— Vol. XI. 


GOUT. Dr J. O. Awlbok. 
GOYSRKICBNT. Prof . E. Bobsbtsoh. 
OBAOUATION. Prof. Jauks Bltth. 
OBAIL. Thomas Abbold. 
GRAMMAR. BeT. A. H. Satcb. 
GRASSB9. DrB.TBinx. 
ORATTAN. T. F. Hbmsbbsob. 
GRAYTTATION. B. 8. Baix, LL. D. 

Gboorapht. Johx Bab. 

Bxstobt. Prof. Jbbb, H. F. Tozbb, 

Uld Prof. D0MAU>B0H. 

Labouaob. Prof. A. 8. Wilkiks. 

Letbbatubb, Prof Maors Jbbb and Dobaldiob. 
QRBEK CHUBCH. Prof. Libimat, D. D 
GREELSY. Wbitblaw Bsxs. 
GREENLAND. Robbbt Bbowb, Ph. D. 
GREUZ B . Mrs. Pattxsob. 
GREY, Eabl. E. J. Patxb. 
GREY, Ladt jane. Jambs Qaibdbbb. 
GRIMM. Hbbbt 8WBBT. 
GROSSETBSTE. Rev. H. R. Luabd, D. D. 
GROTK Whxiam 8mxth, D. C. L. 
GBOTIUS. BeT. Mabk Pattuox. 
GROXTSB. Prof. A. Nbwtob. 
GUANO. Prof. A. H. Chubob. 
GUIANA. J. L. Ohlsbb snd H. A. Wbbstbb. 
GUICCIABDINL J. A. 8tmob]>s. 
GUILD. Miss L. Toxtlxix 8MnH. 
GUISB. Very Bev. Dean Kitohzb. 
GUIZOT. Hxhbt Bbbtb, C. B. 
GUN-COTTON. Fbbd. A. Abbl, C. B. 

Marlabd, B. A. 
GUNPOWDER Major W. H. Wabdbxx. 
GUTTA PBBCHA. Jambs Coluxs. 
GXTYON, Madamb. Bev. J. 8. Blaok. 
GYMNASTICS. Dr H. A. Husband. 
GYBOSCOPE. Prof. Bltth. 
HABAKKUK. Bsv. W. L. Albxaxdbb, D. D. 
HADBIAK'S WALL. J. Macvoxald, LL. D. 
HAFIZ. Prof. E. B. Palmxb. 
HACtGAL Prof. W. Bobbbtsox Smith. 
HALL^ BOBEBT. T. F. Hbxbbbsox. 
HALO. F. E. Saittbb. 
HAMBUBG. H. A. Wbbstbb. 
HAMILTON, ALEX. Justice Shba. 
HAMILTON, Sib WILLIAM. Miss B. Hamilton 
HAMILTON, Sib W. BOWAN. Prof. P. Q. Tait. 
HAMMBB. Prof. C. P. B. Shbllbt. 
HAMPDEN. Prof. 8. B. Oahdixbb. 
HANDBL. F. Hubttbb. 
HAND TOOLS. Prof. Shbllbt. 
HANNIBAL. Bev. W. J. Bbodbibb. 
BAMOVBB. Dr B. Juxe and Jab. Son. 


HABBOUBS. Thomas Stbtxxsok, C. E, 

HABE. JohxOibsox. 

HARMONIC ANALYSIS. Prof. J. Clbbk Mazwbll 

HABOLD. E. A. Fbbbmax, D. C. L. 

HABP. A.J. HiPKurs. 

HABYEY. Dr P. H. Ptb-Smith. 

HASTINGS, WABBEN. J. 8. Cottox, 

HASTINGS, Mabqttis of. Principal Sir Albx. 

Qbaxt, Bart. 
HAWTHOBNE. B. H. Btoddabd. 
HAYDON. W. M. Bossbttz. 
HAYTI, J. D. Champlix. 
HEABT DISEASES. Dr G. W. Balfoub. 
HEAT. Prof. Sir Willl&m Thomsox. 
HEATING. Capt Douqlas Galtox, C. B. 

Prof. W. B. Smith. 
HEGEL. W. Wallace, LL. D. 
HEINE. J. W. Fbbbixb. 
HELIGOLAND. Bobbbt Bbowx, Ph. D. 
HELLEBOBE. F. H. Butlbb. 
HELPS. Sir Tbbodobb Mabtix, K. C. B. 
HEMANS, Mbs. Miss Floba Massox. 
HEMP. Prof. A. H. Cbubch. 
HENRY L-Vin. O. W. Pbothbbo and T. Kirkitp. 
HENRY. JOSEPH. Prof. 8. F. Baibd. 
HEBALDRY. Q. T. Clabx. 
HERAT. Sir H. C. Bawlixbox. K. C. B- 
HERBARIUM. E. M. Holmbs. 
HEBBABT. Jambs Wabd. 
HEBCULAN^UM. Prof. E. Babxabbi. 
HEBOULES. O. A. M. FBxxbll. 
HEREFORD. Ber. Probendarj Datibs. 
HEBESY. Prof. T. M. Lzxdsat, D. D., and Prof 

K Bobbbtsox. 
HERMANN. Prof . R Asamsox. 
HEBMENEUTIC8. Professor 8. D. F. Salxomd. 
HEBNIA. Prof. Johx Chibxb. 
HEBODOTUS. Bev. Canon Bawlixsox. 
HERON. Prof. Nbwtox. 
HERSCHEL. Prof. C. Pbitohabd. 
HERZEGOVINA, Abthttb J. Evans. 
HESIOD. Bev. Prebendary Datibs. 
HIEBOGLYPHICS. Bxoixald 8. Poolb. 
HIMALAYA. Gen. R Stbachbt, C. S. L 
HIPPOCRATES . Dr J. Battt Tubs. 




I OUDA, or Tib Ooxm, a town of the Netherlands In 
r the pionnes of South Holland, at ikb oonfloenee of 
tho Qoaw with the Ynel, 12 miles N.E of Rotterdam, at 
the junction of the railwa/ from that city with the line 
between the Hague and Utrecht The town is for the most 
pvt laid out in an open and lightsome manner, aod' like the 
other tpwns of Holland is intersected b/ nnmeroos cuials. 
Fbrtions of the old fortifications are changed into promen- 
sdes» and the suburban quartan, Fiuweelensingel, Bleeken- 
singel, Katteusingel, and Taifsingel, are adorned with fine 
^eea. The Qroote Msrkt is the largest market square in 
Holland. Among the chnrchee five of which are Pio- 
testant, two Boman Cathob'c^ and one Old Catholic— the 
first place belongs to the church of St John (JanskerkX a 
building of the 16th centnqr, which renhced an earlier 
■tmctnre of the 15tb, and which is not onl/ remarkable for 
its dimensions, 345 feet in length and 150 feet broad, 
but possesses a celebrated orgsn, and a series of splendid 
painted windows, serend of which are the workmanship of 
Dirk and Wonter Krabeth (1555-1603). (Compare £»- 
pUmatUm o/tAe Famnm* and JUnowiud Gtau Wwrk^ &&, 
Qonda» 1876, reprinUd from an older Tolums^ 1718.) Of 
the other public buiUings it is sufficient to mention the 
town-honss, with a fine Gothic fs^e^ founded in 1449, but 
rebuilt in 1690, the we^h-house, the house of eorrection for 
womon, the gTmnasium, St Ostherine's hospital, and the 
music haO. A public library «ontainiag many rare uid 
valuable works is kept in St John's church, aod a muni- 
cipal museum of antiquities was opened in 1874. In the 
time of theconnts the wealth of Qondt was mainly derived 
from brewing and doth weaving: aoont 1510, for example, 
the breweries numbered 156, and upwards of 1000 pieces 
of cloth wen made in the comae of the year; but at a later 
date the oiaking of tobacco pipes became the stople trade, 
and in ths middle of the 18th century gave empli^rment to 
3000 men. Though this industry has in turn declined, 
Qouda atill poesesKs Urge pipe works and potteries; aod 
among its other establishments are a oelebiated manufactory 
of steorine candles^ a yam factory, an oQ refinery, and cigar 
factories It has also a good transit and shipping trader 
tud ita market for cheese has made its name widely known 
tiuongfaoutEoropo.. The population of the commune was, 
in 1796, 11,715; in 1830, 14^878; in 1850, 13,788; in 

1860, 14,843 ; and in 1870, after a diglit addition of area, 
1 6,233. At the hut date the town proper numbered 15,174 
inhabitants. Tae greater proportion belong to the Datch 
Reformed Chnrch, but nearly 5000 are Boman Catholics. 
Qouda received ita constitution m a town from Count 
Floris y. in 1272. In 1382 it had only 820 houaes ; but 
it rapidly incressed, and in the 14th centuty it was 
the fifth in sise of the towns of HoUand. The rise of 
Amsterdam made it only the sixth ; but it retained this 
poeition till the revolution of 1795. The principal facta 
m ita history are the attack by the people of Utrecht in 
1488; the repulse of the Spaniards in 1574; the do- 
stroction of the castle of the lords of Qouda in 1577 ; the 
volnntaty flooding of the surrounding country aa a defenoe 
against the French in 1672; the great inundation of 
November 1775 ; aod the riots of 1787. 

OOUDIMEL, Claodi^ oompossr of the 16th centniy, 
must be named amongst the fonnden of modem music. 
The French and the Belgians daim him aa their country- 
man, and the place of Ua birth is not sufficiently established. 
In iXL probability, however, lie was bora at Vaison near 
Avignon, about the year 1510. Aa to lus early education 
we know little or nothing, but the excellent Latin in which 
some of his letters were written prove that, tn addition to 
luc muaical knowledge, he also acquired a good classical 
training. In 1540we find him established in Borne at the 
head of a music-school, and here, amongst many other oele- 
breted musicians, Palestrins, the greatest master of the 
early Italian school, and one of the greatest masten of aU 
schools, was amongst his pupils. About the middle of the 
century he seems to have left Borne for Psris^ where^ in con- 
junction with Jean Dnchemin, he published, in 1565, a 
setting of Horace's Ociti, entitled, HcnOU Fitted oim cmnn 
quotqwol earmiiiMm gtiierUmi diferuni ad rhpOmoi mksmm 
rtdaeUB, Infinitely more important is another collection 
of vocal pieces, a setting of the celebrated French venion 
of the Ftolms by Marot and Besa (La Pmhsmi dt DaM^ 
mis m rim$ Franfom par Ciemeni Jfaroi d ThMon d4 
Bite, mit ea munque par Claude Oaudimd^, published in 
1565. It ia written in four parts, the melody being 
assigned to the tenor. Some of the tnnes were probably 
of popular origin, and they are still used by the French 
Protestant Church. Othen were adopted by the Qennan 

XL — X 



Laiihenau, a Qerman imitation of the French venlonB 
of the Psalms in the sama metres having been published 
at an early date. TUere is little donbt that, at the 
time of the last-named composition, Qondimel had em- 
braced the new ^th, although the French version of the 
Psslms was ^t first nsed by Catholics as well as Protestante. 
Beren years later he fell a victim to religious fanaticism 
during the St Bartholomew massacres at Lyons (24th 
Augnst 1572), hii death, it is stated, being duo to '*les 
ennemis de la gloire de Pieu et quelques m^hants envieux 
de llionneur qu*il avait acquis.'' In addition to the oolleo- 
lions already named, many of his works are preserved. 
Masses and motets belonging to his Eoman period are 
found in the Vatican library, and in the archives of 
varions churches in Rome; others were published. Thus 
the work entitled J/uni ir€$ a Claudio Gaudimel profdanr 
iiiiimo muiieo auetore, nuncprimum in lueem tditas, contains 
one mass by the learned editor himself, the otl^er two 
being by CSaudins Sermisy and Jean MaUIard respectively. 
Another collection. La flew dea chansons des deux plus 
txedUM musidens ds nostre temps^ consists of part songs 
by Goudimel and Orlando di Lassa . Bumey gives a 
motet of Qoudimel's, Damins ^id mvltiplieaH sunt, in 
his history. 

aOUQH, HuoQ OoiraH, Visoouht (1779-1869), British 
field-marshal, was of Irish origin, and was ^.descendant 
of Francis Qongh, who was made bishop of Limerick in 
1626. He was bom at Woodstown, Limerick, November 
3, 1779. After holding for a short time a commission in 
his father's regiment of militia, he was transferred to the 
line as ensign in Au^t 1794, and was very soon after 
promoted lieutenanL In the following year he served with 
the 78th Highlanders at the Cape of Good Hope, taking 
part in the capture of Cape Town and of the Dutch fleet 
in Saldanha Bay. His next service was in the West Indies, 
where, with the 87th (Eloyal Irish Fusiliers), he shared 
in the attack on Porto Rico, the capture of Surinam, and 
the brigand war in St Lucia. In 1809 he was called to 
take part in the Peninsnlar War, and, joining the army 
under WelUngton, commanded his regiment as m%jor in the 
operations before Oporto, by which the town was taken from 
the French. At Talavera he was severely wounded, and 
had his horse shot under him. For his conduct on this 
occasion he was afterwards promoted lieutenant-colonel, his 
commission, on the recommendation of Wellington, being 
antedated from the day of the doke's despatch. He was 
thus, as pointed out in ffarfs Army Lis(, the first officer 
who ever received brevet rank for services performed in tiie 
field at the head of a regiment He was next engaged at 
the battle of Barossa, at whidi his regiment captured a 
French eagle. At the defence of Tarifa the post of danger 
was assigned to him, and he compelled the enemy to raise 
the siege. At Vittoria, where Qough again distingmshed 
himself, his regiment captured the baton of Marshal 
Jonrdan. He was again severely wounded at Klvelle, and 
was soon after created a knight of St Charles by the king 
of Spain. In recognition of his services tiie citisens of 
Dublin presented him with the freedom of the city and with 
a costly sword. At tho dosa of the war he returned home 
and enjoyed a respite of some years from active service. 
He next took command of a regiment stationed in the south 
of Ireland, discharging at the same time the duties of a 
magistrate daring a period of agitation. Gk>ugh did not 
attain the rank of general officer till 1830, whenhe was pro- 
moted majo^generaL Seven years later a new epoch 
opened for him ; he was sent to India to take command of 
the Mysore division of the army. But not long after hia 
arrival in India, the difficulties which had arisen between 
the Chinese and British Governments, and which led to the 
first Chineie warLmade the presanoa of aa aoangatic genenl 

on the scene indispensable, and Ck>ngh was appointed 
commander-in-chief of the British forces in China. Thiii 
poet he held during all the operations of the war; and by 
his great achievements and numeroos victories in tlie fia(» 
of immense difficulties, he at lengtih enabled the Englidi 
plenipotentiary, Sir H. Pottinger, to dictate peace on hia 
own terms, and on terms of perfect equality with the emperor. 
After the conclusion of the treaty of Nanking in August 
1842 the British forces were withdrawn ; and before the 
dose of the year Gough was created a baronet^ and waa 
invested with the grand cross of the Bath. He also received 
the thanks of both Houses of Parliament Returning to 
India, he was appointed (Angust 1843) commander-in- 
chief of the British forces in India. In December 1843 ho 
took the command in person against the Mahrattas, and 
defeated Ihem at Maharajpore, capturing more than fifty 
guna He defeated them again at Pnnniar, and peace 
was then concluded at GwaUor. In 1845 occurred the 
mptnre with the Sikhs, who crossed the Sutlij in large 
numbers, and Sir Hugh Gough conducted the operations 
against them. In this campaign he was well supported 
by Lord Hardinge, the governor -general, who had been 
his comrade in the Peninsula, and now volunteered^ to 
serve under him. The Sikhs were defeated in three great 
battles in rapid succession-^at Moodkee, Ferozeshah, and 
Sobraon, — and submitted to make peace soon after at 
Lahore. The services of Sir Hugh Gough on these occasions 
were rewarded by a vote of thanks £rom both Houses of 
Parliament, and by his elevation to the peerage of the 
United Kingdom as Baton Gough (April 1846). The war 
broke out again in 1848, and again Lord Goagh took the 
field. With unabated energy he defeated the Sikhs aft 
Ramnuggar, and at Chillianwallah, and finally br^^e their 
power by his decisive victory at Gigrat (Febmazy 1849). 
He was now succeeded as commander-in-chief by Sir Charles 
Napier, and, returning to England, was raised to a vis- 
countcy, and for the third time received the thanks of both 
Houses of Parliament A pension of J£2000 per annum waa 
granted to him by parliament, and an equal pension by the 
East India Company. He did not again see active serviceu 
In 1854 he was appointed colonel of the Royal Horse 
Guards, and two years later he was sent to the Crimea to 
invest Marshal Pcdissier and other officers with the insigpiiai 
of the Bath. Honours were multiplied upon him during 
his latter years. He waz made a knight of St Patrid:^ 
being the first knight of the order who did not hold sn 
Irish peerage, was sworn a privy councillor, was named a 
knight grand commander of the Star of India, and in 
Ko vernier 1862 was made field-marshsL He was twice 
married, and left children by both his wives. He died at 
his seat near Dublin, March 2, 1869. 

GOUGH, RiCHABD (1735-1809), an En^h antiqaaiyi 
was the siD of a wealthy East India director, and was bom 
in London, October 1, 1735. He received his eariy ednca- 
tion privately, and his literary talento developed with anch 
precocity tha^ at the age of twelve and a half years, he had 
completed the translation of a hbtory of the Bible from the 
French, whidi his mother printed for private eirenlation; 
at the age of fifteen he wrote a translation of Fleuxy' 
work on the customs of the Israelites ; and at sixteen 
he had published an elaborate work entitled Ati€u J^ 
novatus, or Orography tnodemised. In 1752 he entered 
Benet College, Cambridge, where his taste for antiquarian 
research received additional impulse, and where he oonv- 
meneed his work on British topography, which was pub- 
lished in 1768. After leaving Cambridge in 1756, he 
began a series of antiquarian excursions in varions parts of 
Great Britain, the fruit of which was seen in the volumes 
which he subsequently published In 1778 he began ta 
prepasa an editicm in English of Camdan'a BritanaUa, bot 



Ab work did no( appear tfll 1789. Meantime he pnb- 
liahed, in 1786, the first volame oC hit splendid work, the 
Stpukhral MonumenU pf Great Britain, n^ied to tUuitrate 
tA$ kiMtory offimiliei, mojuun, kabiU, and arU ot the dif- 
fwaiftriodifnm ike Jformam Cornqyuui to <A« SevaUtenth 
Ctnimy, Thia volame^ which contained the firit four een- 
toiiea, waa foQowed In 1796 by a second Tolnme eontaining 
ths ISthcentoiY, and an introdaetion to the second Tolome 
appeared in 1799. Qongh waa chosen a fellow of the 
Society of Antiqaaries of London in 1767, and from 1771 
to 1791 ha waa Ite director. He was elected F.R.a in 
1775. He died at his residence at Enfield, 30fch Febmary 
1809. Hia hooka and manoscripts relating to Anglo-Saxon 
and northern literature, all his ejections in the department 
cf British topography, and a large number of his drawinga 
and enmaTings of other archteological temains^ were be- 
qneathed to the univeraity of Oxford. 

Among the minor woiks of Gongh an A% Jecouni ^ (k$ Bedford 
JVun^ (m ICa); A(kUalogHsoftk§OQmiqfOan%a€,King<^J)tn^ 
mark, IHT; Miilerif pf FUA^ u» Aws. 1809; An Aeeount of 
tMs Cairn qf fh§ SOtuddm, Kin^ tf Syria, 1803; *nd ffidory ^ 

He also vabhsbea MTOiml nev editions of antiqaaiiAa works by 
other sntnon. 

GOCJJET, OLJLimi Fixeu (1697-1767), a French abb^ 
and litteratenr, was bom at Paris, 19th October 1697. He 
stndied at the coUege of the Jesnits, and at the OoU^ 
Uazarin, but he neyertheleas became a atrong Jansenist 
In 1705 he assumed the ecclesiastical habit, in 1719 entered 
the order of Oratoriana, and soon afterwards was named 
eanon of St Jacques I'HdpitaL On account of his ex- 
treme Jansenist opinions he suffered considerable persecu- 
tion from the Jesuits, and seTeral of hia worka were snp- 
preased at their instigation. In hia latter years his healui 
began to fail, and he lost hia eyesight As he received 
little remuneration for his writings he came also to be in 
drcumatanees of great poverty, and waa compelled to sell 
bis library, a sacrifice which hastened hia death, which took 
place at Faris, 1st February 1767. 

Ho Is tlio snthor of sluge namber of worka, of wUch tbe prin- 
cipal an >-3itijnlUmKid miDklimnabr* ds Jioriri, Paiia, 1735, and 
a VovwoM JhupUamU to a sabaaqnant edition of tha woric; StbUth 
l%iw>» w i CiW ,o» Jaidoir$ UUirair* dt la Franet, 18 toIsl, Paris, 
1740-1759; FStfibaJfote^ 7Tola., 1780; Mimoirm kidoriquesd 
UtUrairm tmr U OoOtm royal do Franeo, 8 toU. Paria, 1768; Hio- 
kin dm jMMiiiMmi^ Fkria, 176S; and an edition of tha JOkLUm-' 
mairt, of which he haa alao given an abridgment. Soa MhnoircB 
hULoiliiLdo rJiU Chw^tt 17G7. 

OOUJOK, Jbah, was the most distinguished sculptor, 
produced by France during the 16th century. Although 
soma evidence haa been offered in favour of the date 1520 
(IrdUaei do PArt franfoU, voL iii p^ 350), ihe time and 
place of hia birth are sdll uncertain. Tkd first mention of 
hia name ooeuxa in the accounta of the church of St Haclou 
at Bouflu in the year 1540, and in the following year he 
was employed at the cathedral of the same town, where 
he added to the tomb of Cardinal d'Amboisa a statue of his 
nephew Geaiges, af terwarda removed. The tomb of Louia 
da Broa^ executed aome time after 1545, haa also been 
attributed to Qoigon, but there is no evidence in point, nor 
even any tradition, of the fact On leaving Bouen, Goojon 
waa employed by Pierre Lescoi^ the celebrated architect of 
tha Loime, on the restorations of St Qexmain rAuxerrois ; 
the building accounta — some of which for the yeara 1542- 
44 were dinovered bv If. de Laborde on a piece of parch- 
ment binding— specify as bis work, not only the carvings 
of the pu^ (Louvre), but also a Kotre Bama de Fidt^ 
now loat^ In 1547 appeared Hartin'sJFrench trandation of 
Titmvins^ the iUostrations of which were due^ the translator 
taOaaa ia his "Dedieationto the BLing'' to Goiqon, "nagu&res 
acchiieete da Monseigneur le Oonn^taUe^ et maintenant nn 
dea Tdfcna." We learn from thia atatamsot, not only that 
Ckntfon hftd Ut^ ta ke a in te the royal aarvioa oo the aocea- 

aion of Henry H, but also that he had been prenonsly em- 
ployed under Bullant on the chateau of £couen. At the 
Louvre» Qoi:gon, under the direction of Lescot» executed 
the carvings of the sonth-weat angle of the courts the reliefs 
of the Escalier Henri IL, and the Tribune dea Cariatidee. 
About a year before the execution of the Caiyatides, for 
which Qoigon received 737 livres on September 5, 1550, 
he produced, according to unbroken tradition, the reliefs 
of the Fontaine des Innocents (Louvre, and in niu); after 
which he is anpposed to have been occupied in work des- 
tined for the decoration of the chateau of Anet| then 
building for Diana of Poitiers. Unfortunately the building 
accounta of Anet have disappeared, bni tradition not only 
ascribes to Goiiy'on the si^f doeuvre of French sculpture, 
the Diane Chasseresse now in the Louvre, but aaserts that 
he also executed a vast number of other works of equal 
importance, deatroyed or loat sinco 1792. In 1555 his 
name appears again in the Louvre accounts^ and continuea 
to do ao every aucceeding year up to 1561, when all trace 
of him is lost In the course of diis year an attempt waa 
made to turn out of the royal employment all thoae who 
were auspected of Huguenot tendendee. GoijoD has atwaya 
been claimed aa a Iteformer; it is consequently possible 
that he waa one of the victims of this attack. We should 
therefore probably ascribe the work attributed to him in 
the H5tel Camavalet {in iitu), together with much elae 
executed in varioua parta of Paris — but now dispersed or 
deatroyed — to a period intervening between the ^te €A 
his disnussal from the Louvre and his death (of which 
there la no evidence), which is said to have taken place 
doring the St Bartholomew massacro in 1572. Ooigon'a 
work is remarkable— aa may be observed in the sculpture 
of the Louvre — ^for its perfect harmony with the archi- 
tectural lines which it waa intended to enrich or accompany, 
and ia distinguished in a supreme degree by that el^ance 
which was the leading characteristic of the school of whidi 
he was the chief representative. His treatment of the 
nude (Diane Chasseresse), both in style of line and choice 
of forms, attaina a degree of accomplished perfection which, 
in its complete fulfilment of the propoaed — though very 
different — ^Ideal, comes nearer to the character of tranquU 
achievement) which marka all daasio art^ than any outer 
work of modem timea. 

Engravings aftar Goojon vill ba found in Cicognan'a Sioria ddUi 
SeutturOt and in IL da Claiao's Muoio du Louvre, H . Berty has 
ffiven a bilaf notice of Ua h'fa and vorka in Chramdo taxkUeetoo 
mMeod do 2a Monaiootmee ; and a fuller aooonnt vill ba loond In 
Mrs Pattiaon'a Xe m ai m anee if Art in Fraaee, 

GOULD, AuouaruB Addisok (1805-1866), American 
conchologist, waa bom at New Ipawidi, New Hampahire^ 
April 23« 1805, graduated at Harvard College in 1825, and 
took his degree of doctor of medicine in 1830. Thrown 
from boyhood on his own exertions, it was only by hidnstiy, 
perseverance, and self-denial that ha obtained the means to 
pursue his earlier and later atudies. Establishing himself 
in Boston, he devoted himself to the practice of medidne^ 
and finally rose to high professional rank and aocial poal- 
tioo. He became preeident of the Massachuaetta Kedical 
Sodefy, and waa employed as anthori^ in editing the 
vital atatiatica of the state. Aa » conchologist hia repu- 
tation is world-wide. With Say, Conrad, Adams. Anthony, 
Lea, Binney, and others^ ho waa a pioneer of tne aeience 
in America. His writings fill many pagea of tiie pabUca* 
tiona of the Boston Society of Natural History (sea voL xL 
p. 197 for a list) and other periodicals. Me published 
with A^Msis the PrindpLa nf Zoolyy; he edited the 
Terreitrial Air-hreathing UcUwko of Binneyj he translated 
Lamarck'a Genera of ShdU, The two most important 
monuments to his scientific work, however, are Tho Mol- 
luikt andShdU of the United States expbriiuf eipedition 
under Oommodore WOkes^ pubCahed by tha Qov 


and the Mjepoti on the InveH^mta pablithed by order of 
the legUlatare of Mossachosetti in 1 841. A second edition 
of the latter work was authorized in 1865, and pablished 
in 1870 after the author's death, which took place at 
Boston, September 1 8, 1 866. Gonld was an actire member 
of the Boston Society of Natural History, and a corre- 
sponding member of all the prominent American scientific 
societies, and many of those of Europe, including the 
English Royal Society. 

QOUB. See Oaub. 

GOURD, a name giren to various plants of the order 
Cucurbilaeecgf but more strictly applied to those belonging 
to the genus Cuewbiia, monoecious trailing herbs of annual 
duration, with long succulent stems furnished with tendrils, 
and large, rough, palmately-lobed leaves ; the fiowers, reti- 
culated with veins, are generally large and of a bright 
yellow or orange eolonr, the barren ones with the stamens 
united ; the fertile are followed by the hurge, succulent fruit 
(hat gives the gourds their chief economic value. Many 
varieties of OttairbUa are under cultivation in tropical and 
temperate dimates, especially in southern Asia ; but it is 
extremely difficult to refer them to definito specific groups, 
on account of the facility with which they hybridize ; wliile 
it is very doubtful whether any of the original forms now 
exist in the wild state. M. Naudin, who made a careful 
and interesting series of observations upon this genus, came 
to the conclusion that all varieties known in European 
gardens might be referred to six original species ; probably 
three^ or at most four, have furmsbed the edible kinds in 
ordinary cultivation ; and, as all these appear occasionally 
to hybridize, their limits must be regarded as very uncertain. 
Adopting the specific names usually given to the more 
familiar forms, the most important of ^e gourds, from an 
economic point of view, is perhaps C. maxima^ the PoHron 
Jcnme of the French, the red and yellow gourd of British 
gardeners, the spheroidal fruit of which is remarkable for 
its enormous size : the colour of the somewhat rough rind 
varies from white to bright yellow, whUe in some Uods it 
remains green ; the fleaiy interior is of a deep yellow or 
orange tint This valuable gourd is grown extensively in 
sottdiem Asia and Europe. In Turkey and Asia Minor 
it yields, at some periods of the year, an important article 
of diet to the people ; immense quantities are sold in the 
markets of Constantinople, where in the winter the heaps 
of one variety with a white rind are described by Wakh as 
fesembling mounds of snowbaUs. The yellow kind attains 
occasionally a weight of upwards of 240 lb. It grows well 
In central Europe and the United States, while in the south 
of England it will produce its gigantic fruit in perfection in 
hot summers. The yellow flesh of this gourd and its 
numerous varieties yields a considerable amount of nutri- 
ment^ and is the more valuable as the fruit can be kept, 
even in warm climates, for a long time. In France and in 
tlie East it b much used in soups and ragouts, while simply 
boiled it forms a substitute for other table vegetables ; the 
taste has been compared to that of a young carrot In sonte 
countries the larger kinds are employed as cattle food. The 
seeds yield by expression a krge quantity of a bland oil, 
which is used for the same purposes as tliat of the poppy 
and olive. The ^'monmioth" gourds of English and 
American gardeners appear to belong to this species, or to 
hybrids between it and another valuable member of the 
group, the pumpkin, C. Pejpo^ well known in English cottage 
gardens, and largely cultivated in continental Europe and 
North America. The pumpkin varies much in form, being 
sometimes neariy globular, bat more generally oblong or 
ovoid in shape ; the rind is smooth, and very variable in 
colour. This gourd is a useful plant to the American back- 
woods farmer, yielding, both in the ripe and unripe condi- 
lion, a valuable fodder for his cattU and ptgs, being fre- 

quently planted at intervals. among the maizo ^i cnnsd^* 
tutes Ids chief crop. The larger kinds acquire a weight of 
from 40 to 80 lb, but smaller varieties are in more esteem 
for garden culture. When ripe, the pumpkin is boiled or 
baked, or made into various kindtf of pte, alone or mizod 
with other fruit ; while small and green, it may be eate4i 
like the vegetable marrow. Some of the varieties of (7. 
maxima and Fepo contain a considerable quantity of sugar, 
amounting in the sweetest kinds to 4 or 5 per cent, and in 
the hot plains of Hungary efforts have been made to make 
nse of them as a commereial source of sugar. The young 
shoots of both these large gourds may be given to cattle, and 
admit of being eaten as a green vegetable when boiled. 
The vegetable marrow, C, Gin/era^ regarded by Kandin as o 
variety of C, Fepo, is much esteemed in England for the 
delicate flavour of its fruit, which is eaten boiled, in the 
immature state, as a pleasant summer vegetable^ A large 
number of varieties are in cultivation, — the larger oblong or 
pear^haped kinds growing a foot or more in length, while 
some are comparatively small This useful esculent will 
succeed in any warm and open situation, if planted over e 
small trench fiUed with manure; it Is often trained over th<> 
fences of cottage gardens^ and may be sometimes seoc 
flourishing on tiie sunny side of railway cuttings in the 
south of England. C. Meiopepo, is the squash or bush 
gourd, a favourite vegetable in the United States and in 
parts of continental Europe, but less cultivated in Britain 
than the preceding. It has a somewhat different habit from 
most of the family, having more rigid shoots and o tendency 
towards a shrubby mode of growth ; the fruity yellowbh 
when ripe, is smaller than ^e pumpkin, and of various 
shapes, usually with many angles or projections; some sorts 
resemble a turban, othen many-cornered hats, whence fan- 
ciful names have been applied to them. The number of 
kinds is considerable, especially in the United States^ where 
tlie squashes are much cultivated ; the larger kinds are 
grown as food for pigs and cattle, besides being valued as 
table esculents; for cooking they should be used in tho 
unripe condition. Many smaller gourds are cultivated in 
India and other hot dimates, and some have been introduced 
into English gardens, rather for the beauty of their fruit 
and foliage tlulu for tiieir esculent qualitiesL Among these 
is 0. AuratUia, the orange gourd, bearing a spheroidal 
fruit> like a large orange in form and colour; in Britain it 
is generally too bitter to be palatable, though applied to 
culinary purposes in Turkey and the Levant C. pyri- 
formtt, C, verrueota, and C, motehata are likewise occasion- 
ally eaten, especial^ in the immature state; and several 
other gourds are used as esculents in India and the neigh- 
bouring countries. 

The bottle-gourds are now generally pkced in a separate 
genus, lagenariOf cldefly differing from Cueurbiia in the 
anthen bdng free instead of adherent The bottle^nid 
properly so-oJled, Z. vulgaris^ is a climbing plcmt with 
downy, heart-shaped leaves and beautiful white flowen: 
the remarkable fruit fint begins to grow in tho form of an 
elongated cylinder, but gradually widens towards the ez- 
tremir^, until, when ripe, it resembles a flask wiUi a narrow 
neck and large rounded bulb ; it sometimes attains a length 
of 7 feet Wlien ripe, the pulp is removed from the nmk^ 
and the interior cleared by leaving water standing in it ; 
the woody rind that rexnains is used as a bottle : or tlie 
lower part is cut off and cleared out^ forming a basin-like 
vessel applied to the same domestic purposes os the cala* 
bash (Creieentia) of the West Indies; the smaller varietie.% 
divided length-^ise, form spoons. The ripe fruit is a^it to 
be bitter and cathartic, but while immature it is eaten by 
the Arabs and Turks. WTien about the "size of a small 
cucumber,** Lane says, it is stuffed with rice and minced 
meat, flavoured with pepper, onions, Ac, and then boiled* 


forming a ftTOwita dith inth Eutem opieiirM.' The 
elongated snake-goardj of India and China (Trichotanihei) 
ore feaid to be need in curries and itewa. 

All the goarda have a tendency to secrete the catharfcie 
liriuciple ro/ocjf nMti^ and in many farietiee of Cmeurbka and 
the allied genera it is often elaborated to such an extent 
as to render them unwholesome^ or eren poisonous. The 
seedr of some species possess rather strong anthelmintic 
properties ; those of the common pumpkin are frequently 
adminiatend in America as a rermif age. The enltivation 
of gourds commenced far beyond the dawn of history, and 
the esculent species have become so modified by cidture 
that the original plants from which they have descended 
can no longer be traced. The abundance of Tarieties in 
India would seem to indicate that part of Asia as the birth- 
place of the present edible forms; but some appear to have 
been cultivated in all the hotter regions of that continent, 
and in North Africa, from the earliest agsL while the 
Itomans were familiar with at least certain kinds of CucuT' 
OUa, and with the bottle-gourd. It is even doubtful 
whstker the culture of gourds had not spread to the 
American continent before its discoTecy by Europeans ; for 
the Indian tribes of the interior were certainly in poisession 
of some kinds at a date so early that it is difficult to 
believe they had received them from the sottlera Dr Asa 
Qray has even suggested that some of these esculent forms 
may possibly have been indigenous to the American plains. 

Moat of Uie annual gourds may be grown successfully in 
Britain. They are usually raised in hotbeds or under frames^ 
and planted out la rich soil in the early summer as soon as 
the nights become warm. The more ornamental kinds may 
be trained over trellis-work, afarourite mode of displaying 
them in the East ; but the situation must be sheltered and 
sunny. Even the LoffenaricB will sometimes produce fine 
fruit when so treated in the southern counties, (a P. J.) 

GOUBQAUD, Qajbpjlbd, Bason (178S-1852), a French 
general of artillery, was born at VerMulles, lith September 
1783. After studying at the polytechnic school and at the 
artillery school of Chilons, he joined the artillery in 1802, 
and, having acquitted himself with distinction in several 
eampugos^ he received in 1807 the cross of honour and the 
grade of captain. He served in the subsequent Spanish and 
Austrian campaigns, and. in 1811 he was sent to report on 
the strength of the fortifications of Dantzic, a mission which 
he fulfilled so much to the satisfaction of Napoleon that he 
was named one of the emperor's ordnance officers. During 
tlie Russian campaign he was the first to enter the Kremlin 
at Moscow, where he removed the match from a large 
quantity of powder the explosion of which would in all pro- 
bability have destroyed the emperor's life. For this service 
he received the title of baron. He accompanied the em- 
peror in his subsequent campaigns, and in 1814, at the 
battle of Brienne, was again successful in delivering him 
from imminent peril After the accession of Louis XYIIL 
he was named chief of the staff of the first artillery division, 
but on the retarn of Napoleon from Elba he was neverthe- 
less named by him adjutant and general, and took part in 
the battle of Waterloo. Being one of the three French 
offieen chosen by Napoleon to accompany him to St Helena, 
he was employed there in collecting materials for a history 
of Napoleon's campaigns, but on account of some misunder- 
standing with Montholoo, he left the island, and went to 
England. He pablished in 1818 Za Campagne de 1815, 
and lie also endeavoured to interest the emperors of Bussia 
and Austria in Napoleon's b^halfl Shortly afterwards he 
was expelled from England as a spy of Napoleon's. Betum- 
ing to France in 1821, he publish^, along with Montholon, 
in 1823, Ifimoirea de NapoUon d Sainte-HeUM, His re- 
ply in 1825 to Sugar's i7i«^« de la Grande Armie was the . 
oocamon of a duel between the two authors; and be olso^ ] 

in 1837, became involved in a controversy with Sir Walter 
Scott rsgarding some statements made by the latter in his 
life of Napoleon. After tlie July revolution of 1830, 
Qourgaud was appointed to the command of the artillery of 
Paris and Yincennea ; in 1832 he was named aide-de-camp 
of the king, and in 1835 lieutenant-generoL In 1840 ho 
was. one of the commiasioners sent to bring the remains of 
Napoleon to France. On the occurrence of the revolution 
of Febmaiy 1848 his name was struck off Uie list of 
generals, but after the events of the following June he was 
dioeen colonel of the first legion of the national guard of 
Paris. In 1849 he was elected representative of the legislo- 
tivB assembly for the department of Deux-S^vres. He died 
25th July 1852. 

GOUT, a specific constitutional disorder connected with 
excess of uric acid in the blood, and manifesting itself by 
inflammation of joints, with deposition therein of urate of 
soda, and also by morbid changes in various important 

The term gout, which was first used about the end of the 
1 3th century, is derived through the French pouUe from the 
Latin ffuitOt a drop^ in allusion to the old pathological doc- 
trine (which in the present caae seems to be essentially tho 
correct one^ of the dropping of a morbid material from tho 
blood withm the joints. The disease was known and de- 
scribed by the ancient Greek physicians under various terms, 
which, however, appear to have been applied by them alike 
to rheumatism and gout The general term artkrUii 
{Sp$poi^f a joint) was employed when many joints were the 
seat of inflammation ; while in thoee instances where the 
disease was limited to one port the terms used bore refer* 
ence to such locality ; hence podagra (mSdypa, from ih»vc, 
the f oot^ and iypa, a seisure), ehiragra ixdp, the hand jl 
goMLgra (7<$i^ the knee), 4a 

Hippocrates in his Apkorismt spCSsks of gout as occurring 
most commonly in spring and autumn, and mentions the 
fact that women are less liable to it than men. He also 
gives directions as to treatment Cekus gives a simihir 
account of the disease. Galen regarded gout as an un- 
natural accumnlation of humours in a part, and the chalk- 
stones as the concretions of these, and he attributed the 
disease to over-indulgence and luxury. Gout is a.lluded to 
in the works of Ovid and Pliny, and Seneca in his 95th 
epistle mentions the prevalence of gout among the Bomon 
ladies of lus day as one of the results of their high-living 
and debauchery. Luclan in his Tragopodagra gives an 
amusing account of the remedies employed for the cure of 

In all times this disease has engaged a large share of the 
attention of physicians, from its wide prevalence, and from 
the amount of suffering which it entails. Sydenham, the 
famous English physician of the 17th centmy, wrote an 
important treatise on the subject, and his description of the 
gouty paroxysm, all the more vivid from his having himself 
been afflicted with the disease for thirty-four years, is still 
quoted by writers as the most graphic and exhaustive 
account of the symptomatology of gout Subsequently 
Cullen, recognizing gout as capable of manifesting itself in 
various ways, divided the disease into regular gout, which 
affects the joints only, and irregular gout, where the gouty 
disposition exhibits itself in other forms ; and the latter 
variety he subdivided into atmie gout, where the most pro- 
minent symptoms are throughout referable to tho stomach 
and alimentary canal ; retroeedeni gout, where the inflam- 
matory attack suddenly disappears from an affected joint and 
serious disturbance takes plocs in some internal orj^n, 
generally the stomach or heart ; and mifplaced gout, wlicrc 
from the first the disease does not appear externally, but 
reveals itself by an inflammatory attack of some internal 
part Pr Qarrod, one of the most eminent living authorities 



on goat, adopts a diTislon somewliat iLmilar to thongli 
simpler than that of Cnlleni namelj, regvlar ffwt, which 
affects the joints alone, and is either acute^or chronic, and 
irregvlar gout, affecting non-articnlar tiasnes, or disturbing 
the functions of nations organs. 

It is often stated that the attack of goat comes on with- 
out any previous warning; but, while this is trUe in many 
instances, the reyerse is probably as frequently the case, and 
the premonitoiy symptoms, especially in those who haye 
previously suffered from the disease, may b^ sufficiently 
precise to indicate the impending seizure. Among the more 
common of these may be mentioned marked disorders of 
the digestive organs, with a feeble and capricious appetite, 
flatulence and pain after eating, and uneasiness in tlie right 
side in the region of the liver. A remarkable tendency to 
gnashing of the teeth is sometimes observed. This symp- 
tom wss first noticed by Dr Graves, who connected it with 
irritation in the urinary organs, which also is present as one 
of tha premonitory indications of the gouty attack. Yarious 
forms of nervous disturbance also present themselves in the 
form of general discomfort^ extreme irritability of temper, 
and various perverted sensations, such as that of numbness 
and coldness in the limbs. These symptoms may persist 
for many days and then undergo amelioration immediately 
before the impending paroxysm. On the night of the 
attack the patient retires to rest apparently well, but about 
two or three o'clock in the morning is awoke with a pcdnful 
feeling in the foot, most commonly in the ball of the great 
toe, but it may be in the instep or heel, or in the thumb. 
"Vflth the pain there often occurs a distinct shivering 
followed by feverishness. The pain soon becomes of the 
n^t agonising character: in the words of Sydenham, '*now 
ios a violent stretching and tearing of the ligaments, now 
it is a gnawing pain, and now a pressure and tightening; so 
exquisite and lively meanwhile is the part affected that it 
cannot bear the weight of the bedclothes, nor the jar of a 
person walking in the room." 

When the affected part is examined it is found to be 
swollen and of a deep red hue. The superjacent skin is 
tense and glistening, and the surrounding veins are more or 
less distended. After a few hours there is a remission of 
the pain, slight perspiration takes place, and the patient 
may fall asleep. The pain may continue moderate during 
the day but returns as night advances, and the patient goes 
through a similar experience of suffering to that of the 
previous night, followed with a like abatementr towards 
morning, ^ese nocturnal exacerbations occur with greater 
or less severity during the continuance of the attack, which 
generally lasts for a week or ten days. As the symptoms 
decline the swelling and tenderness of the affected joint 
abate, but the skin over it pits on pressure for a time, and 
with this there is bften associated slight desquamation of 
the cuticle. During the attacks there is much constitu- 
tional disturbance. The patient is restless and extremely 
irritable, and suffers from cramp in the limbs and from 
dyspepsia^ thirst, and constipation. The urine is scanty 
and high-coloured, with a copious deposit, consisting chiefly 
of urates. During the continuanco of the symptoms the 
inflammation may leave the one foot and affect the other, 
or both may suffer at the same time. After the attack is 
over the patient feels quite well and fancies himself better 
than he had been for a long time before ; hence the once 
popular-notion that a fit of the gout was capable of remov- 
ing all other aQments. Any such idea, however, is sadly 
belied in the experience of most sufferers from this disease. 
It is rare that the first is the only attack of gout, and 
itnother is apt to occur withb a year, although by care and 
treatment it may be warded off! The disease, however, 
nndotibtedly tends to take a firmer hold on the constitution 
fod to return, Xn the eailler recurrences the same joints 

as were f unnetly the scat of the goaty inflammatioc soffer 
again, but in coarse of time others become implicated, antil 
in advanced cases scarcely any articulation escapes, and the 
disease thus becomes chronia It is to be noticed that when 
gout assumes this form the frequently recurring atta^ are 
usually atten4ed with less pain than the eu&t ones, but 
their disastrous effects are evidenced alike by tiie disturb- 
ance of various important organs, especially the stomach, 
liver, kidneys, and heart, and by tlft remarkable changes 
which take place in the joints from the formation of the so- 
called chalk-stones or tophi These deposits, which are 
highly characteristic of gout, appear at first to take place 
in the form of a semifluid matensl, consisting for the most 
part of arete of soda, which gradoally becomes more dense, 
and ultimately quite hard. When any quantity of this is 
deposited in the structures of a joint the effect is to produce 
stiffening; and, as deposits appear to take place to a greater 
or less amount in connexion with every attack, permanent 
thickening and deformity of the parts is apt to 1& the con- 
sequence. The extent of this depends of course on the 
amount of the deposits, which, however, would seem to be 
in no necessary relatbn to the severity of the attack, being 
in some cases even of chronic gout so slight as to be barely 
appreciable externally, but on the other hand occarionally 
causing great enlargement of the joints, and fixing them in 
a flexed or extended position which renders them entirely 
useless. Dr Garrod describes the appearance of a hand in 
an extreme case of this kind, and likens its shape to a 
bundle of French carrots with their heads forward, tiie naik 
corresponding to the stalks. Any of the joints may be thus 
affected, but most commonly those of the hands and feet 
The deposits take place in other structures besides those of 
joints, such as along the course of tendons, underneath the 
skin and periosteum, in the sclerotic coat of the eye, and 
especially on the cartilages of the external ear. When 
laigely deposited in joints an abscess sometimes forms, the 
skin gives way, and Uie concretion is exposed. Sir Thomas 
Watson quotes a case of this kind where the patient when 
playing at cards was accustomed to chalk the score of the 
game upon the table with his gouty knuckles. 

The recognition of what is termed irregular gout is less 
easy than that form above described, where 8ie diBease 
gi?es abundant external evidence of its presence ; but that 
other parts than joints suffer from gouty attacks is beyond 
question. The diagnosis may often be made in cases where 
in an attack of ordinary gout the disease suddenly leaves 
the affected joints and some new series of symptoms arises. 
It has been often observed when cold has been applied to 
an inflamed joint that the pain and inflammation in the 
part ceased, but that some sudden and alarming sbisnre re- 
fereble to the stomach, brain, heart, or lungs supeivened. 
Such attacks, which correspond to what is termed by Cullen 
retrocedent gout, often terminate favoumbly, more especi- 
ally if the disease again returns to the joints. Further, 
the gouty nature of some long-continued internal or cutane- 
ous disorder may be rendered apparent by its disappearance 
on the outbreak of the paroxysm in the joints. Qout» when 
of long standing, is often found associated with degeneretive 
changes in the heart and large arteries, the liver, and especi- 
ally the kidneys, which are apt to assume the contracted 
granular condition already alluded to as one of the forms 
of Bright* 8 disease (see Bbioht's Dissasx). A variety of 
urinary calculus — the uric add— formed by conoetions of 
this substance in the kidneys is a not unfrequent occurrence 
in connexion with gout ; hence the well-known association 
of this disease and greveL 

As regards the pathology of gout, all inquiry agrees in 

connecting it closely with an altered state of the blood, 

more particuUrly with the presence in that fluid in excessive 

. amount of urio acid, and its subsequent deposition in the 


]olnt8 in the form of urate of soda. XTrioaeld is fonned in 
tlie system in the processes of nntrftion, end is ezeieted hy 
the kidseysy the smonnt passing oif Vj the urine bdng esti- 
mated at abont 8 grains daOj. In the healthy .human 
snlrjeet Uie blxKid contains the merest trace of this acid, but 
in gout it may be detected in abnndmioe in tiie blood-semm 
both prior to and daring the acnte attad:, while in chronic 
gont it becomes a constant conatitaent of the blood and of 
other fluids of the bodj, both natural and morbid. Accord- 
ing to Dr Qarrod it is not merely the presence of the uric 
scid in the blood but its deposition in the inflamed part 
that giTsa rise to the attack of gout, the inflammation being 
the efiect and not the cause of the deposit The gouty 
parozysm thus induced appears to rid the system to a 
certain extent of the accumulated uric add, although such 
rdief is generallj of but temporary duration. 

Whether the accumulation of urates in the blood be due, 
as some affirm, to their excessive formation in tiie system 
ss the result of functional derangement of the liver, or, as 
others hold, depends simply on the defective excreting 
power of the kidneys of the daily amount, is disputed, 
slthongh it has been often observed during an attack of gont 
that the amount of uric acid excreted was markedly deficient 
The likelihood is that both these conditions concur, and 
that wiiile the kidneys retain their functional integrity 
even an excessive amount of uric acid in the system may 
be got rid of, but that these organs, becoming themselves 
sflected by the deposition of urates in their tubular struc- 
ture, lose to a large extent their excreting power, and thus 
the Uood is overcharged with the prod act wnich tho kidneys 
can no longer entirely remove. Another view of the patho- 
logy of gont recently advanced regards the disease as re- 
sulting from special degenerative changes in the fibrous 
textures of the body, one pt the effects of which is the 
deposition of urates in the affected parts whence they 
pass into the blood. This theory has not, however, as ^et 
been extensively supported, and Uie weight of opimon 
remains on the whole in favour of the views of Dr Qarrod. 
It must nevertheless be admitted that many points in the 
pathology of this disease still remain unexplained, for, as 
remarked by Tronsseau, ^ the production in excess of uric 
acid and urates is a pathological phenomenon inherent like 
an others in the disease ; and like all the others it is domin- 
ated by a spedfio cause, which we know only by its effects, 
lad which we term the gouty diathesisL" This subject of 
diathesis (habit, or organic predisposition of individuals), 
vhich. is universally admitted as an essential element in the 
pathology of gout, naturally suggests the question as to 
whether, besides being inherited, such a peculiarity may 
also be acquired, and this leads to a consideration of the 
eauaas wliich are recogmxed as influential in favouring the 
cc c nrre n ce of this disease. 

It is beyond dispute that gout is in a marked degree 
hereditary, fully more than half the number of cases being, 
according to Sir O. Scudamore and Dr Qarrod, of tliis 
character. But it is no less certain that there are habits 
sod modes of life the observance of which may induce the 
disease even where no hereditary tendencies can be traced, 
and the avoidance of which may on the other hand go far^ 
towards weakening or neutralising the influence of inherited* 
liability. Qont is said to affect the sedentary more readily 
than ihe active^ but thia cannot be taken as a very constant 
mlei 11^ however, inadequate exerdse be combined with a 
loxnrions manner of living, with habitual over-indulgence 
in animal food and rich dishes, and especially in alcoholic 
bev e rages, then undoubtedly the chief factors in the pro- 
duction of the disease are present 

Much haa been written upon the relative influence of 
variooa forms of alcoholic drinks in promoting the develop- 
ment of gont It IS generally stated that fermented are 

more iojurious than distilled liquors, and ihat, in partieolar, 
the stronger wines^ such as port, sheny, and madeira,* are 
much more potent in their gout-producing action than the 
lighter class of wines, such as hock, moselk, he, while malt 
liquors are fully as hurtful as strong winea If this alleged 
difference in their tendency to induce gout be correct^ it 
cannot be said that any satisfactory explanation of it has 
been fnmished; but indeed the point has not been clearly 
proved, and it may be fairly questioned whether, other 
things being equal, an individual in abandoning fhe use 
of wines and substituting that of spirits would improve his 
position in relation to tlus disease. It seems quite as pro- 
bable that over-indulgence in any form of alcohd, when 
associated with the other conditions already adverted to^ 
will have very much the same effect in developing gout 
Even those who affirm the mischievous effects of fermented 
liquors in this way are obb'ged to admit that they are 
injurious in proportion to the amount of alcohol they con- 
tain. The comparative absence of gout in countries where 
spirituous liquors are chiefly used, such as Scotland, is cited 
as showing their relatively slight effect in encouraging that 
disease ; but it is to be noticed that in such countries there 
is on the whole a less marked tendency to excess in the 
other pleasures of the iable, which in no degree less than 
alcohol are chargeable with inducing the gouty habit 
Qout is not a common disease among the poor and labouring 
classes, and when it doei occur may often be connected even 
in them with errors in living. It is not very rare to meet 
gout in butlers, coachmen, £c, who are apt to live luxuri- 
ously while leading comparatively easy lives, 

Qout, it must ever be borne In mind, may also affect 
persons who observe the strictest temperance in living, and 
whose only excesses are in the direction of over-sork, either 
physical or intellectuoL Many of the great names in Ids- 
tory in all times have had their existence embittered by this 
malady, and have died from its effects. The influence of 
hereditary tendency may often be traced in such instances, 
and is doubtless called into activity by the depressing 
consequences of over-work. It may, notwttlistanding, Ins 
affirmed as generiaUy true that those who lead regular lives 
and are moderate in the use of animal food and alcoholic 
drinks, or still better abstain from the latter altogether, are 
little likely to be the victims of gout even^where an un- 
doubted inherited tendency exists. 

Qout is more common in mature age than in the earlier 
years of life, the greatest number of cases in one decennial 
period being between the ages of thirty and forty, next 
between twenty and thirty, and thirdly between forty and 
fifty. It may occasionally affect very young persons, but 
such cases are generally In a marked degree hereditary. 
After middle life gont rarely appears for the first time. 
Women are much less the subjects of gout than men, 
apparently from their less exposure to the infiuences ^except- 
ing of course that of heredity) which tend to develop tne 
disease, and doubtless slso from the differing circumstances 
of their physical constitution. It most frequently appears 
in females after the cessation of the menses. Persons ex- 
posed to the infiuence of lead poisoning, such as plumbers, 
painters, Ac, are apt to suffer from gout; and it would 
seem that impregnation of the system with this metal 
markodljr interferes with the uric-acid-excreting- function 
of the kidneys. 

Attacks of gout are readily excited in those predisposed 
to the disease. Exposure to cold, diswders of digestion, 
fatigue, and irritation or iiguries of particular joints will 
often 'precipitate the gouty paroxysm 

With respect to the treatment of gout the greatest variety 
of opinion has prevailed and practice been pursued, from 
the numerous quaint nostrums detailed by Lucian to the 
** expectanf* or do-nothing system recommended by Syden- 


G O U — G O U 

liun and grafily advocated by a few among eminent modern 
physiciaDB, who regard the diseoso as beyond the reach of 
romediea. But that gout, although, as has been shown, a 
malady of a moat se.vere ond intractable charaeter, may 
nerertheless be snccessfully dealt with by appropriate medi- 
cinal and hygienic measures is a belief largely entertained, 
and one which happily guidea the practice of the physician. 
The general phm of treatment can be here only briefly 
indicated. During the acute attack the affected part should 
be k^t at perfect rest, and ha?e applied to it warm opiate 
fomentations or poultices, or, wliat answers fully better^ be 
enyeloped in cotton wool covered in with oil silk. The 
diet of the patient should be light, without animal food or 
stimulants. The administration of some aimple laxative 
will be of aervice, as well as the free use of alkaline diur- 
etica^ such as the bicarbonate or acetate of potash. The 
medicinal agent most to be relied on in the treatment of 
gout is colchicum, which manifestly exercises a powerful 
action on the dbease. This drag (Cclchicum autumnale), 
which is believed to correspond to the hermodoctyl of the 
ancients, was introduced as a remedy for gout about a 
century ago, and has proved of such efficacy : i modifying 
the attacks that, as observed by Dr Gorrod, *'we may 
Bofely assert that colchicum possesses as specific a control 
over the gouty inflammation as cinchona barks or their 
tlkoloids over intermittent fever.** The mode of action of 
solchicum in gout is by no means determined, since it 
^ould appear to have no certain effect upon the uric acid 
excreted from the system; and the general opinion seems ta 
be that this drug has a special sedative effect on the gouty 
inflammation. It is usually administered in the form of 
the wine in dos<» of 10-30 drops every four or six hours, 
or in pill as the acetous extract (gr. }-gr. l). The effect 
of colchicum in subduing the pain of gout is generaUy so 
prompt and marked that it is unnocessaiy to have recourse 
to opiates ; but its action requires to be carefully watched 
by the physician from its well-known nauseating and do- 
[vessing consequences, which, should they appear, render 
the suspension of the drug necessary. Otherwise the 
remedy may Se continued in gradually diminishing doses 
for some days after the disappearance of the gouty iaflanv- 
mation. The statements often made that colchicum tends 
to encourage the speedy return of the disease do not seem 
to be well founded. Should gout give evidence of its pre- 
sence in an irregular form l^ attacking internal organs, 
besides the medicinal treatment above mentioned, the use 
of frictions and mustard applications to the joints is indi- 
cated with the view of exciting its appearance there. 

When gout has become chronic, cdchicnm, although of 
less service than in acute gout, is yet valuable, particularly 
when the inflammatory attacks recur. More benefit, how- 
ever, appears to be derived from iodide of potassium, 
guaiacum, and more especially from the alkalis potash and 
Uthia. This latter drag is strongly recommended by Dr 
Ghtrrod from its solvent action upon the uratea. It is usu- 
ally administered in the form of &e carbonate (gr. v., freely 

The treatment and regimen to be employed in the inter- 
vals of the gouty attacks are of the highest importance. 
These bear reference for the most part to the habits and 
mode of life of the patient Bestriction must be laid upon 
tha amount and quality of the food, and equally, or atill 
more, upon the alcoholic stimulants. ** The instances," says 
Sir Thomas Watson, " are not few of men of good sense, 
and masters of themselves, who, beins waroed by one visita- 
tion of the gout^ have thenceforwanl resolutely abatuned 
from rich living and from wine and strong drinks of all 
kinds, and who have been rewarded for their prodenceand 
self-denial by complete immunity from any return of the 
disease, or upon whom, at any rate, its future assaults have 

been few and feeble." The same emuieht authority adds— 
'* I am sure it is worth any jfoung man's while, who has had 
the gout, to become a teetotaller.^ By those more advanced 
in iSe who, from lung continued liubit, are unable entirely 
to relinquish the use of stimulants, tbe strictest passible 
temperance must be observed. Begohur but moderate 
exercise in tlie form of walking or riding, in the case of 
those who lead sedentary lives,' is of great advantage, and 
all ove^work, either physical or mental, should be avuided»( 
Unfortunately the complete carrying ont of such direetiona,* 
even by those who feel their importance, is too often ren- 
dered difficult or impossible by circumstances of occupation 
and otherwise, and at most only an approximation can be 
made. The effect upon the gouty constitution of certain 
mineral watcfS and baths is well known. Tlie particular 
place must in eadi case be deterftiined by the physician, 
and special caution must be observed in recommending this 
plan of treatment in persons whose gout b complicated by 
organic disease of any kind. (J. o. a.} 

1830), a French marshal, was bora at Toul, 13th April 
1764. At the age of eighteen he went to Bome with the 
view of prosecuting the studjr of painting, but, although he 
continued his artistic studies after his retora to Paris in 
1784, he never definitely adopted the profesaion of a painter 
In 1792 he was choSen a captain in the ehatseun ripubli* 
cainSf and served on the staff of Qcnerol Costine. His pro- 
motion rapidly followed, and in the oorse of two years lie 
had become a general of division. In 1796 he commanded 
the centre division of Moreau's army in Uie campaign of 
the Bhine, and by coolness and sagacity greatly aided 
him in his brilliant defence against superior numbers, and 
in^his subsequent celebrated retreat. In 1798 he was 
appointed to the command of the army of Italy, the officera 
of which had revolted against their general Mosseno, and 
he was speedily successful in obtaining the complete re-, 
establishment of discipline. In the following year he com- 
manded the left wing of Jourdan*s army in Qermany; but 
when Jourdan was succeeded by Masdena, he joined the 
army of Morean in Italy, where, in face of great difficulties, 
he was not only completely successful In his defensive 
tactics, but gained, on the 13th December, an important 
victory at Albana When Morean, in 1800, was appointed 
to the command of the army of UieBhine> Qouvion St Qyi 
was named his first lieutcnantrand on the 9th May gained 
a victory over General Eray at Biberach. In 1801 he was 
sent to Spain to command the army intended for the inva- 
sion of Portugal, and was named grand officer of the legion 
of honour. When a treaty of peace was shortly afterwards 
concluded with Portugal, he succeeded Lucien Bonaparte 
as ambassador at Madrid. In 1803 he was appointed to the 
command of an army corps in Italy, and he gained in 1805 
a victory over the Austnans at Castel Franca He took 
part in the Prussian and Polish campaigns of 1807, and in 
1808 he commanded an axmy corps wilh some success in 
Catalonia ; but, not widiing to comply with certain orders 
he received from Paris, he resigned his command, and, 
remained in disgrace till 1811. On the opening of the 
Bussian campaign he received command of the 6th army 
corps, and on the 7ih August 1812 obtained a victory over 
the Bussians at Polosk, in recognition of which ha was 
created a marshal of France. He distinguished himself at 
the battle of Dresden, 26th and 27th August 1813, but, aften 
a stubbora resistance, capitulated there to the allies on thc^ 
lltii November following, and remained for some time a 
prisoner in Hungary. On the restoration of the Bonrbons 
he waa created a peer of France, and in July 1815 was 
appointed war miniater, but resigned his office in the 
November foUowing. In June 1817 he waa appointed 
silnistar of marine, and in September following again rs- 

G O V — G V 


imned tlie dsties of war minutor, whicli he continued to 
dischaiige tfll NoTcmber 1819. He died ITtli Mardi 1830. 
Gon^ion St Cyr was a prodent and caatiouB rather than a 
brilliant general, bnt he would doubtless hare obtained 
better opportunities of acquiring distinction had he shown 
himself more blindly devoted to the interests of Kapoleon. 
Ho M the author of the foUoviag works :— Jbumo/ dea opiratunu 
dt I'aruiee de CtUalogtu en 1868 tt 1809, Paris, 1821 ; Mimmfet tur 
Ua Campagnm det anH4c9 ds Shin H d» Xkin-€t'MQ8€lU dc 1704 A 
1797, Paris, 1829; and Mimmft$ pour servir A rki$to%r$ milUairt 
antf U Diredoir; U OonauhU, d tEmpirc, 18dL 8m Gay da 
Ycmon'a Vic d* GouvUm Saiid-Cyr, 1857. 

OOVERKMENT. Without attemptmg to discriminate 
by verbal definitions the Tarious shades of meaning which 
this word assumes, we shall use it in this article in its 
widest sense — that of the ruling power in a political society. 
The conception of society which this use of tiie word implies 
may be iUnstrated by two well-known theories. 

In John Austin's celebrated analysis of law, the first step 
is the proposition that a law is a command issued by a 
raperior to a subject and enforced by a sanction or penalty. 
The laws of Qod widi reference to the conduct of men, the 
bws of a prirate dub or association of men with reference 
to the conduct of its members, and the laws of a political 
soeietj, are aU, according Ux Austin's definition, laws pro- 
poly so caJled. The laws of nature are laws not properly 
so called. They are generalixatlons as to the uniform course 
of nature, and have no analogy to laws properly so called 
except in point of uniformity. Positive law, again, is dis- 
tinguished from other laws^ properly so called, as the com* 
maad of the soTereign of an independent political com- 
munity. A sovereign is a person, or a determinate body 
of persons, to whom the bulk of the community is habitu- 
ally obedient Every word in tills definition has its preciss 
meaning which is developed by Austin with admirable 
deomess. The faculty "of untying knots" on which he 
prided himself is nowhere more conspicuously manifested 
Sion in the analysis which lays bare the real meaning of 
the common phrases used to describe the fundamental parts 
of society. It is not our purpose to examine the value of 
this analysis here, but simply to call attention to the assump- 
tion that in every society of men there is a determinate body 
(whether consisting of one' individual, or a few or many 
individuals) whose commands the rest of the community 
obey. This sovereign body is what in more popular phrase 
is termed the Government of the country, and the varieties 
which may exist in its constitution are Imown as forms of 

Mr Herbert Spencer, approachiag the study of society 
snder the influence* of conceptions derived from the stndy 
of physical organisms, brings us to very much the same 
result. The union of men in society is itself an organic 
itructore, having parts and functions corresponding to the 
parts and functions of an animal or a plant Mr Spencer 
porsnes this analogy so fully and minutely as to leave the 
impression that he believes it to be something more than 
on analogy, — that it is a general law from which true deduc- 
tions regarding sodety may be drawn. The veins and 
arteries correspond to our railroads and highways; the 
nerves, communicating intelligence to tbe brain, are paral- 
leled by the telegraph wires; tbe centralized action of 
sodety at the seat of government is the same thing as the 
regulative activity of the brain. Government is here repre- 
sented by the regulative functions of a living organism, and 
forms of government are so many varieties in the structure, 
Austin, for the purposes of jurisprudence, finds it convenient 
to re^rd society as moulded by the will of a dominant body. 
Spencer exhibits the regulative parts of society as bound up 
with the rest in one organism. With both the existence of 
s government is necessary to the conception of sodety. In 
tiae one theory the element of command, in the other that 

of regulation, is conspicuous. If to these we add a third, th&t 
of dmple agency, we shall have a tolembly complete view 
of the relations between Qovemment and society. Besides 
commanding the conduct of individuals, besides regulating 
the relations of the various members of sodety. Government 
may be conceived of as merdy the instrument of sodety. 
Where men are united in groups there arises from their 
union the necessity of action on behalf of the group. That 
part of sodety wluch attends to the budncss of the whole 
IS the Government 

Two main lines of inquiry divide the subject The first 
relates to varieties in the structure of the governing body — 
forms of government The second relates to the functions 
of the governing body, the sphere of government, the things 
which fall within the province of state action. In botli 
h'nes we have to deal with the ascertained facts of the past 
history and present condition of human societies. In both 
we have also to notice the speculative opinions of politlcol 
thinkers. Notwithstanding the apparent confusion it will 
probably be found more convenient not to separate the his- 
torical from the speculative treatment of the subject What 
Lb the best form of government t— is not quite the same ques- 
tion as What was the constitution of Athens or Rome t 
What are the proper limits of state interference 1 — is not 
the same question as What are the functions of the state in 
France or England t And yet the same answer may often 
serve for both sets of questions. Ideal constitutions have a 
snspidous resemblance to the constitutions with which their 
authors are most familiar. The political speculations of 
Fhito and of Cicero are based on the state systems of 
Greece and Italy. Cicero's ideal code in the treatise 
De Legibu$ is simplv an adaptation of the Twelve Tables. 
On the other hand, the form of political speculation is often 
determined by, and in turn determines, the practical politics 
of the time. The intimate connexion between speculation 
and practice in politics b strikingly illustrated in the period 
of controversy which culminated in the Revolution of 1CS8. 
The irreconcilable claims of crown and parliament threw 
the mind back on first principles. Never had theorists a 
better chance. Popular government and absolute govern- 
ment each sought to establish itself on a basis of reason and 
nature. Filmer founds kingly authority on the natural 
subjection of mankind and the Uneal succession of the king 
to Adam, the first and divindy appointed head of mankind. 
Locke's general theories of dvil government were, in his 
own opinion, suflicient "to establish the throne of our great 
restorer or present king; William, to make good his title in 
the consent of the people, which, being the only one of all 
lawfid ffovemnuHit, he has more fully and clearly than any 
prince in Christendom." We all know how the political 
issue was decided. The practical was not more complete 
than the speculative victory. For two centuries the specu- 
lations invented to support tbe popular cause against abso- 
lutism have been the accepted commonplaces ef Englishmen 
on the constitution of civil sodety. A more recent example 
may be given from modem politics. During the discus- 
dons which preceded the passing of the Reform Act of 
1867, no question was more hotly disputed than that of 
the real nature of the franchise. Was it a right or was it 
a privilege t In form this is a scientific or, if we like, a 
metaphysical question But the answer to it depended 
on another question altogether — whether you wished the 
franchise to be extended to a Urger class or not. 

Origin of Government, — ^A preliminary question, formerly 
of vast theoretical importance, would be. What is tlto 
origin of government t How did govemnient come into 
existence t As a question of historical fact, it demonds 
for its solution a knowledge of the whde past of the human 
race. It has been answered over and over again in times 
when historical knowledge oould hardly be said to ezisti 

XL — a 



and it haa Uierefore been answered wiihont any refer- 
ence to history. The answers which haye satisfied the 
minds of men may be distinguished broadly into three 
classes. The firstrclass would comprehend the legendary 
accounts which nations have gtren in primitiye times of 
their own forms of government These are always attri- 
buted to the mind of a single lawgiver. The government 
of Sparta was the invention of Lycnrgus. Solon, Moses, 
Numa, and Alfred in like manner shaped the government 
of their respective nations. There was no curiosity about 
the institutions of other nations, — about the origin of 
governments in general; and each nation was perfectly 
ready to accept the traditional vofwOtrm of any other. 

The second may be called the logical or metaphysical 
account of the origin of government It contained no 
overt reference to any particular form of government, what- 
ever its covert references may have been. It answered die 
question, How government in general came into existence ; 
and it answered it by a logical analysis of the elements of 
society. The phenomenon to be accounted for being govern- 
ment and laws, it abstracted government and laws, and con- 
templated mankind as existing without them. The charac- 
teristic feature of this kind of speculation is that it reflects 
how contemporary men would behave if all government 
were removed, and infers that men must have behaved so 
before government came into existence. Society without 
government resolves itself into a number of indivnluals each 
foUowing his own aims, and therefore, in the days before 
government, each man followed his own aims. It is easy 
to see how this kind of reasoning should lead to very 
different views of the nature of the supposed original statei 
With Hobbes, it is a state of war, and government is the 
result of an agreement among men to keep the peace. 
With Locke, it is a state of liberty and equality,~it is not 
a state of war ; it is governed by its own law, — ^the law of 
nature, which is the same thing as the la^ of reason. The 
state of nature is brought to an end by the voluntary agree- 
ment of individuals to surrender their natui^ liberty, and 
submit themselves to one supreme Government In the 
words of Locke, " Men being by nature all free, equal, and 
independent^ no one can be put out of this estate and sub- 
jected to the political power of another without his own 
oonsent The only way whereby any one divests himself 
of his natural liberty, and puts on the bond* of civil society, 
is by agreeing with other men to join and unite into a com- 
munis " (On Civil Oovemmeht, c. viii.). Locke boldly 
defends his theory as founded on historical fact, and it is 
amusing to compare his demonstration of the baselessness 
of Eilmor's speculations with the scanty and doubtful ex- 
amples which he accepts as the foundation of his own. But 
in general the various forms of the hypothesis eliminate 
the question of time altogether. The original contract from 
which government sprung is likewise the subsisting contract 
on which civQ society continues to be based. The histori- 
cal weakness of the theory was probably always recognized. 
Its logical inadequacy was conclusively demonstrated by 
Austin. But it still clings to speculations on the principles 
of government 

The ** social compact ** is the most famous of the metaphy- 
sical explanations of government It has hid the largest 
history, the widest influence, and the most complete develop- 
ment To the same dass belong the various forms of the 
theory that governments exist by divine appointment Of 
all that has been written about the divine right «f kings, a 
great deal must be set down to the mere flatteries of 
oourtiers and ecclesiastics. But there remains a genuine 
belief that men are bound to obey their rulers because their 
rulers have been appointed by God. Like the social 
compact, the theory of divine appointment avoided tiie 
question of historical fact 

The application of the historical method to the pheiiom«ii% 
of socie^ has changed the aspect of the question and robbed 
it of its political ^interest The student of the history of 
society has no formula to express the law by which govern- 
ment is bom. All that he can do is to trace governmental 
forms through various stages of social development The 
more complex and the larger the society, the more distinct 
is the separation between the governing part and the rest, 
and the more 'elaborate is the subdivision of functions in 
the government The primitive type of ruler is king, judge, 
priest) and general. At the same time, his way of life 
differs little from that of his followers and subjects. The 
metaphysical theories were so far right in imputing greater 
equality of social conditions to more primitive times. In- 
crease of bulk brings with it a more complex social organ* 
ization. War tends to develop the strength of the govern- 
mental organization; peace relaxes it All societies of 
men exhibit the germs of government ; but there would 
appear to be races of men so low that they cannot be said 
to live together in society at all Becent investigations 
have illustrated very fully the importance of the family in 
primitive societies, and the belief in a common descent has 
much to do with the social cohesien of a tribe. The govern- 
ment of a tribe resembles the govenmient of a household; 
the head of the family is the ruler. But we cannot a£Snn 
that political government has its origin in family govern- 
ment, or that there may not have been states of society in 
which government of some sort existed while the family 
did not 


Thre^ Standard Farnu. — Political writers from the time 
of Aristotle have been singularly unanimous in their classi- 
fication of the forms of government There are three ways 
in which states may be governed. They may be governed 
by one man, or by a number of men, small in proportion 
to the whole number of men in the state, or by a number 
large in proportion to the whole number of men in the 
state. The government may be a monarchy, an aristocracy, 
or a democracy. The same terms are used by Austin <u 
were used by Aristotle, and in very nearly the same sense. 
The determining qnalily in governments in both writers, 
and it may safely be said in tJl intermediate writers, is the 
numerical relation between the constituent members of the 
government and the population of the state. There were, 
of course, enormous differences between the state-cfystems 
present to the mind of the Greek philosopher and the 
English jurist Aristotle was thinking of the small in- 
dependent states of Greece, Austin of the great peoples 
of modem Europe. The unit of government in Uie one 
case was a city, m the other a nation. This difference is 
of itself enough to invalidate all generalization founded on 
the common terminology. But on one point there is a 
complete parallel between the politics of Aristotle and the 
politics of Austin. The Greek cities were to the rest of 
the world very much what European nations and European 
colonies are to the rest of the world now. They were the 
only communities in which the governed visibly took soma 
share in the work of government Outside the European 
system, as outside the Greek system, we have only the 
stereotyped uniformity of despotism, whether savage or 
civilized. The question of forms of government, ther^ore, 
belongs entirely to the European races. The ^ues and 
defects of monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy are the 
virtues and defects manifested by Uie historical Governments 
of Europe. Ilie generality of the language used by political 
writers must not blind us to the fact that they are uiinking 
only of a comparatively small portion of mankind. 

Oreek Politics, — Aristotle divides governments according 
to two principles. In all states the governing power aeeu 



ttkbef its own Advantage or tlia advantage of the whole 
itete^ aad the goyenunent is bed or good accordin^y. In 
all atatee the goveraing power is one man, or a few men, or 
many men. Hence six Tarietiee of goyemment, three of 
which are bad and three good. Eadi excellent form baa 
a eorxe^ondlng depmyed f orm> thna : — 

The good goremment of one (Monarchy) corresponda to 
the depraved form nyranny). 

The good government of few (Aristocracy) corresponds 
to the depraved form (Oligarchy). 

The good government of many (Commonwedth) corre- 
sponds to the depraved form (Democracy;. 

The f^nH of the depmved forms is that the goveny>n 
set n^jnstly where their own interests are concerned. The 
worst of the depmved forms is tyranny, the next oligarchy, 
and the least had democracy.^ Each of the three leading 
types exhibits a nnmber of varieties. Thns in monarchy 
we have the heroic, the barbaric, the elective dictatorship, 
the Lacedemonian (hereditaiy generalshipytorpariTyui), and 
sbsolnte monarchy. So democracy and oligarchy eiJdbit 
foor correaponding varieties. The best type of democracy 
is that of a commnnity mainly agricultural, whose citisens, 
therefore, have not leisnze for political afiairs, and aUow 
the law to mle. The best oligarchy is that in which a 
considerable number of smallproprietors have the power ; 
here, too, the kws prevail The worst democracy consists 
of a larger citiBen class having leisure lor politics ; and the 
worst oligarchy is that of a small nnmber of very rich and 
inflnentiiu men. In both the sphere of law is reduced to a 
minimnm, A good government is one in which aa much 
ss possible is left to the laws, and as little as possible to 
the will of the governor. 

ThA FolUiet of Aristotle, from which these principles are 
taken, presents a striking picture of the variety and activity 
of political life in the free communities of Greece. The 
king and eonndl of heroic timel had disappeared, and self- 
government in some iorm or other was the general mle. It 
b to be noticed, however, that the Governments of Greece 
were easeptially unatabla The political philosophers could 
lay down the law of development by which one form of 
government j^ves birth to another. Aristotie devotes a 
kige portion of his work to the consideration of the cauaea 
of revolutions. The dread of tyranny was kept alive by 
the hdiity with which an over-powerful and unscmpidous 
dtiaen eould seise the whole machinery of government 
Oommnnitiea oadllatpd between some form of oligarchy 
and some form of democracy. The security of each was 
constantly imperilled by the conspiracies of the opposing 
fictiona. Hence, although poUtii4l life ezhibita that exo- 
boant variety of form ahd expression which cbaracterisea 
ill the inteUeotual products of Greece, it lacks the quality 
of perustent progress. Then there was no approximation 
to a national government, even of the federal type. The 
varying confederacies and hegemonies are tiie neareat 
ipproaeh to anything of the kind. What kind of national 
government would ultimately have arisen if Greece had 
act been cruahed it is needless to conjecture ; the true 
interest of Greek politics lies in the fact that the free 
dtixena wars, in the stricteet sense of the wotd, self- 
govemed. Each citizen took his turn at the common busi- 
nea of the state. He spoke his own views in the agora, 
sad from time to time in hia own person acted aa magis- 
fente or judge. Gitiaenship in Athena was a liberal educa- 
tioD, audi aa it never can t>e made under any tepreaentative 

Tks Gaoemwmi cf i2om«.— During the whole period 
of freedom the government of Rome was, in tiieory 
at leasts mnniclpid self-government Ea ch citisen had 

^ Azistolk dMwbni tpMla of «Im trior of tboM wlio think that 
a/ ODS of tki dtpnvedfonns is hetttr tliaa aay oUmk 

a tight to vote'laws in his own person in the oomltia 
of ^e centuries or the tribes. The administrative powera 
of government were, however, in the hands of a bunan- 
cratio assembly, recruited from the holders of bigh 
public office. The senate represented capacity and experi- 
ence rather than rank and wealth. Without some such 
instrument the city government of Home could never have 
made the conquest of the world. The gradual extenaion 
of the citisenship to other Italians changed the character 
of Roman government The distant cititens could not 
come to the voting booths ; the device of representation wsa 
not discovered; and the comitia fell into tiie power of the 
town voters. In the last stage of the Roman republic, the 
inhabitants of one town wielded the resources of a world- 
wide empire. We can imagine what would be the effect of 
leaving to the people of London or Fans the supreme con- 
trol of the British empire or of France, — ^irresistible temp- 
tation, inevitable corruption. The rabble of the capital 
learn to live on the rest of the empire.' The favour of the 
effeminate masters of the world is purchased by panem H 
eireenm. That capable officera and victorioua ^ies should 
long be content to serve such masters was impossible. A 
conspiracy of generala placed itself at the head of aSaun, and 
the most capable of them made himself sole maater. 
Under Caasar, Augustus, and Tiberius, the Roman people 
became habituated to a new form of government, which ia 
best described by tho name of Csaarism. The outward 
forma of republican government remained, but one man 
united in hia own peraon all the leading offices, and used 
them to give a seemingly legal titie to what waa essentially 
military deapotiam. There ia no more interesting constitu- 
tions! study than the chaptera in which Tacitus tracea the 
^wth of the new system under the subtle and dissimulat* 
ing intellect of Tiberius. The new Roman empire waa aa 
fuU of fictions as the EngUsh constitution of tiie present 
day. The maater of the world posed as the humble servant 
of a menial senate. Deprecatmg the outward symbols of 
sovereignty, he waa satisfied with' the modest powers of a 
consul or a tribunus plebis. The reign of Tiberius^ little 
capable aa he was by personal character of captivating the 
favour of the multitude, did more for imperialiam than waa 
done by hia more famoua predecessors. Henceforward frse 
government all over the world lay crushed beneath tiia 
military despotiam of Rome. Caesarism remained true to 
the chuaeter imposed upon it by its origiiL The Caesar 
waa an elective not an hereditary king. The real founda- 
tion of his power waa the army, and tihe army in courae of 
time openly assumed the right of nominating the aovereigiL 
The curacteriatic weakness of the Roman empire waa the 
uncertainty of the succession. The nomination <^ a 
Caeaar in the lifetime of the emperor was an ineffeciive 
remedy. Rival emperora were elected by different armiea] 
and nothing less than the force of arms could decide tiio 
question between them. • 

Modem GovemmenU — FeudalUm. — The Roman emplF 
bequeathed to modem Europe the theory of nniveraal 
dominion. The nationalitiea which grew up after ita 
fall arranged themselvea on the basis of territorial aove* 
reignty. Leaving out of account the free municipalitiea 
of the Middle Ages^ the problem of government had 
now to be solved, not for small urbui communitieai 
but for large territorial nations. The mediaaval form 
of government was feudal One common type pervaded 
all the relations of life. The relation of king and lord 

' KoD« of Hi* free ftntes of Qreeee erer made extendve or penMuie&t 
oonqvecta ; Vat the tribata eometimea paid by'one itete to aaotber (m 
by tbe jGginetana to the AtbeoiMs) was a manifevt eoarce of eor* 
raption. Oomparethe ranarbi of Hone (Atayv, part L S^ That 
PoliHet maff h$ rtduetd to a Seignet), " firee'goTenunsnta aro the noft 
ninooa and oppreesire for their provinoea." 



wuM like tbo relation between lord and Tossal (see Fettd- 
▲LX8M). TIio buud between tbem was the tenure of land. 
In England tliere had been, before the Norman Conquest, an 
approximation to a feudal sytftem. In the earlier English 
constitution, the most striking features were the power of 
the witan, and the common property of the nation-in a large 
portion of the soil JThe steady development of the power 
of the king kept pace with the aggregation of the English 
tribes under one king. The conception that the land 
belonged primarily to the people gave way to the concep- 
tion that eyerything belonged primarily to the king.^ ^ The 
Norman Conquest imposod on England the already highly 
developed feudalism of France, and out of this feudalism tlie 
free governments of modem Europe have grown. One or 
two of the leading steps in this process may be indicated 
her& The first, and perhaps the meet important, was the 
device of representation. . For an account of its origin, and 
for instances of its use in England before its application to 
politics^ we must be content to refer to Canon Stabbe's 
Cofuiitutional ffuiory, vol it The problem of combin- 
ing a large area of sovereignty with some degree of self- 
government, which had proved fatal to ancient common- 
wealths, was henceforward solved. From that time some 
form of representation has been deemed essential to every 
constitation professing^ however remotely, to be free. 

The connexion between representation aud the feadal 
system 'of estates must be shortly noticed. The feudal 
tlioory gave the king a limited right to military service and 
to certain aids, both of which were utterly inadequate to 
meet the expenses of the government, especially in time 
of war. ' The king therefore hid to get contributions from 
Ills people, and he consulted them in their respective orders. 
The throe estates were simply ^e three natural divisions of 
the people, and Canon Stubbe has pointed out that, in the 
occasbnal treaties between a necessitous king and the order 
of merchants or lawyers, wo have examples of inchoate 
estates or sub-estates of the realm. The right of representa- 
tion was thus in its origin a right to consent to taxation. 
The pure theory of feudalism had from the beginning been 
broken hj William the Conqueror causing all free-holders 
to take an oath of direct allegiance to himoelf. The institu- 
tion of parliaments, and the association of the king's smaller 
tenants in capUe with other commoners, still farther re- 
moved tilie government from the purely feudal type, in 
whidi the mesne lord stands between the inferior vassal 
and the king. 

ParliameiUcurp OopemmetU. — Th€ English Syriem, — ^The 
right of the commons to share the power of the king and 
lords in legislation, the exdnsive right of the commons 
to impose taxes, the disappearance of the clergy as a 
peparate order, wera all important steps ia the movument 
towards popular government The extinction of the old 
feudal nobUity in the dynastio wan of the 15 th century 
simplified the question by leaving the crown face to face 
with parliamentb The immediate result was no doubt an 
increase in the power of the crown, which probably nerer 
stood hiffhev than it did in the reigns of Henry YIIL and 
EUsabeth; but even these powerful monarchs wera studious 
in their ngard for parliamentary conyentionalities. After 
a long period of speculative controversy and civil war, tlie 
settlement of 1688 established limited monarchy as the 
govemment of England. Since that time the external form 
of government has remained unchanged, and, so far as legal 

1 nitliDatel7,la«h6tiiioz7orXDg]i«hUw,thttldiigms7l)e iddto 
hsve beeoDM «Im imiTvntl raoea«or of the people. Some of the peen- 
Uailtlee of tlM prerossttve lights teem to be explidnsble only on this 
view, «.^., the onrions dlstiBetia& between wreeki oome to land and 
wNcks etlll on water. The eommoii right to wxeekage wm po donbt 
Om origin of the praragfttive right to the fonner. Every ancient eom- 
mcmiii^t has oome to be s xi^t of the ( 

erown I7 a Taassl 

I orown or a rig^ held of the 

aescription goes, the constitution of William IIL ndghi 
be taken for the same system as that which still exists. 
The silent changes have, however, been euurmouft llie 
most striking of these, and that which has produced the 
most salient features of the English system, iti the growth 
of cabinet govemment • Intimately connecteti with this b 
the rise of the two great historical parties of English poli- 
tics. The normal state of govemment in England is that 
the cabinet of the day shall represent that which is, for the 
time, the stronger of the two* Befora the Revolution the 
king's ministen Itad begun to act as a united body ; but 
even after the Revolution the union was stQl feeble and 
fluctuating, and each Individual minister was bound to the 
others only by the tie of common service to the king 
Under the Hanorerian sovereigns the ministry became con- 
solidated, the position of the cabinet became definite, and 
its dependence on parliament, and more particularly on the 
House of Commons, was esteblished. Ministers were chosen 
exclusively from one house or the other, and they assumed 
complete responsibiUty for every act done in tlie name of 
the crowa The simplicity of English politics has divided 
parliament into two nearly equal parties, and the party iu 
opposition has been steadied by the consciousness that it» 
too, has constitutional functions of high importance. Criti- 
cism is sobered by being mode responsible. Along with 
this movement went the withdrawal of the personal action 
of the monarch in politics. No king has attempted to reto 
a biU since the Scoteh Militia Bill was vetoed by Queen 
Anne. No ministry has beeti dismissed by the sovereign 
since 1884. Whatever the power of the monarch may be, 
it is unquestionably limited to his personal influence over 
his ministers. And it must be remembered that ministers 
are* responsible ultimately, not to parliament, but to the 
House of Commons. 

Apart, Uierefore, from the democratic changes of 1832 
and 1867, we find that the House of Commons, as a body, 
had gradually made itself the centre of the goTemment 
Since the area of the constitution has been enlarged, it maj 
be doubted whether the orthodox descriptions of the govem- 
ment any longer apply. The earlier constitutional writon, 
such as Blackstone and Delolme, regard it as a wonderful 
compound of the three stendard forms, — ^monarchy, aris- 
tocracy, and democracy. Each has ito placsi and each acts 
as a cneck upon the others. Hume, discussing the ques- 
tion "Whether the British govemment inclines more to 
absolute monarehy or to a republic," decides in favour of 
the former alternative. '* The tide has run long and with 
some rapidity to the side of popular govemment, and is just 
beginnmg to turn toward monarchy." And he gives it as 
his own opinion that absolute monarchy would be the 
easiest death, the tine euthanasia of the English constitu- 
tion. These views of the English Qovemment in the 28th 
century may be contrasted with Mr Bagehot's sketeh of the 
modem government as a working instrument' 

Leading Featwru of Farliamentarf OovemmaU, — ^The 
parliamentazy govemment developed by England out of 
feudal materials has been deliberately acc%>ted as the 
type of constitotional govemment aU over the world. 
Nearly all the European stetes and neariy all the Euro- 
pean colonicB, dependent or independent, have adopted, 
more or less fully, the leading features of the English 
system — that is to aay, popular representetion more or less 
extensive^ a bicameral legislature, and a cabinet or consoli- 
dated ministry. In connexion with all of these, numberiess 
questions of tibte highest practical importance have arisen, 
Uie bare enumeration of which would surpass the limits of 
our space. We shall confine ourselves to a few very gene- 
ral considerations. 

s fiMBioshot'i JbiaUtk CoiutfMtak 

G O V E B N M E N T 


. 7%e Two Chamler$. — First, as to the double chomLer. 
Thli, which U perhaps more accidental thr.a anj other 
porttoii of tho English syBtem, has boon the most widoST 
imitated. In most European conntries, in tho Englisli 
colonies, in the United States congress, and in the sepa- 
rate States of the Union,^ there are two houses of legis- 
Utura. This result has been brought about portly hj 
natural Imitation of the accepted type di free goTem- 
nient, partly from a couTiction that tho second ehamber 
wUl moderate the democratic tendencies of the first The 
theoretical question would take too long to argue, but it 
is easy to show that the elements of the English original 
cannot be reproduced to order under different conditions.' 
There have, indeeii, been a few attempts to imitate the 
special character of hereditary nobility attaching to the 
English House of Lords, and these few have foUed. The 
Golnplete solidarity existing between the English nobility 
and at least the politically privileged, if not the whole moss, 
of their countrymeo, is a result not to be attempted by the 
framers of constitutioni. The English system, too, after its 
own way, obTiates any danger of collision }>etween the 
Houses,— the standlhg and obvious dangor of the bicameral 
systenL In England there is no doubt where the real 
eorereignty lies. The actual miniiten of tho day must 
possess the confidence of the House of Commons; thoy need 
not — ^in fiict they ofted do not — ^possess the confidence of 
the House of Lords. It is only in legislation that the Lower 
House really shares its powers with the Upper ; and the con- 
stitution possesses, in the unlimited power of nominating 
peers, a well-understood last resource should the Honso of 
Lords persist in refusing important measures demanded by 
the representatives of the people. In all but measures of 
first-class importauQe, however, the House of Lords is a real 
second chamber, and. in these there is little danger of a 
collision between the Housosl There is the widest possible 
difference between the English and any other second 
chamber. In the United States the senate (constituted on 
the system of equal representation of Statea) ie the more 
important of tho two Houios, and the only one whose con- 
trol of tho executive can be compared to that -exercised by 
the British Ho'ose of Commons. ^ In the English colonies a 
dead-lock between the two Houses is a matter of frequent 
occurrence. In Franco, it ie an anticipated if not an in- 
tended source of danger to the new republican constitution. 

The real strength of popular government in England lies 
in the ultimate supremacy of the House of Commons. That 
supremacy had been acquired, perhaps to its f uU extent, 
. before tlie extension of the suffrage made the constituenciea 
democratic. Foreign imitators, it maj be observed, have 
been more ready to accept a widq basis of representation 
than to confer real power on the representative body. In 
all the monarchical countries of Europe^ however unre- 
stricted the right of suffrage may be, the real victory of con* 
stitutional government has yet to be won. Where the 
suffrage means little or nothings there is little or no reason 
for guarding it against abuse. The independence of the 
executive in the United States brings thiU country, from 
one point of view, more near to the Continental than to the 
English state system. The people make a more complete 
snrtender of power to the Oovemment than ii done in 

Cabtnet Chvernmeni, —The peculiar functions of the 
English cabinet are not eosfly matched in any foreign 
systeoL They are a mystery even to most educated 

^ ThB doobla goTtnimMit in tli* Uwt cim wu foandad, nayt Or O. 
OL htmia, on tlw EogUflh muaidpal lyvtem, and eonrcqwnded to tbs 
dlfleriBoe betwMD Aldemiaii and oomroon-eonndl men. 

* Swsdni, a faw ymn idnoe, rednced her four madiartl wtatei to 
two hfsosaa, and la aoM like Great Britain In tho oompositioii of the 

Ens^ishmtn. Tlie cabinet m Enghmd ia much more tliau 
a body eonsirting of chiefs of departments. Zt is tlu 
inner council of the empire, the arbiter of nationol policy, 
foreign or domestic, the sovereign in commission. Tlie 
whole power of the House of Commons U concentrated 
in its hands. A\ the same time, it has no plaeo whatever 
in the legal constitution. Its numbers and its constitution 
are not fixed even by any rule of practice. It keeps no 
record of its prooeedings. The relations of an individual 
minister to the cabinet, and of the cabmet to its head and 
ereator, the premier, ore things known only to the initiated.' 
With Uie doubtful exception of France, no other system of 
government presents us with anything like its equivalent 
In the United States, as in the European monarchies, we 
have a council of ministers surrounding tho chief of tho 

Chamgt of Power in tkt EnglUh Syttem, — One of the 
most difficult problems of government is how to provide 
for the devolution of poUtiod power, and perhaps no othei 
question ia so generally and justly applied as the test 
of a working constitntion. If the transmission worfa 
smoothly, tlie constitution, whatever may be Its . othsr de- 
fects, may at least be pronounced stable. It 'would be 
tedious to enomerate all the contrivancee which this problem 
hoe suggested to political societies. Here, as usual, Oriental 
despotism stands at the bottom of the scale. When 
sovereign power is imputed to' one family, and the law of 
succession foils to dssignate exclusivoly the individual en- 
titled to succeed, assassination becomes almost a necessary 
measure of precaution. The prince whom chance or intrigue 
has promoted to the throne of a father or an nnde, must 
make'liimself safe from hii relatives and competitora 
Hence the acenee which shock the European conscience 
when ** Amurath an Amurath succeeda" Constantinople^ 
Afghamstan, and Purmah have all recently illustrated the 
standing dlQculty of the succession id Oriental despotisma 
The itrong monarchical governments of Europe have been 
sa^ed from this evil by an indiq>ntable law of succession, 
which marks out from his infancy tho next successor to 
the throne. The king names h*s ministers, and the law 
names the king. In popular or constitutional govern- 
ments far more obborate precautions ore required. It is 
one of the real merits of the English constitution -that it 
has solved this problem — bk a roundabout way periiaps, 
after its fashion — ^but with perfect succees. The ostensible 
seat of power is the throne, and down to a time not long 
distant the demise of the crown suspended all the other 
powers of the statei In pomt of fact, however, the real 
change of power occurs on a change of ministry. The con- 
stitutional practice of this century has settled, beyond the 
reach of controversy, the occasions on which a ministry is 
bound to retire. It must resign or dassolve when it is 
defeated in tiie House of Commons, and if after a dissolution 
it is beaten again, it must resign without alternative. It 
may resign if it thinks its nugority in the House of Commons 
not sufficiently huge. The dormant functions of the crown 
now come into ex^nce. It receives back political power 
from the old ministry in order to transmit it to the new. 
When the new ministry is to be formed, and how it is to 
be formed, is also clearly settled by esUblished practice; 
The out-going premier names his successor by reconmiend- 
ing the Ung to consult him ; and that successor must ha 
the recognised leader of his successful rivala All this ia 
a matter of custom, not of law; and it is doubtCol if any 
two authorities eoidd agree in describing the custom ia 

* See Bagehot*! BngUtK OmdamlUm, which ezhibiU a woiklng riew 
of thia and other jtatU of the eonfUtutlon aa they appear te an oat- 
aider. Mr Gladatone'a politteal emaya, la the oolieetifm enUtled 
GUaningt ^ Pad T«an, ooaiala nueh ralnable Into r mattai sff 



tanguage of precision. It is certain that tiie interrention 
of the crown facilitates the transfer of power from one party 
to another, by giving it the appearance of a mere change of 
servants. The real disturbance is that caused by the appeal 
to the electors. A general election is always a struggle 
between the two great political parties for the possession 
of the powers of government It may be noted that recent 
practice goes far to establish the rule that a ministry beaten 
at the hustings should resign at once without waiting for 
a formal defeat in the House of Commons. 

The English custom makes the ministry dependent on 
the will of the House of Commons ; and, on the other hand, 
the House of Commons itself* is dependent on the will of 
the ministry. In the last result both depend on the will 
of the constituencies, as expressed at the general election. 
There is no fixity in either direction in the tenure of a 
ministry. It may be challenged at any moment^ and it 
lasts until it is challenged and beaten. And that there 
should be a ministry and a House of Commons in harmony 
with each other but out of harmony with the people is 
rendered all but impossible by tl^ law and the practice as 
to the duration of parliaments. 

Change of Foieer in ilie United Slatei^Th^ United 
States offers a vezy different solution of the problem. 
The American president is at once king and prime 
minister; and there is no titular superior to act as 
a cenduit-pipe between him and his successor. His 
crown is rigidly fixed ; unshakable for four years, after 
four years he ceases to reign. No hostile vote can affect 
his power as the head of the administration, and it is 
difficult to resist his will even in legislation. But the day 
of his demise is known from the first day of his govern- 
ment ; and almost before Jie begins to reign the political 
forces of the country are shaping out a new stru^le for 
the succession. Further, a change of government in 
America means a change of the entire administrative staff. 
The commotion caused by a presidential election in the 
United States is thus infinitely greater than that caused by 
a general election in England. A change of power in Eng- 
land affects comparatively few personal interests, and absorbs 
the attention of the country for a comparatively short space 
of time. In the United States it is long foreseen and 
elaborately prepared for, and when it comes it involves the 
personal fortunes of large nufibers of citizens. And yet thq 
English constitution is more democratic than the American, 
in the sense that the popular will can more speedily be 
brought to bear upon the government 

Chanffe of Power in France,— The established practice 
of England and America may be compared with the 
nascent constitutionalism of France. Here the problem 
presents different conditions. The head of the state is 
neither a premier of the English, nor a president of the 
American type. He is served by a prime minister and a 
cabinet, who^ like an English ministry, hold office on the 
condition of parliamentary confidence ; but he holds office 
himself on the same terms, and is, in fact, a minister like the 
others. So far as the transmission of power from cabinet 
to cabinet is concerned, he discharges the functions of an 
Englisb king. But the transmission of power between 
himself and his successor is protected by no constitutional 
devices whatever, and recent experience would seem to show 
that no such devices are really necessary. Of is 
too soon to talk about the oonstitutional practice in France, 
but this much seems clear, that some rearrangement of the 
relations of the president and the cabinet must soon take 
place. It seems difficult to distinguish between a parlia- 
mentary president and a parliamentary ministry, or to see 
why they should not stand or fall together. Ab yet the 
new French constitution has not had time to exhibit thai 
which is a constant feature of the English constitntiaD, tul, 

a government headed by ihe chief of thodomiAont political 
party.' When that time comes the office of premier ought, 
one would suppose, to merge in the office of president 
Possibly the existence of niilnerous political parties, and Uic 
open disloyalty to the existing constitution professed by 
some of them, may retard the simplification of the French 
governmental system. Other European countries professing 
constitutional government appear to follow the English 
practice. The Swiss republic is so peculiarly situated that 
It is hardly fair to compare it with any other. But it is 
interesting to note that, while the rulers of the states arc 
elected annually, the same persons are generally ro-eloctcd. 

Jiepreientation, — The questions connected with repr&> 
sentation are too numerous to be discussed with advantage 
here. Two recent changes of great importance may bo 
noticed in the English system, — the vote by ballot» and 
the partial introduction of what is called the minority 
vote. By the latter, in a constituency returning three 
members, each elector has only two votes, and a minority 
exceeding one-third can thus elect at least ona of the three. 
The representation of minorities is a device of political 
theorists, ancl the chief result of its partial application has 
been to weaken the influence of the large constituencies. 
The chief anomalies of the English system are the inequality 
of electoral districts and the multiplicity of votes. A town 
of 200 electors returns as many candidates as a constituency 
of ten times that number. On the other hand, while one 
man has a single vote only, his neighbour, by various 
qualifications, may be an elector in several constituenciea. 
In each case there is a revolution of the only theory on 
which the representative system as a whole can be founded 
— the equality of the voters. The first of these anomalies 
is admittedly waiting the convenience of political partiea 
The second has been recently aggravated by the creation 
of new university constituencies, consisting almost entirely 
of persons who had already the right of voting under the 
ordinary qualification. The anomaly becomes a gross abuse 
in the practice of creating what are known as faggot votes. 
The simple remedy would be to require that each elector 
should be registered in one constituency only. 

The Relation betipeen Govemtrient and Latot. — ^It might 
be supposed that, if any general proposition could be estab- 
lished aboufgovemment, it would be one establishing some 
constant relation between the form of a government and the 
character of tiie laws which it enforces. The technical 
language of the EngUsh school of jurists is certainly of a 
kind to encourage such a supposition. The entire body of 
law in force in a country at any moment is regarded as ex- 
isting solely by the fiat of the governing power. There is 
no maxim more entirely In the spirit of this jurisprudence 
than the following :—*< The real legisktor is not he by 
whom the law was first ordained, but he by whose will 
it continues to be law." The whole of the vast repertory 
of rules which make up the law of Enghmd— the rules of 
practice in the courts, the local customs of a county or a 
manor, the principles formulated by the sagacity of genera- 
tions of judges, equally with the statutes for the year, are 
conceived of by the school of Austin as created by the will 
of the sovereign and the two Houses of Parliament, or so 
much of them as would now satisfy the definition of bov«- 
reignty. It would be out of place to examine here the diffi- 
cultiea which embarrass this definition, but the statement 
we have made carries on its hc» a demonstration of its own 
falsity in fact There is probably no government in the 
world of which it could be said that it might change at will 
the substantive laws of the country and still remain a 
government However well it may suit the purposes of 
analytical jurisprudence to define a law as a command set 
by sovereign to subject, we must not forget that this is 
only ^ dsfisiticst %i^ that the uiiunptioD it rests upon isi 



to thB ifaideiit of society, aoyihiiig bat a nniversal fact 
Yitxm his point of view the cauae of a particular law is not 
one bat many, and of the many the deliberate will of a 
legislator may not be one. Sir Henry Maine has illnstrated 
this point by the caae of the great tax-gathering empires of 
the £ast» in which the absolute master of millions of men 
never dreams of making anything in the nature of a law 
at idL This view is no doubt as strange to the English 
statesman as to the English jurist The most conspicuous 
wmk of goremment in his yiew is that of parliamentary 
legislation. For a largo portion of the year the attention 
of the whole people is bent on the operations of a body of 
men who are constantly engaged in making new laws. It 
is natnnl for us, therefore, to think of law as a factitious 
thing; made and unmade by the people who happen for the 
time being to constitute parliament We forget how small 
a proportion the laws actually devised by parliament are 
of the law actually prevailing in the land. No European 
country has undergone so many changes in the form of 
government as France. Bepublic, constitutional monarchy, 
and empire have there succeeded each other again and 
again in the coarse of a century. It is surprising how Uttle 
effect these political revolutions have had on Uie body of 
French law. The change from empire to republic is not 
marked by greater legislative effects than the change from 
s Conservative to a Liberal miuistiy in England would bei 
These reflexions should make us cautious in accepting any 
general proposition about forms of government and the spirit 
(d their laws. We must remember, also^ that the clsssifica- 
tion of governments according to tho numerical proportion 
between governors and governed supplies but a small basis 
for generalixation. What parallel can be drawn between a 
■mall town, in which half the population are slaves, and 
every freeman has a direct voice in the government, and a 
great modem state, in which there is not a single slave, while 
beemen exercise their sovereign powers at long intervals, 
ind through the action of deUgates and representatives t 
Piopoaitbns as vague as those of Montesquieu may indeed 
be asserted with more or less plausibility. Bat to take any 
leading head of positive law, and to say that monarchies 
treat it in one way, aristocracies and democracies in another, 
is a different matter. Laws affecting trade might be ex,- 
pected to depend on the more or less popular character of the 
government. Yet would it be safe to say that monarchy 
disoouragea^ that democracy encourages, free trade 1 France 
under the empire was more free-trading than France under 
the repnblia If there is any difference at all between Great 
Britain and her colonies it is that the latter are generally 
■apposed to be more democratic than the mother country. 
Tet protection rules tho young democracies, while free trade 
reigns at home. The principle has indeed been broadly 
bid down that oligarchical governments interfere more 
actively and more extensively in the affairs of their subjects 
than popular governments. We shall have occasion to show 
direc&y that the popularisation of government in England 
has up to this time been attended by a striking increase in 
the sphere of state action. 

n. Sphkks 07 QovsBNiaarr. 

We may now ask, What is the appropriate sphere of 
government t What kind of business does it undertake^ 
and what kind of business ought it to undertake t By 
whatlimitsisits action to be restrictedt Here too the field 
is oocapied by disputed theories and diversified practice. 
And the sphere assigned to state action in different ages 
and oonntriea varies as widely as the form of government 

The action of the state^ or sovereign power, or govern- 
sunt in a civilised community khapes itself into the three- 
fold^ fn nctions of legislation, judicature, and.*administratbn. 
The tiro fint an pof ectlj wdl-dcd&ned, and the hipt inchdea 

aU the kinds of state action not indnded in the other twa 
It is with reference to legislation and administration that 
the line of permissible state-action requires to be drawn. 
There is no doubt about the province of the judicature, and 
that function of government may therefore be dismissed 
with a very few observations. 

The complete separation of the three functions marks a 
high point of social organisation. In simple societies the 
same officers discharge all the duties which we divide between 
the legislator, tlie administrator, and the judge. The acts 
themselves are not consciously recognised as being of dif- 
ferent kinds. The evolution of all the parts of a highly 
complex govemmeot from one original is illustmted in a 
striking way by the history of English institutions. All 
the conspicuous parts of tho modem govcmmeut, however 
little they may resemble each otlier now, can be followed 
back without a break to their common origin. Parliament, 
the cabinet^ the privy council, the courts of law, all carry 
us back to the same uidu$ in the council of the feudal 

Judicature. — The business of judicature, rcijnirin^ as is 
does the poa<iession of a high degree of technical skill and 
knowledge, is generally entrusted by the sovereign body or 
people to a separate and independent class of functionaries. 
in England, the appellate juribdiction of the House of Lords 
still maiiitaius in theory the connexion between the supremo 
legislative and the supreme judicial functions, it is only 
recently that the important subject of divorce pasbod from 
tho legislative chambers to the courts of law. In some of 
the States of the American Union the judicial functions of 
the upper house are still maintained after the example of 
the Euglish constitution as it existed when these States 
were founded. In England there i^ also still a conside^ w 
able amount of judicial work in which the people takes its 
share. The inferior magistracies, except in populous places, 
are in the hands of private persons. And by the jury 
system the ascertainment of fact has been committed in 
very large measure to persons selected indiscriminately from 
the mass of the people, subject to a small property quali^ 
fication. But the higher functions of the judicature aro 
exercised by persons whom the law has jealously fenced off 
from external interference and control The independence 
of the bench distinguishes the English system from every 
other. It was established in principle as a barrier against 
monarchical power, and hence has become one of the tra- 
ditional ensigns of popular government In many of the 
American States, the spirit of democracy has demanded tho 
subjection of the judioaiy to popular control The judges 
are elected directly by Uie people, and hold office for a 
short term, instead of being appointed, as in England, by 
the responsible executive, and removable only by a vote of 
the two Houses. There is not the smallest Sign that de- 
mocratic opinion in England is tendbg in this direction. ^ 
At the same time the constituUon of the United States has 
asttgned to the supreme court of the Union a perfectly 
unique position, standing in singular contrast to the de- 
praved condition of many of the State judicatories. The 
supreme court is the guardian of the constitution. 'It has 
to judge whether a measure passed by the legislative powers 
is not void by reason of being unconstitutiona], and it may 
therefore have to veto the deliberate resolutions of both 
Houses of Congress and the president It is admitted that 
this singiilar experiment in government has been completely 
justified by its success. 

^ It U worth noting that direct election to offlcea->mppcoed to bo 
chanotorlstk of tho damocntio spbit— hM no piece In KngUeh poUticsl 
idoM. Tho fev instances In vhich it occurs are regarded with IndiiTer- 
enoe. Has decUon of the coroner by tbet freeholden is nniTereally 
oondeinned* In the few pariahea where the dergyman may be ap- 
pointed by the paziahioDirB, the ii|^t is often left to be exerdsed by 
« «lbeouk<^ ^ r— X. ---* ' 



Limiti ofSiaU Interference in LeguHatvm and A dtninUtrth 
iion, — The qnestion of ihe limits of state action does not 
arise witli reference to the judiciary. The enforcement of 
the laws is a dnty which the sorereign power most of absolute 
necessity take npon itself. But to what conduct of the 
citizens the la^'s shall extend is the most perplexing of all 
political questions. The correlative question with regard 
to the executive would be what works of publio convenience 
should the state undertake through its own servants. The 
whole question of the sphere of government may bo stated 
in these two questions : — What diould ihe state do for its 
citueenst and How far should the state interfere with the 
action of its cltixenst These questions are the direct out- 
come of modem popular government; they are equally 
unknown to the smaU democracies of ancient times and to 
despotic governments at all times. Accordingly ancient 
political philosophy, rich ss it is in all kinds of suggestions, 
has very little to say that has any bearing on the sphere of 
government. The conception that the power of the state 
con be and ought to be limited belongs to the times of 
" government by disenssion,* to use Mr Bagehot's expres- 
sion, — to the time when the sovereign number is divided 
by class interdsts, and when the action of the majority has 
to be carried out in the face of strong minorities, capable 
of making themselves heard. Aristotle does indeed dwell 
on one aspect of the questioa He wouhl limit the action 
of the government in the sense of leaving as little as possible 
to the personal will of the governors, whether one or many. 
His maxim is that the law should reign. But that the 
sphere of law itself should be restricted, otherwise than by 
general principles of morality^ is a consideration wholly 
foreign to ancient philosophy. The state is conceived as 
acting like a just man, and justice in the state is the same 
thing as justice in the individual The Greek institutions 
which the philosophers are nnanimous in commending are 
precisely those which themost state-ridden nations of modem 
times would agree in repudiating 
, Importance of thU Quettion in Sngliek Politice.-^ 
Limitation, then, being a principle known only to free 
governments, we natur^y look to EngUsh politioil history 
for its elucidation ; and the speculative and practical treat- 
ment of this question is perhaps the most valuable contri- 
bution made by England to political science. From the 
ti3\e of the Revolution, the principle that there is a limit 
to the permissible action of government has been tacitly 
admitted. The theories which restricted the powers of the 
constitutional king by founding them on popular consent 
tended also to the restriction of the sphere ol government 
in general The connexion between the two may be seen 
yery clearly in Locka Qovemtnent was created by the 
voluntary union of men in political society, and the object 
for which they agreed to unite was the preservation of their 
property. Thid scope of government is therefore limited 
by this its original object " Though men, when they enter 
into society, give up the liberty, equaL'ty, and execotive 
power they had in the state of nature into the hands of 
society, to be so far disposed of by the legislature aa the 
good of society shall require, yet, it being only with an 
intentbn in every oue the better to preserve hivuel/t hie 
liberty, andpropeHy, ... the power of the society or legis- 
hture constituted by them can never be supposed to extend 
further than the common good." The practical application 
of these principles is to be found in his essay on Toleration. 
The business of the state being the protection of body and 
goods, it has no right to interfere with the religious worship 
or opinions of its citizens. The existence of religious dis- 
sent on a krge scale kept up the practical importance of 
this tiieory. Even in tiie extreme absolutism of the parti- 
sans of moDorchy, the carious doctrine of passive obedience 
Ifecognizes the same principk Although the will of the 

sovereign ought never to be resisted, there Is a lino of acUot 
beyond which he ought never to pass. 

Another historical fact of some importance is the long* 
continued alienation of the aristocratic classes from the 
reigning family during the post-Revolution period. In the 
1 8th century the natural champions of monarchical power 
were in opposition. Their vast local influence, which might 
otherwise have gone to aggrandize the influence of the crown, 
was really employed to thwart it There thus sprang up 
in the most conservative classes of society a strong feeling 
of jealousy for local independence, and a standing dislike 
of Government interference. Squire Western, in Tom Jonet, 
may be taken as the type of the country party of the period. 
His idea of intellectual conversation is abusing the Govern 
ment over a bottle. Nothing in the new-fangled notions 
of his sister disgusts him more than her affected sympathy 
with the politicians then in power. The sullen disaffection 
of the most powerful section of society was a most effectual 
bulwark against any extension of the central power. It has 
been remarked by an acute observer^ that the weakness of 
government in the 18th century suffered even public insti- 
tutions to assert their local independence. Corporations 
of every kind enjoyed the most complete liberty of action, 
and, freed from state control, became the private patrimony 
of their membersL The same 4Bort of resistance to state 
action has been repeated in the 19th century. The natural 
adherents of the crown, and the leaders of provincial society, 
the arbtocracy, the county gentry, and the clergy, have 
generally been in opposition to ministers. It is a fact not 
without significance that the first constitutional question 
of this reign was raised by Sir Robert Peel, the leader of 
the Conservative party. 

Again, the exhaustive discussion of oil political measures, 
which for two centuries has been a fixed habit of Enslish 
publio life, has of itself established the principle that there 
are assignable limits to the action of the state. Not that 
the limits ever have been assigned in terms, but popular 
sentiment has more or less vaguely fenced off departments 
of conduct as sacred from the interference of the law. 
Phrases like ** the liberty of the subject" the " sanctity of 
private property," "an Englishman's house is his castle," 
« Uie rights of conscience," are the commonplaces of political 
discussion, and tell the state, '* Thus far shalt thou go and 
no further." ' 

Slate and Church, — ^The side pn which the legitimate 
province of government has been most debated is that 
on which it comes in contact with religion. High eccle- 
siastical theories draw the lines of restriction as deariy 
as voluntaryism, but what they exclude is state control 
and not state support The Roman Catholics, the High 
Chnrdi party in England, and the Free Church in Scot- 
land, all unite in protesting against the intfusion of Uie 
secular government into spiritual affairs.. This assertion 
of a spiritual domain lying beyond the sphere of f^vem- 
ment, and sacred from its interference, unfortunately implies 
that theis is another authority from which, on religions 
matters, the Government ought to Jtake its instructiona The 
duty of a national recognition of religion — implying com- 
pulsion of the most personal character— is strongly asserted 
by the very persons who denounce state control as ill^ti- 
mate and tyrannical The exclusion of the state from the 
spiritual domain is, in fact, not founded on any reasoned 
theory of tJie functions of government at all, but on the 
belief in a divinely appointed order for spiritual things, 
which it is the duty of the state to enforce. An attempt 
to base this position on general principles has, indeed, been 
made by Mr Gladstone in his work on dhireh and State, 
Holding that the state is a moral person, he argues that its 

> MrXadtPstUsOainJBMajif oiMliMeiofc 



attion moBl be regulated by eonsSence, and that its religioQs 
j>biigadon8 an the same as thoee of the indiyidnal man. 
It most therefore recognize and practlBe a religion, and the 
true religion is that of the Christian Church, of which the 
English Establishment is a branch. That religion, with its 
diTinely organised system of Episeopacj, the state should 
enforce in every way short of physical persecution. It should 
exclude heretics from o£Sce and priyilege, but it should not 
put them in prison. Mr Gladstone's book was the occasion 
of a controversy which doubtless had some effect on sub- 
sequent political events. Macaulay^ stated the Whig view 
of the subject — ^holding that while the state may justi- 
fiably endow an established church, it may not persecute 
for dissent in any way whatever. Oovemment has prfnci- 
poUy to deal with the macerial wants of society, and with 
the protection of life and property. While this Ib the main 
end of government, it may pursue such secondary ends as 
the 'promotion of education and religion, the encouragment 
of arts, Ac, but the primary end must not be sacrificed to 
the secondary end. The state is therefore not a mond 
person at all, any more than a railway company or a hospital ; 
and government is certainly not an institution for the pro- 
motion of religion ; but, if it finds it expedient, it iday justly 
support Prssbyterianism in Scotland, Protestant Episcopacy 
in England, and Roman Catholicism in Ireland. It is 
needless to say that Macaulay makes no attempt to define 
the limits within which the government msy thus provide 
for the good of society. These may be said to have been 
the views of Liberal politicians and latitudinarian church- 
men. On the other hand, the religious theory of govern- 
ment, as expounded in Dr Amold*s Oxford Lectures on 
Hutory, is based on the conception that the ideal church 
and state are one. Here there can be no bounds to the 
iegiciniate action of the state exdept its conformity with 
religious truth. And Dr Arnold does not hesitate to fore- 
cast an ideal state of society in which disbelief in the 
Christian religion shall so outrage the moral sense of the 
oommunity that it may fittingly be put down by the strong 
arm of the law. The weakness of all theological specula- 
tions about government is that they are fitted only for local 
uae. The theory of government cannot well be discussed 
to much purpoee with a disputant who requires a series of 
theological propositions to be taken for granted. 

Tht Laitse»-fair€ Theory. — MUL — A more profitable line 
of inquiry has been followed by writers of the economical 
school The most important of these is John- Stuart Mill, 
whose essay on Liberty^ together with the concluding 
chapters of his treatise on Poliiteal JSeonomy, gives a 
tolerably complete view of the principles of government 
The leaning of political economists is towards what is 
called the laiuei-faire or non-interference doctrine. There 
18 ageneril presumption against the interference of Goyera- 
ment, which is only to be overcome by very strong evidence 
ot necessity. Qovernmental action is generally less effective 
than Toluntary actioiL The necessary duties of Govern- 
mant are so burdensome, that to increase them destroys 
its efficiency. Its powers are already so great that indi- 
vidual freedom is constantly in danger. As a general rule, 
nothing which can be done by the voluntary agency of 
indiriduah should be left to the state. Each man is the 
best judge of his own interests. But, on the other hand, 
when the thing itself is admitted to be useful or necessary, 
and it cannot be effected by voluntary agency, or when it 
is of such a nature that the consumer cannot be considered 
capable of judging of the quality supplied, then Mr Mill 
would allow the state to interpose. Thus the education 
of children, and even of adults, would fairly come within 
the province of the statei Mr Mill even goes so far as to 

' Critieal and Historical E$sa^i, toI. l 

admit ihat^ where a nstrietion of the houft of labou; 
or the establishment of a periodical holiday, is proved to 
be beneficial to labourers as a class, but cannot be carried 
out voluntarily on account of the refusal of individuals to 
coK>perate, Government may justifiably compel them to eo- 
operate. Still further, Mr Mill would desire to see some 
control exercised by the Government over the operations 
of those voluntary associations which, consisting of large 
numbers of shareholders, necessarily leave their affairs in 
the hands of one or a few persons. In short, Mr MiU*s 
general rule against state action admits of many important 
exceptions, founded on no principle less vsgue than that 
of public expediency. The essay on Liberty is mainly 
concerned with freedom of bdiridual' character, and its 
arguments apply to control exercised, not only by the state, 
but by society in the form of public opinion. The leading 
principle is that of Humboldt, ** the absolute and essential 
importance of human development in its richest diTsrsi^.'* 
Humboldt broadly excluded education, reUgion, and morals 
from the action, direct and indirect, of the state. MiD, as 
we have seen, conceives education to be within the prorinco 
of the state, but ho would confine its action to compelling 
parents to educate their children. 

Herbert Spencer, — The most thoroughgoing opponent of 
state action, however, is Mr Herbert Sitcncer. In his Sociai 
Statics, published in 1850, he holds it to bo the* essential 
duty of Government to protect — to maintain men s rights to 
life, to personal liberty, and to property; and the theory 
that the Government ought to undertake other offices besides 
that of protector he regards as an untenable theory. Each 
man has a right to the fullest exorcise of all his faculties, 
compatible with the same right in others. This is the funda* 
mental law of equal freedom, which it is the duty and the 
only duty of the state to enforce. If the state goes beyond 
this duty, it becomes, not a protector, but an aggressor. 
Thus all state regulations of commerce all religious estab- 
lishments, all Oovemment relief of the poor, all state 
systems of education and of sanitary superintendence, even 
the state currency and the post-office, stand condemned, not 
only as ineffective for their respective purposes, but as 
involving violations of man's natural liberty. Many of the 
principles enunciated in this book are not reconcilable with 
the later views of the author, but he would still appear 
to maintain his theory of government to the fullest extent. 
Thus, in the Trineipia of Sociology, published in 1877, he 
distinguishes between the militant type of society and the 
industrial type. The former is framed on the principle of 
compulsory cooperation, while the latter is framed on the 
principle of voluntary co-operation. He vaguely indicates 
'' a possible future social type, differing as much from the 
industrial as this does from the militant,— a type which, 
having a sustaining system more fully developed then any 
one known at present, will use the products of industry 
neither for maintaining a militant organization nor ex- 
clusively for material aggrandisement, but will devote them 
to the carrying on of higher activities.*' Of the two actually 
existing types, the militant is distinguished by a strong and 
the industiisl by a feeble Govemmentol system, fieversing 
the analogy suggested by individual organisms, he holds 
the hitter to be a higher and better type than the formerJ 
And he maintains that military activity iu a state di» 
tingnished by a high degree of indnstrinl development 
produces a recurrence to the militant type of institutions 
generdly. Thus, iu Germany, the dealings of Bismarck 
with the ecclesisstieal powers, and the measurss taken foe 

> PrineipUs qf SoeioToffjf, toI. i., London, 1877. In a poaticriptta 
part iL Mr Speocw •zplalns the *' origin of thi^ seemiof incongruity.!* 
IndiTidunl oiguiisma, high or low, hAT« to mnintsln their Utm b| 
offmriTO or defonsiTO netivitiM or both ; aodnl oigaaiiBi^ ^f^fsl 
daring tho mlUtsat itago of their erolation, hero not. 

XL.— .3 



eentraSang the state control of milwaya, ore instaiicet of a 
more coercive rfyitM establUhed by war. In England, the 
peaoefnl period from 1815 to 1850 is contnmted witli the 
militant period since 1850. The latter has been marked 
by the nsarpations of military officialism, by sanitary dic- 
tation, by coercive philanthropy, by oompnlsory education, 
b^ an nnhesitaling faith in state-judgment, and by a general 
disregard of the principles of free government, even on the 
•ide of the party which in the previons period effected 
changes in the direction of freedom. 

Tmigncy of receni Legitlaiion, — ^Tnming from political 
theory to political practice, let us see huw tl& legislation of 
the lost fifty years in England has drawn the line between 
legitimate and illegitimate state action. The period that 
has elapsed since the passing of the Reform Act of 1832 
has bten one of great legbkttive activity, ]bi no former 
period has legislation been so completely under the control 
of public opinion, or so directly affected by open discnnion 
of the principles of projected meamree. It will be of some 
interest, therefore, to inquire how the most enlightened 
political communi^ in the world has, during the period of 
Its fullest freedom, defined the business of government. 

Btdnetioh of St(U$ Action. — BdigimL^-^Ti^ cases in which 
flovemment interference has been abolished or greatly 
limited during this period are mainly two— in matters of 
opinion (espemlly religions opinion), and in matters of con- 
tract The principle that the state ought to maintain some 
form of religion has been surrendered by the disestablish- 
ment of the Irish ChurcL The disqualifications, political 
and civil, of dissenters, have, with a very few and not very 
important exceptions, been removed. The last remnant of 
the old rule, making witnessei incompetent on religions 
grounds, was removed by the Act enabling persona to give 
evidence without an oath. A few statutes making various 
forms of irreligion punishable still remain, but they are 
never enforced, and any attempt to enforce them would 
almost certainly end in their formal repeal State prosecu- 
lions for expression of opinion have almost entirely ceased, 
and practically the only instrument of control now left is 
the law of liheL Under the influence of the judges^ that 
law has, during the period b question, been nniformly 
interpreted in a sense favourable to the freedom of discus-* 
sion. One of the few remaining restrictions on religious 
freedom is the principle, acted on in several recent casee^ 
tiiat a contract may be broken if its object is to facilitate 
the expression of irreligious opinions.^ 

At Uie same time there appears to be a tendency to dis- 
^inguish between merely irreligbus opinions and opinions 
priiiounced to be immoral Convictions have lately been 
obtt^ed for publishing, and- selling books advocating 
opinions on certain moral and social questions which 
appeared to a jury to be calculated to deprave the morals 
of die people. But here again the distinction has been 
authoritatively drawn between such views when presented 
In a scientific form, and adapted to a scientific andience, and 
the same views offered openly to the unscien t ific pubUa 
Untenable as such distinctions are^ they manifest a ten- 
dency on the part of the courts to confine the prosecution 
of opinion within the principle of the law against indeoent 
publications. It may further be added that, with one not- 
aUe exception, — the Public Worship Regulation Act, — ^tbe 
desNngs of the state with the church have been confined 
within a very narrow compass. Tlie endowment of new 
see% for instance, although sanctioned by the state^ is left 
to the voluntary contributions of the pnUie. 

CotUraet. — Freedom of contract, in general, has been 
BPeesly advanced by the success of the f refrirade agitation in 
>84S, which was not so much a protest against state reKubt- 

'^ > M.g.t a oontrsct to lot a luQ for a laetue adroettiag stiMiiOc 

I tion a« a demand for a cheap supply of food. Blnee that 
time, tlie prmciple that the state should leave men to maV^ 
what baigama tliey please, without attempting to encourage 
any particular inausiry or to favour any special ^^i fttf ^ has 
taken rank as a maxim of universal application. One 
ohss of contracts — those between master and servant— long 
remained an exception to the general rule. Branch of such 
oontiacts by the servant was treated as a criminal offence, 
and the combination of servants to obtain a rise of wages 
as a conspiracy. Aseries of statutes, the Isst of which was 
passed a few years ago, has abolished the criminal character 
of the bresch of the contract of service, except in a few 
cases. The abolition of the laws against usury in 1857 is 
another instance ; the anthoriation of trading companies 
with limited liabili^ is another. The last great legblative 
measure before parliament (the Criminal Code Bill of 1879) 
propoees to do away with the old offences of maintenanco 
and champerty. Besides the classes re^puded by law as 
under disabili^ to contract (infants^ lunatics, and married 
womenX a few doubtful instances of protected persons might 
still be named. Thus expectant heirs are treated Ui the 
spirit of the old laws against osury. Seamen are not 
allowed to make a charge upon their wages. In certain 
empbyments specified in the Truck Act wages an not 
allowed to be paid otherwise than in coin. The principle 
of free trade is outraged in its own name by the legal rnle 
which vitiates contracts made " in restraint of tradei^ 

Increau of State Actum. — ^The enumeration of new 
restrictive measures, and instances of increased state inter- 
ference within the same period, would occupy a mudi more 
formidable list A rough dsssification only will be here 
attempted. We shall take first, interference for the pro- 
tection of definite cbsses of persons. 

Edueaiicm of CkUdrtn. — ^This is perhaps the most con- 
spicuous, as it is certainly the most beneficial and the leaat 
disputed, of the recent encroachments of the state. The 
progress of opinion and legislation on this subject has been 
singnlariy rapid. Beginning with Government grants in aid 
of education, strenuously resirted on grounds going to the 
very rciot of the question of legitimate state interference^ the 
system has now culminated in a net-work of state-supported 
flod stateHadmidiitered schools spread over the whole coun- 
try. That the state should compel parents to educste their 
chQdren would only be a slight departure, if any, from the 
general principle imposing duties on parents and disabilities 
on childnn. Undcur the present system the state not only 
compels the parent to educate^ but itself provides, and in 
great measure paya for, the education. A generation of dis- 
cussion has^ however, drawn very d&Bti;ictly the line beyond 
which this advance of state authority must not proceed. 
Compulsory state education is for children only, and may 
be justified by the general argument which justifies stato 
protection to the helpless ; it is elementaiy only; and it is 
Bftoular only. 

Refful<t&m if ih€ Lahowr of CkUdrai and ITosMii.— The 
long series of Factory Acts is the beat example of the steady 
and pefsistent advance of Government control in this direc- 
tion. Here the line of protection is oanstderably advanced, 
but is sgain carefully drawn under male adults, sUhou^^ 
theae of neceesity shsre in the benefits of the protection in 
all amployments where their work requires the oo-openUjon 
of woman and children. See Facxqet Aoib. 

Btgwlaiian of Dangerom XmplovmenU.'-Oi these the 
ICneaBflgnlationAcU are perhaps the beat esampla Here 
the Qovemaent aetnally Liys down the mles under whidi 
alooe tlifl # empkyments are anfbred to be carried on. 
Here the princii»le that adnlti are capable of looking after 
thamiielves is overruled by the dsngerous chsini^tpr of the 

1ft nil these osaes tha aotioo of tiie Stale Is dfltaded oa 



tka gnmnd fiiat Uie penoni protected are unable snffieientlj 
to protect tbemaelTes ; and the principle adopted la that of 
preTention instead of mere punishment for breach of duty. 
Hence an enormous army of inspecton is required for the 
work of control 

Another class of interferences is justified on the ground 
of pMie healik, and these, in respect of the amount &t state 
supervision required, stand next to the protectiTe measures 
already enumerated. The common law of nuisance recof^ 
nizes the principle that any source of contagion or discom- 
fort set up by an individual is an iigury to those who may 
be affected by it, which they may call upon the state to 
suppress. The Sanitary. Acts interpose the remedy at an 
earlier stage, and by the usual apparatus of QoTemment 
inspectors and detectires. The largest measure on thia 
subject is the Public Health Act, and the most extreme 
deyelopment of the principle is the lending of money by the 
QoTemment to municipalities for the erection of healthy 
dwelliog-houses for labourera^ Personal freedom is more 
directly affected by measures like the Vaccination Act, for 
which, howe?er, the double ground of the helplessness of 
the subjects aod the prerention of danger amounting to 
nuisance may be taken. The least defensible of All the 
meisores of this class are those relating to the adulteration 
of Tartoas kinds of food. The fraudulent or negligent 
supply of food ii^jurious to health is an injury which may 
be appropriately punished by awarding compensation to the 
person injured, and inflicting punishment on the delinquent 
But under the last Act (Sale of Food and Drugs Act, 1875) 
it is a criminal offence to sell goods of a quality not asked 
f oTy and the usual staff of analysts and inspectors is eatab- 
lished to facilitate detection. The mighty engine of Qorem- 
ment determines the exact percentage of water which the 
dairyman may put in his milk and the publican in his gin. 
Next come the casee in which the GoTemment eiUier 
aids or itself undertakes works of pMie coHtenUiue, The 
state monopoly of the po8t4>ffioe is the most ooospicuous 
example, and we hare recently seen it extended by the 
acquisition of the telegraphs. Less directly the state has 
acquired control of the locomotiTe system, by granting 
oompulsoiy powers of various sorts and a partial monopoly 
to railway companies, and by imposing certain regulations 
on them. This department of state actirity has been 
greatly increased by the operations of the Public Works 
Loans Commission, which lends money to local bodiea for 
aach purposes as the erection of batlu and wash-houses, 
improrittg riTers, harbours, and towns, building, light- 
houses and public libraries, and the likei 

The assertion of state control oyer endvwnunU is another 
marked feature of the period Except in this way, Qovem- 
ment has not, in England at least, interfered with the higher 
aort of education to any great extent. But most of the 
Mkdowed schools and the universities hare been subjected 
to inquiry, and remodelled according to what are under- 
stood to be the demands of the age. Almost every kind of 
corporation has been revised in the same way, the most 
notable and scandalous exception being the numerous and 
wealthy corporations of the city of London. The history 
of these reforms reveals a perfectly clear ratumaU of the 
relations existing between an endowed institution and the 
state. AU endowments are privileges created by the state 
in the way of exception to the universal rule of law against 
perpetuities — ^the rule which limits the operation of dead 
men's wills, and makes each generation master of its exist- 
ing resources. When tiie purposes of an institution cease 
to be nsef al, or its organization is seen to be defective, it 
is the right and duty of the state to withdraw the privilege 
altogether, or continue it under new conditions. All 
endowments become, in virtue of this rule, the property of 
Ib0 atate; and how it shall deal with thorn becomes a 

qufirtion of statesmanship, not of interference with private 
inteieets. Under the name of "vested interes(j," all 
existing rights of individuals are stringently preserved. 
These two correlative principles— the right of the state to 
revise all endowments, and the obligation to respect vested 
interests in any such revision — have ceased to be disputaUe 
in English poUtica. 

A similar extension of state control Is to be seen in the 
organisatiim of the pro/ettioni — i.f,, persons licensed to 
practise particular arts. The church, like the army, is nol^ 
properly speaking, a profession, and its regulations belong 
to the same dass as those of the anny or tbe civil service 
The true professions are the various grades of lawyers 
and mediod men. They have an exclusive monoiK>Iy 
of the arts which they profess. The protection of this 
monopoly was long the only connexion between them and 
the Government They were left to the management of 
self-^veming societies or corporations. Witliin our own 
generation there has been, not only a marked increase of 
state control over the professions, but a marked tendency 
to extend it 'to occupations hitherto uncontrolled The 
system of medical Hcentiation is year by year becoming 
more stringent and more centralized. A recent Act providea 
for the more efficient testing of the ^qualifications of solicit 
tors. -The bar, which has hitherto with immense practical 
wisdom governed itself by means of voluntary societies, is 
threatened with a parliamentary constitution, settling the 
conditions of admission, exanunation, discipline, and dia- 
missal. The free professions are demanding the like recog- 
nition and supervision by the state. A biU is now (1879) 
before parliament for organising the professions of school- 
masters in the higher class of schools; and elementary 
schoolmasters are claiming to be included in its scope. The 
business of buying and selling stocks and shares has 
narrowly escaped, & it has escaped, the rules and regula- 
tions of an act of parliament A commission was actually 
appointed a few years ago to investigate the practices of 
brokers and jobbers, and one of its recommendations was 
that the Stock Exchange should forthwith become a cor- 
poration. Hie last interference of this sort was tlie 
appointment of a committee of the House of Commons, 
at the instance of the London retail traders, to inquire into 
the working of what are called co-operative stores. Inquiry 
does not of course imply interference, and a committee or 
a commission is often a convenient way of stopping tiie 
mouths of agitators whom it might not be convenient to 
ignore altogether. Futile as the remedy may be, the first 
thought of every aggrieved dass is to by iU wrongs before 

Pn4eeti<mo/tkiHff$/nmExcem9€ (7onji£«|rfibii.— Another 
dass ol interferences maybe described, in Uie most gencnl 
terms, as measures taken for the protection of things whidi 
would otherwise pwish, or greatiy diminish, by reason of 
excessive use. Statutes of this sort have greatiy multi- 
plied during the last fifty years. There is hardly any 
kind of anijnal, which men think worth catching or eating, 
without its statutory dose-time; Tlie ostensible reason 
for this kind of legisUtion is that salmon, let us say, or 
oysters, are a very important artide of food, and unless 
men are restrained from pursuing them to excess, the whole 
breed would ultimatdy be extinguished, or so reduced in 
number as to be of little use. Another and less avowed 
reason is that animab of the protected order are necessary 
for the recreation of a certain dass of genUemen, who, in 
tiie interest of their own pleasures, must lie restrained from 
carrying tliem to excess. Thus no gun must be lifted 
against grouse before the 12tk of August, or against 
partridges before the let of September, so that next year 
there may still be grouse and partridges in the land. The 
great majority of these enactmeute belong in -spirit to tho 



gune-laws, but many of ihbm are genninel j intended for the 
peipetoation of perishable isapplies of food. Some of them, 
nke the Seabirds Fh>tection Act, or the Small Birds Pro- 
tection Act, are dictated by some sentimental fear of the 
extinction of snoh animals. As a whole, they are among 
the least defensible of the modem extensions of state power. 
Coercion for Moral Furpote$.^ThQ measures hitherto 
noticed may in general be justified either on the ground 
of the inability of the persons protected to help them- 
iielTes, or on tiie ground that some good to society as a 
whole, or to large portions of it, a secured thereby. An- 
other class of measures openly aims at the moral im- 
provement of the individuals affected by ihem, and in this 
class there has been an amazing and alarming increase. 
The laws against gaming are one of the best examplest At 
common law a wager was a contract, enforceable by the 
tribunals like any other. Not content with declining to 
enforce wagers, the state went further, and tried to^pot them 
down altogether. It made lotteries illegal It visited with 
heavy penalties the keepmg of betting-houses, all betting 
in pnbUc places, the publication of betting lists, &o. Gomes 
wluch lead to bettiog are put under the restraint of a 
licensing system, and in some parts of the provinces the 
state orders its citizens not to play billiards after eleven 
o'clock at night To this class belongs the severe code 
regulating what is called the liquor trc^ci -. Through the 
agency of licensing magistrates, the state first of all limits 
the number of public-houses ; then it dictates directly the 
hours during which liquor maybe bought and sold; and in 
Scotland and Ireland it goesfurther, and prohibit? altogether 
the sale of liquor on Sunday. A committee of the House of 
Lords has touched the highest point of government control 
in proposing to empower local authorities to buy up all the 
public houses in their districts, and carry on the business for 
themselves. There is a simultaneously increasing tendency 
to interfere with people's amusements : fairs are being put 
down as immoral, music and dancing require licences very 
charily granted, the grip of the lord chamberlain over the 
London theatres is tightened, and so on. The course of 
moral legislation, in fact, threatens to sweep away every 
barrier to the encroachments of the state. The extended 
range of Government interference in other things has been 
accompanied, as we have seen, by a very distinct recog- 
nition of limits, either in the rights of the individual con- 
science, or in the capacity of adult manhood, to manage its 
own affairs. But Acts of Parliament for improving the 
moral characters of men seem to recognize no limit at all. 
And it is a singular fact that, while this kind of legislation, 
under existing social arrangements, fails to affect the well- 
to-do olasseib and presses chiefly on the comparatively poor, 
it is becoming more and more identified with the popular 
party in politics, and gathers strength with every addition 
to the popular element in government 

We have hitherto confined our attention to simple as 
opposed to compound forms of government, and to the 
supreme as opposed to the subordinate functions of govern- 
ment The complete treatment of the subject would require 
us to take some notice of the (1) association of several com- 
munities, with separate governments under one sovereignty, 
and (2) of the subordinate organizations for carxying on 
the government of localities, under the supreme government 

1. Federal Oovemment^As this ia the subject of a 
separate article (vol iz. p. 61), we need only notice hero 
the case in which one of the associated Governments is the- 
Tdtlmate seat of sovereign power — the others being its 
colonies or dependencies. England is, of course, by far 
the most illustrious example of a country so situated, and 
her relations with tho subordinate communities exhibit 
much variety of form. One leading distinctiou may be 

drawn, — ^namely, between the communities whicn are 
allowed to govern themselyes and those which, either as 
being unfit for self-government, like India and F^i, or on 
acuount of the military necessities of the situation, as Malta 
and Gibraltar, are governed by the officers of the EngluJi 
Government In the subject dependencies, as Uie latter 
may be called, the government is usually carried on by a 
governor and council, nominated by the crown, and holding 
office for various terms of years. The council, as a general 
rule, consists of the higher officers of the dependency, such 
as the chief-justice or the a^ttomey-generaL The governor 
and council are strictly the delegates of the home Govern- 
ment and have no legal or constitutional status of their 
own. The recently acquired island of Cyprus occupies an 
anomalous position in the British state system. The 
English Government holds it^ not as sovereign, but as 
lieutenant-general of the sovereign, the sultan of Turkey, 
llie government of the island is vested in a commissioner 
who takes his orders, not from the colonial, but from the 
foreign office. As a general rule the relations between the 
mother country and her dependencies are under the charge 
of a special department of state — the colonial office. 

In free dependencies the alternative is between some 
kind of confederation with the mother country, whereby 
the dependency shall have a representative voice in the 
supreme government, and the practical independence of the 
dependency in all but international affairs. In the French 
system the deputies of Algiers and other colonies sit in tho 
supreme legislature along with the other representatives of 
France. In the English system dlstanco alone would render 
such a scheme impracticable; and, even where distance would 
be little or no hindrance, there has been no desire en either 
side for any such connexion. Dependencies like the Lie 
of llaa and the Channel Islands are as completely sepa- 
rated from England as New SiCaland and Canada. The 
free dependencies have local constitutions framed on the 
model of the home Government — two chambers of legLs- 
lature, a go^'emor nominated by tho crown, and a ministry 
dependent on parliament The governor is supposed to 
stand to the ministry and parliament ati the erown to the 
ministry and parliament at home ; but it is to be remem- 
bered that the governor iS) properly speaking, the representa- 
tive not of the English crown but of the English Govern- 
ment. It is from the colonial secretary that the governor 
takes his instructions, and the colonial secretaxy and his 
colleague^ take their inbtructions from the House of 
Commons. And, just as the practice of the constitution 
has made it impossible for the monarch to resist the wishetf 
of parliament, so it is established that the governor, as 
representing England, shall not veto enactments of the 
colonial legislature. Just as in England the House of 
Commons invariably determines the fate of a ministry, so 
does tho lower or popular house in a colonial legislature. 
It is needless to say that this is a very great advance on 
the old theory of colonial relations. Beginning in special 
grants or charters granted to individuals or corporations, the 
English colonies in North America held their liberties by 
the grace of the crown. The successful revolt of the colonies 
taught the mother country the folly of supposing that 
Englishmen in America would consent to be governed bjr 
Englishmen at home. 

Although colonial institutions are modelled as neariy as 
may be after the original type, they are not entirely free from 
questions of fundamental difficulty. The central question 
of government — Whose will is to prevaill— has at the 
present time (1879) been agitating two of the greatest of 
the colnnicN, a deadlock between the council and the 
assembly in Victoria being referred to England, and the 
governor-general of Canada refusing to dismiss a lieu- 
tenant-governor on tho advice of his responsible ministry. 



The 8al>J6ctioa ot colonies io the Lome QoTemment is 
BtOl retained ia two important cases. The eolonies have 
DO Toice whatever in determining the nature of their 
relations with other commnnities ; the qnestion of peace or 
war IS decided for them by the home QoTernment. Again, 
all the colonies, whatever may be their powers of local self- 
government, seek justice in the last resort from the sove- 
reign in coundL • ' 

2. Local Govemmeni, — As the business of society at 
large must be undertaken by the supreme government, so 
the loc^ business of the subdivisions of society must be 
undertaken by local sub-governments. Local government 
repesita on a small scale the features of the supreme 
government, but its business is chiefly judicial and admims- 
tcatiTe. The most mark^ distinction here is between 
rural and urban communities^between the county and 
libe borough. Self-government or representative govern- 
ment is the rule in the latter, the exception in the former. 
In England, since the Municipal Corporations Act, the 
affairs of all urban communities, except the city of London 
and a few unimportant boroughs, are managed by the direct 
representatives of the inhabitants. In the counties the 
eontrol of affairs rests with the justices of the peace^ who 
are nominated by the crown exclusively from the dass of 

The degree of control exercised by the supreme govern- 
ment over local governments is a point of first-rate import- 
ance in the constitution of a count^. Among free countries 
England and France stand at opposite ends of the scale^ — 
England being characterised by great local independence, 
France by strict central controL Thus it is said that» even 
under the republic, the mimster of education can say that 
at a given hour all the children in all the schools of France 
are learning the same lesson. The habitual dependence of 
the French people upon the action of the state has been 
described as a survival from the times of imperial despotism 
which may be expected to disappear gradually under the 
influence of freedom. A step in this direction has certainly 
been taken in the proposal to allow communes to elect their 
own flROtre ; and the abuse of the prefectoral system by a 
recent ministry ought to lead to some diminution of its 
enormous powers. On l^e other hand the increased activity 
of the state^ whi<^ as we have alrmdy seen, has accompanied 
the establishment of populsr government on a wide basis 
in England, has shown itself also in increased centralisation. 
The new functbns— educational, sanitary, and other — 
imposed on local bodies are controlled by the supreme 
govoinment through central boards. In 1871 the local 
government board was constituted to take over the powers 
of control over local boards hitherto exercised by various 
high officers of state, the poor law board, and the privy 
council. More recendy the Prisons Act of 1877 has trans- 
ferred to the secretary of state the powers hitherto exercised 
by the local prison authorities, and has made the cost of 
maintaining local prisons a burden on the public funds. 

As we have already said, the work of local governments 
generally embraces very little that can properly be called 
Illation. They have a power of msJdng bye4aws for 
carrying out within their district the purposes of a general 
kw, and over that powef the courts of justice exercise a 
'vigilant controL Parliament in England has hitherto looked 
with great distrust ou subordinate legislatures, and it is a 
eommon saying that the jealousy of the House of Commons 
is one of the reasons why the metropolis remains without 
municipal government But it would now be generally 
admitted that the legislation demanded of parliament every 
year is greatly beyond its effective powers. There are in- 
dications d an approach to something that may be described 
as home rule — a name which inspires more distrust than 
the nali^. Piarliament makes no pretence of consistent 

in legislating sepAlately for Englaftd, ficotlattd, and Ireland. 
To take only notorious exampD«, — the Irish Land Act, the 
Disestablishment Act, and the Sunday Liquor Act of Ireland, 
and the Forbes MadLenzie Aci of Scotland are instances 
of legislation according to the supposed wishes of the people 
specially affected. Irish and Scotch business tends in the 
House of Commons more and more to fall into the hands 
of Irish and Scotch members, aiid the interference of others 
is not unf requeotly resented as an intrusion. Again, private 
bill legislation, regulated as it is by ascertained general 
principles, has come to be in fact, as in form, a purdy 
judicial proceeding, which might wdl be rdegated, as it no 
doubt one day will be rdegated, to local tribunals. Another 
indication of the same tendency is to be found in what is 
called permissive legislation, which leaves to local authorities 
the responsibility of deciding how far a given principle shall 
be applied. (e. s.) 

QOWER, JoEH (1325 t-U08), one of the best of the 
English minor poets, was born in or about the year 1325 ; 
but the date is not exactly known. It has been condu- 
dvely shown by Sir Harris Nicolss that he belonged 
to the county of Kent. His family was wealthy; and 
he seems to have had various country houses. So far as 
we know he did not many till 1307, when he was united to 
Agnes Qroundolf. He was an intimate friend of Chaucer; 
but there is no evidence to prove that they were fellow- 
students. A few years after bis marriage, Qower became 
blind, and had to give up writing. .He spent his declining 
years in the priory of St Mary Ovaries, or, as it is now called, 
St Saviour's, in Southwark, where his monument is st^ to 
be seen. 

Near the dose of tlie Coi^emo AmantU^ Qower puts the 
foUowingcompliment toChaucer into the mouth of Venus:— 
" And greet weel Chaaoer vben ye nsel^ 

As my Uiadple and m; 
~ • * lilo 

d m^ poet ; 
of his yoath, 
I he well oouti 

For in the flourei ( 

In nmdiy wise, m he well ooutk 

Of ditties and of loiiges glade^ 

The whidk he for mj edce madsb 

ThelAndftimUedisoTertU;" fte. 
In these lines he was merely requiting a compliment 
that had been paid him some years before by his 
brother-poet| who, in dedicating to him his TrcUui and 
CresiidOy addressed him as "O moral Cower," an epithet 
wliich, though not remarkably happy, has stuck to him. 
Qower died in 1408. In his wtU he leaves a number 
of religions legades to various ecdesiastical persons and 
institutions, and £100, along with the rents of his manors, 
to his wife Agnes. The beautiful church in which Qowei 
lies waa rebuilt in great part at his expense, and proves, 
among other things, that he must have been exempt from 
one of the usual misfortunes of poets — poverty. 

Qower's poetical worka are four in number — Salads and 
other Foenu, in French, printed in 1818 for the Boxburghe 
Club ; the Speculum Meditantii, a treatise on the duties of 
married Ufe, written in French verse, and diyided into ten 
books ; Vox Clamantit, a narrative in Latin elegiacs, of the 
insurrection of the commons in the reign of Bichard IL; 
and the Confistio Amantit, The second of these works is 
believed to have perished; t>f the third there is a good 
edition by the Bev. H. O. Coxe, printed for the Box- 
burghe Club in 1850; and Ae fourth was first printed 
by Caxton in 1483. The Conjtmo Amanlit, or Lover's 
Confestton, is a huge miscdlaneous collection of physical, 
metaphysical, and moral reflexions, and of stories culled 
from the common repertories of the Middle Ages. A 
kind of unity is given to these apparently incongruous 
materials l^ the form of the poem, which is a dialogue 
between a lover and his confessor, who is a priest of Venus, 
and u called. Qenius. In the moral part of his theme, 
Qower is coi^essedly wise^ impress] ve^ and sometimes almost 



taUima. Bat, as EDis, ia hU SpenmeHi of the JSatf^ 
BnglUh Foet$, obsenres, " His narratiye ia often qaite 
petiiijing ; and when we read in his works the talea witU 
which we have been familiarixed in the poems of 0?id, we 
feel a mixture of sorpriae and despair at the perrerae 
industry employed in removing every detail on which the 
imagination had been aticnstomed to fasten. The author 
of the if€iamorpho$ft was a poet, and at least sufficiently 
fond of ornament Gower oonsiden him as a mere annalist^ 
acmpnloosly preserres his facts, relates them with great 
persplcnity, and is folly satisfied when he has extracted 
from them aa mnch morality aa they can reasonably be ex- 
pected to famish." As Professor Lowell has well remarked, 
Qower ** has positively raised tedionsness to the precision 
of a acience." Though his descriptions are often extremely 
agreeable^ and his diction easy and smooth, his prolixity, 
and the prosaic feebleness of the conceptions,- will prevent 
the Lova'i Co^feuio* from ever rivalling the writings of 
Chancer, or even i^proximating them in popularity. 

8m Todd's JlludratUmt nf ikt Uiou and Wrilingt ttf Ootper 
mid Ohaucer ; EIUs's Opeeinutu <^ M« Barl^ Sngliak Podt ; Cnik'i 
Miti, LiL ; Warton'i MitL Enf, FoUry ; Oodwin'i Lif* i^ CKaueer ; 
Horlay'i SuglUh Jfriten; Sir Harris NIcoIm's Lfi (JT Chaueeri 
Un Haaaoifs Thre* (Uniurist qf Snglish Poetry \ lUli'otpeetive 
JbvMW for 1838, vhera 8ir Huria Kiooks throwi fresh light 
OB the subject ; Obu naii om on tht Language af CkatiC9r*$ Canter' 
hiry Talet, and Oow$/» Cfonfmio AmanliM, by F. J. Cliild; 
Minto'i Charae/§riHie$ of Bnglith FoeU; and, aboV«^aIl, Dr Rain- 
hold Paali*a soholarlj adition of tha Caitfteeio Ainantis (London, 
1867)i which containa a notioa of Gowar, and an aooonnt of tha 
MSS. and editions of tha poanu 

QOYA, a town of the Argentine Bepublic, in the province 
of Corrientes, near the jonction of a small stream with the 
FaranA, about 100 miles S. of Corrientes. The streets are 
about 60 feet wide, and the houses, built of brick, are often 
two stories high. One side of the handsome plaza is occu- 
pied by a large chureh erected by locaVsubscnption, and in 
the centre there is a pyramid 50 feet high. Hides, woolj 
cheese, and orangea are the principal articles of trade, the 
cheese especially finding a good market at Buenos Ayres 
and elsewhere. The town was founded in 1807 by the 
national Goremment, and la said to haye derived its name 
from Ooya or Qregoria, the wife of Uie Portnguose cattle- 
farmer who was formerly settled on the spot. The popu- 
lation, which indndee a large foreign element, — Italians, 
Basques, and French,— amounted to 10,907 in 1869. See 
MulhalVs ItaruRfook of tht River Plate. 

(K>T ANN A, a city of Brazil, in the province of Pemam- 
buco, on a river of its own name, about 10 miles from the 
sea. It is a well-built place, and carries on a trade in cotton^ 
sugar, mm, hides, timber, dye-stnfis, oils, and other pro- 
ducts 'of the fertile region in which it lies. Most of its 
exports are sent to Becife for shipment, its own port being 
only deep enough for the larger class of coasting vessels. 
The popnlation is about 12,000. 

GOYA T LUCIENTES, Feahciboo (1746-1829), 
Spanish painter, was. bom b 1746 at Fuendetodos, a small 
Aragonese village near Saragossa. At an eariy age he com- 
menced his artistic career under the direction of JoeA Lusan 
Martinei^ who had studied painting at Naples under 
Mastrelea It is dear that the accuracy in drawing Lnsan 
is said to have acquired by diligent etudy of the best Italian 
masten &id not much influence his erratic pnpiL Goya, 
a trae son of his province, was bold, capricioos, head- 
strong, and obstinate. He took a prominent part on more 
than one occasion in those rival religious processions at 
Sarasossa which often ended in nnseemly frays; and hie 
friends were led in consequence to despatch him in hii 
nineteenth year to Madrid, where, prior to his departare 
for Home, his mode of life appean to have beSn anything 
bnt that of a quiet orderly oitiaen. Being a good musician, 
and gifted with a voice, he sallied forth nightly, soreaadtDg 

the 'caged beauties of the eapital, with whom he i 
have been a veiy general favourite. 

Lacking the necessary royal patronage, and probably 
scandalising by his mode of life the sedate oonrt official^ 
he did not receive — perhaps did nut seek — the usual 
honorarium accorded to thoee students who visited Bomo 
for the purpose of study. Finding it convenient to retire 
for a time from Madrid, he decidud to visit Bome iat hia 
own cost j and being without resources he joined a ** quad- 
rilla" of bull-fighters, passing from town to town antil 
he reached the shores of the Mediterranean. We next 
hear of him reaching Borne, broken in health and financi- 
ally baokrapt In 1772 he was awarded the second prize 
in a competition initiated by the academy of Parma, styling 
himself " papil to Bayen, painter to the king of Spain." 
Compelled to quit Borne somewhat suddenly, he appean 
again in Madrid in 1770, the husband of Bayeu's daughter, 
and father of a son. About this time ho appean to have 
visited his parents at Fuendetodos, no doubt noting much 
which later on he utilised in his genre works. On return- 
ing to Madrid he commenced painting canvasses for the 
tapestry factory of Santa Barbara, in which the king took 
much interest Between 1776 and 1780 he appean to 
have supplied thirty examples, receiving about £1200 for 
theuL Soon after tfie revolution of 1868, an official was 
appointed to take an inventory of all worka of art belong- 
ing to the nation, and in one of the cellare ofHh^ Madrid 
palace were discovered forty-three of these works of Goya 
on rolls forgotten and neglected (see Loi Tapieet de Goya; 
por Cnuado Villaamil, Madrid, 1870). 

Hb originality and talent were soon recognised by Mengs, 
the king's painter, and royal favour naturally followed. 
His career now becomes intimately connected with the court 
life of his time. He was commissioned by the king to 
design a series of frescos for the churoh of St Anthony 
of Florida, Madrid, and he also produced worka for Sara- 
gossa, Valencia, and Toledo. Ecclesiastical art was not his 
forte, and although he cannot be said to have failed in any 
of Ids work, his fame was not enhanced by his religions 

In portraiture, without doubt, Goya excelled : his po^ 
traits are evidently life-like and unexaggerated, and he 
disdained flattery. He worked rapidly, and during his 
long stay at Madrid painted, amongst many othen, the 
portraits of four sovereigns of Spain-^^-Gharles IIL and 
IV., Ferdinand VIL, and ** King Joseph." Tha duke of 
Wellington also sat to him; but on hia making some 
remark which raised the artist's choler, Goya seised a 
plaster cast and hurled it at the head of the duke. There 
are extapt two pencil sketches of Wellington, one In the 
British Museum, the other in a private collection. One of 
his best portraits is that of the lovely Andolusian duchess 
of Alva. He now became the spoiled child of fortune, 
and acqnired, at any rate externally, much of the polish 
of court manners. He still worked industriously upon 
his own lines, and, while there is a stiffness almost 
nngainly in the pose of some of his portraits, the stem 
individuality is always preserved. 

Including the designs for tapeetry, Goya's genre works 
are numerous and varied, both in style and feelin|^ from 
his Watteau-like Al Freeco Breakfast, Bomeria de San 
Isidro^ to the Curate feeding ihe Devil's Lamp, the Meson 
del GallO) and the painfully realistic massacre of the Doe de 
Mayo (1808). Goya's versatility is proverbial; in his 
hands the pencil, brosh, and graver are equally powerful. 
Some of his crayon sketches of scenes in the bull ring 
are full of force and character, alight but full of meaning 
He was in his thirty-seoond year when he commenced hia 
etchings from Velasqnei, whoee influence may, however, 
be traeedin his work at an aaiUer data. A cazafnl ss*. 

G Y — G Z 


tmiitttion of aome of the dmwiugs made for these etchings 
indicates a steadiness of porpose not asnally discovered 
in Guja's craft as draughtsman. Ho i* much more widely 
kuown by his etchings tlian his oils; the latter necessarily 
most be sought in public and private collections principally 
in Spain, while the former are known and prised in every 
capital of Enropei The etched collections by which Qoya 
is beat known include Los CSaprichos, which lutve a satirical 
neaning known only to the few ; they are bold, weird, and 
fall of force. Loa Proverbios are also supposed to have 
some hidden intention. Los Desastres de la Gnerra may 
fiurly daim to depict Spain during the French invasion. 
To the bull fight series, Qoya is evidently at home ; he was 
t skilled master of the barbarous art, and no doubt every 
iketch is true to nature, and from life. 

Goya retired from Madrid, desiring probably during his 
kkter years to escape the trying climate of that capit«L He 
died at Bordeaux in his eighty-third year, and a monument 
kis been erected there oyer his remaius. Whether his 
influence produced the art of Fortuny and the modern 
Spanish school may be matter for discussion ; but, from 
the deaths of Yelasques and MuriQo to the advent of 
Fortuny, Goya's name is the only important one found in 
the history cdT Spanish art Paul Lefort and Yriarte may 
be consulted for fuller details of his life and worlis. 

G07AZ, or, as it was formerly called. Villa BOa de 
Ooyaz, the chief town of the province of Goyax in Brazil, 
ia the valley of the auriferous Telmelho, a right-hand tribu- 
tsiy of the Araguaia. It Ilea about 650 miles N.W. of Rio 
de Janeins and 700 miles 6.W. of San Salvador. As a 
bishop's see, the seat of the provincial assembly, and the 
residence of a civil president aod a military governor, it is 
t place of considerable importance ; and with its broad 
itreets, wide squares, and well-built houses it ranks as ohe 
of the most attractive towns of Brazil The public build- 
iogs comprise the legislative chambers, a court-house', a 
hospital, a prison, an mstitution for the assaying of gold, 
tad a municipal alaughter-honse. Goyas was founded In 
1736 under the name of Santa Anna, and it received its 
present designation about three years later when it was 
isised to the rank of a city. The population is about 8000. 

QOYEN, J AX JoaiPBazooH yax (1596-1656), was 
bom at Leyden on the 13th of January 1596, learned 
pamtiog under several masters at Leyden and Haarlem, 
Dsrried in 1618, and settled: at the Hague about 1631. 
One of the few Dutch painters who failed to captivate 
English taste^ his influence was great on Dutch art ; and 
be WIS one of the first to- emancipate liimself from the 
traditions of minute imitation embodied in the works of 
Breaghel and Savery. Though he preserved the dun 
wale of tone peculiar to those painters, he studied atmo- 
ipberie effects in hUcV and white with considerable skill 
He formed Solomon Ruysdiel and Pieter Potter, forced 
•ttentbn from Rembrandt, and bequeathed some of his 
precepts to Pieter de Molyn, Coelenbier, Saftleven, Tan 
der Eabel, and even Berghem. His life at the Hague fur 
twenty-five years was very prosperous, and he rose in 1640 
to be president of his guild. A friend of Van Dyck and 
Bartholomew van der Heist, he sat to both these artists for 
bis likenesi. His daughter Margaret married Jan Bteen, 
tad he had steady patrons in the stadtholder Frederick 
Henry, and the chiefs of the municipality of the Hague. 
He died at the Hague in 1656, possessed of land and 
bouses to the amount of 15,000 florins. 

Betfreen 1610 and 1616 Yan.Goyen wandered from one 
idiool to the other. He was first apprenticed to Isaak 
Svinenburgh ; ho then passed through tho workshops of 
De Ifan, Klo)^ and De Hoom. In 1616 he took a deciaive 
4ep aod joined Esaias van der Yelde at Harlem ; amongst 
hii earlier pictures, sr<me of 1621 (Beriiu Museum) and 

1623 (Brunswick Oolleiy) show the influence of Esaias very 
perceptibly. The landscape ia minute. Details of branch- 
ing and foliage are given, and the figures are important in 
reUtion to the distances. After 1625 these peculiarities 
gradually disappear. Atmospheric effect in landscapes of 
cool tints varying from grey green to pearl or brown an^ 
yellow dun is the principal object which Yan Goyen holds 
in view, and he succeeds admirably in light skies with drift- 
ing misty cbud, and downs with cottages and scanty shrub- 
bery or stunted trees. Neglecting all detaU of foliage he 
now works in a thin diluted medium, laying on rubbings 
as of sepia or Indian ink, and finishing without loss of 
transparence or lucidity. Thrawing his foreground into 
darknees, he casts alternate Hght and shade upon the more 
distant planes, and realizes most pleasiuff views of large 
expanse. In buildings and water, with uipping near the 
banks, he sometimes has the strength if not the oolour of 
Albert Cum The defect of his work Is chiefly want of 
solidity. But even tills had its charm for Yan Qoyen's con- 
temporaries, and some time elapsed before Cuyp, who imi- 
tated him, restricted his method of transparent tinting to the 
foUage of foreground trees. 

Yan Goyen's pictures are comparatively rare in English 
collections. Unrepresented in the national gallerioB, he ii 
seen to advantage abroad, and chiefly at the LouYre, and in 
Berlin, Gotha, Yienna, Munich, and Augsburg. Twenty* 
eight of his works were exhibited together at Yienna in 
1873. His panels fell in value during the 17th century, 
when they fetched prices as low as 10 and seldom as high 
as 100 florins. Now tbey are worth ten times more than 
in 1700. Though he visited France once or twice, Yan 
Goyen chiefly confined himself to the scenery of Holland 
and the Rhine. Nine times from 1633 to 1655 he painted 
views of Dordrecht Nimeguen was one of his favourite 
resorts. But he was also fond of Haarlem and Aflisterdam, 
and he did not neglect Amheim or Utrecht One of his 
largest pieces is a view of the Hague, executed in 1651 for 
the municipality, and now in the town collection of that city. 
Most of his panels irepresent reaches of the Rhine, the Waid, 
and the Maese. But he sometimes sketohed the downs of 
Scheveningen, or the sea at the mouth of the Rhine and 
Scheldt; and he liked to depict the calm inshore, and rarely 
ventured upon seas stirred by more than a curling breeia 
or the swell of a coming squall He often painted winter 
scenes, with ice and skaters and sledges, in the style ^miliar 
to Isaac von Ostade. There arc numerous varieties of these 
subjecte in the master's works from 1621 to 1653. One 
historical picture hai been assigned to Yan Goyen — the 
embarkation of Oiarlea IL in the Bute collection. But 
this canvas was executed after Yan Goyen'a death. When 
he tried this form of art he properly mistmsted his own 
powers. But he produced little in partnership with his 
cbntemporaries, and we can only except the Watering-plaoe 
in the gallery of Yienna, where the landscape is enlivened 
with horses and cattle by Philip Wonvermans. Even Jan 
Steen, who was his soa-in4aw, only painted figurea for one 
of his pictures, and it is probable that this piece was com- 
pleted after Yan Goyen's death. More than 250 of Yan 
Goyen's pictures are known and aooeesible. Of this number 
little more than 70 are undated. None exist without tha 
full name or monogram, and yet there is no painter whoea 
hand it is easier to trace without the help of these adjuncts. 
An etcher, but a poor one, Yan Goyen has only bequeathed 
to us two very tare platea. 

GOZLAN, L]£o2c, a French novelist and play writer, wai 
bom at MaiaeilleB in 1803, and died in 1866. When ha 
was still a boy, lus father, who had made a large fortuno 
as a sldp-broker, met with adverse circumstances, and Lton, 
before completing lus education, had to go to sea in order to 
earn a living. Ho went several trading voyages to Algien 



and to Senegal, witlioat» it wonld seem, mneh profit In 
the meaatime his literary tastes gradually developed, and 
he abandoned mercantile pursuits for the modest employ- 
ment of a teacher in Marseilles. He, however, did not 
remain long there, and in 1828 we find him in Paris, de- 
termined to run the risks of literary life. His townsman, 
Joseph H^ry, who was then making himself famous by his 
political satires, smoothed his way, and introduced him to 
seTeral newspapers. But Gozlan did not sacrifice litera- 
ture to politics. Though he contributed many essays 
to the reviews, it is as a fertile and ingenious author of 
novels and plays that he is best known. His first novel 
was Lei Memoiret cPun ApotkUaire (1828), and this was 
followed by numberless olhen^ among which may be men- 
tioned Le kotaire de ChantiUy, Arittide Froiuart (one of the 
most curious and celebrated of his productions). Lei Nuiti dn 
Pire-Laehaite, Le TapU Vert, Georgee III., La FoUe du 
logii, La famille Lambert, Lee imotiom de Polydore 
Maratquin, &c. His principal works for the theatre are — 
La Goutte de Lait, La PluU et le beau tempe, LeLion empailU, 
Pied-de-Per, LouUe de Ifanteuil, Le Gdteau dee Beinet, 
Lee Paniere de la ConUeeee, Le Diamant et le Yerre, and 
adaptations of several of his own novels to the stsge. 
Oo3dan also wrote a romantic and picturesque description 
of the old manors and mansions of his country, entitled Lee 
Chdteaux de France, 4 vols. (1844), and a biographical 
essay on the great novelist Balzac ^1861). He was imMle a 
member of the legion of honour m 1846, and in 1859 an 
pfficer of that order. Louis Huart has published a sketeh 
of his life. 

Of the many novels which uninterruptedly dropped, as 
it were, from Gozlan's pen during a period of thirty-eight 
years, very few have the qualities which commend a work 
of fiction to posterity ; but nearly all are pleasant to read, 
and some wiU no doubt survive as an interesting and lively 
picture of French manners during the first half of this 
century. He holds an honourable place in the second 
rank of French novelists. 

GOZO. See Malta. 

GOZZI, Cablo, Coxtmt (1722-1806^, an Italian drama^ 
tisti was descended from an old Venetian family, and was 
bom in March 1722. Compelled by the embarrassed con- 
dition of his father's affairs to procure the means of self • 
support; he,^ at the age of sixteen, joined the army in 
Dalmatia ; but three years afterwards he returned to Venice, 
where he soon made a reputetion for himself as the wittiest 
member of the Granelleschi society, to which the publication 
of several satirical pieces had gained him admission. This 
society, nominally devoted to conviviality and wit, had also 
serious literary aims, and was especially zealous to preserve 
the Tuscan literature pure and unteinted by foreign in- 
fluencesi The displacement of the old Italian comedy by 
the dramas of Chiari and Goldoni founded on French 
models threatened defeat to all their efforte; and in 1767 
Gossi came to the rescue by publishing a satiriosl poem, 
Tartana degli influeti per Vanno hieeetiU, and in 1761 by 
his comedy, Fiaba ddPamore^ldle tre melaraneie, a parody 
of the manner of the two obnoxious poets, founded oo a 
fairy tale. For ite representation hid obtained the services 
of the Saochi company of players, who, on account of the 
popularity of the comedies of Chiari and Goldoni — which 
afforded no scope for the display of their peeuliar talents — 
had been left without employment ; and as their satirical 
powers were thus sharpened by personal enmity, the play 
met with extraordinary success. Struck by the effect pro- 
duced on the audience by the introduction of the super- 
natural or mythical element, which he had merely used as 
a convenient medium for his satirical purpoees, Gozzi now 
produced a series of dramatic pieces based on fairy tales, 
Wbich for a period obtained great popnlari^, bat after tlM 

breaking up of the 'Saochi company wore completely dis- 
regarded. They have, however, obtained high praise from 
Goethe, Schlegel, Madame de Stael, and Sismondi; and 
one of them, Be Tiirandoie, was translated by Schiller. In 
his later years Gozsi set himself to the production of tragedies 
LA which the comic element was largely introduced ; but aa 
this innovation proved unaccepteble to the critics, he had 
recourse to the Spanish dfama, from which he obtained^ 
models for various pieces which, however, met wilh only! 
equivocal success. He died 4th April 1806. ' 

Hii ooUdcted works were published under his own taperintend- 
ence, at Yenice, in 1702, in 10 volumes ; and his dramatic works, 
transUtad into German by Werthes, were pnblished at Bern in 
1796. See Gozzi'a work, JfemoHs inuHli delta vUa di Carlo Chzzi^ 
S ToU., Venice, 1797, translated into French by Psnl de Muasot, 
Paris, 1848; F. Horn, Ueber Ooaie dratncUiscKs Foetie, Venice, 
1808; Gherardini, FitadiOasp, Goad, 1821; " Charles Gozd," by 
Paul de llusset, in the Bemu du Deux 2fondes for 16th KoTcmber 
1844; and Ma^prini, Carlo Ooen • lafiabe: taggi tioriei, Uogrqfiei, 
4 erUid, Cremona, 1876. 

• GOZZI, Gaspabo, Comrr (171^1786), eldest brother 
of Carlo Gozzi, was bom 4th December 1713. In 1739 
he nuuriied the poetess Luise Bergalli, and she undertook 
the management of the theatre of San Angelp, Yenice, he 
supplying the performers with dramas chiefly translated 
from the French. The speculation proved unfortunate, 
but meantime he had attained a high reputation for his con- 
tributions to the Gazeetia Venela, and he soon came to be 
known as one of the ablest critics and purest and most 
elegant stylists in Italy. For a considerable period he 
was censor of the press in Venice, and in 1774 he was 
appointed to reorganise the university system at Padua. 
He died at Padua, 26th December 1786. 

His principal writings tre Os$ervalor« VenUa Periodieo, on the 
model of the English Spectator, and distingaished bj its high morml 
tone and its Hght and pleasant satire ; LeUere famigliari, a ^oUeo- 
tion of short racy pieces in prose and verse, on subjects of general 
interest ; Sermoni, poems in blank verse after the manner of Horace ; 
H mondo nuntUe, a personification of human passions with inwoven 
dialogues in the style of Ludan ; and Oiudixio dMli antiehi poeti 
eopra la wMdema eetuura di Dante, a defence of the ^at poet 
against the' attacks of Bettinelli. He also translated vanous works 
from the French and English, including Marmontel*s Take and 
Pope*8 Seeay on Critieism. His collected works were published at 
Venice, 170i-98, in 12 volumes, and several editions have appeaml 

GOZZOLI, Bekozzo, an eminent painter, was bom in 
Florence in 1424, or perhaps 1420, and in the early part 
of his career assisted Fra Angelico, whom he followed to 
Rome, and worked with at Orvieto. While in Rome, he 
executed, in the Cappella at Araeeli, a fresco of St Anthony 
and Two Angels. In 14i9 he left Angelico, and went to 
Montofalco, near Foligno in Umbria. In S. Fortunato, 
near IJontefalco, he painted a Madonna and Child with 
Saints and AngelB, and three other works. One of these, the 
altar-piece representing St Thomas receiving the Girdle of 
the^Yirgin, is now in the Latorsn Museum, and shows the 
affinity of Gozzoli's early style to Angelico'a He next 
painted in the monastery of St Francis, Montofaloo^ filling 
the choir with a triple course of subjecte from the life of tho 
saint, with various accessories, including heads of Dante^ 
Petrarch, and Giotto. This work was completed in 1452, 
and is still marked by the style of Angelico, erossed here 
and there with a more distinctly Giotteeque influence. In 
the same church, in the chapel of St Jerome, is a fresco by 
GozEoli of the Virgin and Saints, the Crucifixion, and other 
subjecte. He remained at Montefalco probably till 1456, 
employing Mesastris as assistant. Thence he went to 
Perugia, and painted in a church a Virgin and Saints, now 
in the local academy, and soon afterwards to his native 
Florence, the headquarters of art By the end of 1459 ha 
had nearly finished his important labour in the chapel of 
the F^lasao Riccardi, the Journey of the Magi to Bethlehem, 
and, in the tribaoe of this chapel, a compositioQ of iUigda 

G 11 A— G R A 


in k PanuiiBa. His pietnie in the London National Qallery, 
a Virgin and Child with Saints, 1461, belongs aUo to the 
period of his Florentine ssjoum. Another small picture in 
the same gaUerj, the Bape of Helen, is of dnbions anthen- 
ticitj. In 146i GozzoU left Florence for S. Gemignano, 
where he executed some extensiye works ; in the diurch 
of St AuguBtine, a composition of St Sebastian protecting 
the City from the Plague of this same year, 1464; over the 
entire dioir of the church, a triple course of scenes from the 
legends of St Augustine, from the time of his entering the 
school of Tegaste on td his burial, seventeen chief subjects, 
with some accessories ; in the Pieve di S. Gemignano^ the 
Martyrdom of Sebastian, and other subjects, and some 
further works in the city and its Ticinity. Here his style 
combined something of lippo Lippi with its original 
elements, and he received coK>peration from Oiusto d' Andrea. 
He stayed in this city till 1467, and then began, in the 
Campo Santo of Pisa, from 1469, the vust series of mural 
paintings with which lus name is specially identified. 
These are twenty-four subjects from the Old Testament, 
from the Invention of Wine by Noah to the Visit of the 
Queen of Sheba to Solomon. He contracted to paint three 
subjects per year, for about ten ducats each — a sum which 
maybe regarded as equivalent to £100 at the present day. It 
appears, however, that this contract was not strictly adhered 
to^ for Uie actual rate of painting was only three pictures in 
two years. Perhape the great midtitude of figures and acces- 
sories was accepted as a set-off against the slower rate of 
production. By January 1470 he had executed the fresco 
of Noah and his Family, — ^followed by the Curse of Ham, 
the Building of the Tower of Babel (which contains por- 
traits of Cosmo de* Medici, the young Lorenso, Poliziano, and 
others), the Destruction of Sodom, the Victory of Abraham, 
the Maniages of Bebecca and of Bachel,ihe life of Moses, 
&c In ^ Cappella Ammannati, facing a gate of the 
Gampo Santo, he painted also au Adoration of the Magi, 
wherein appears a portrait of himselt All this enormous 
mass of work,, in which Gozsoli was probably assisted 
by Zanobi Macchiavellf, was performed^ in addition to 
several other pictures during his stay in Pisa (we need 
only specify the Glory of St Thomas Aquinas, now in the 
Louvre), in sixteen years, lasting up to .1485. This b 
the latest date whidi can with certainty be assigned to 
Any work from his hand, although he is known to have 
boon alive up to 1496, if not afterwards. In 1478 the 
Pisan authorities had given him, as a token of their regard, 
a tomb in the Campo Santo. He had likewise a house of 
his own in Piaa, and houses and land in Florence. In 
rectitude of life be is said to have been worthy of his first 
master, Fra Angelico. 

The art of Gozsoli does not rival that of his greatest con- 
temporaries either in elevation or in strength, but is pre- 
eminently attractive by its sense of what is rich, winning, 
lively, and abundant, in the aspects of men and things. 
His landscapes, thronged with birds and quadrupeds, 
especially dogs, are more varied, circumstantial, and allur- 
ing than those of any predecessor; his compositions are 
crowded with figures, more characteristically true when 
happily and gracefully occupied than when the demands of 
the subject require tragic or dmmatic intensity, or turmoil 
of action; his colour is bright, vivacious, and festive. 
Gozzoli's genius was, on the whole, more vetsatile and 
assimilatiye than .vigorously original; his drawing not free 
from considerable imperfections, especially in the extremi- 
ties and articulations, and in the 'perspective of his 
gorgeously-schemed buildings. In fresco-painting he used 
the methods of tempera, ai^ the decay of his works has 
been severe in proportion. Of his untiring industry the 
recital of his labours, and the number of works produced, 
are the most forcible attestation. 

QBAAL. See Qaail. 

GBABE, JoHAHX Ebkst (1666-1711), a learned dirine 
of the Anglican Church, was bom July 10, 1666, at Konig^ 
betg, where his fatber, the author of somo treatises now 
forgotten, was professor of theology and history. In the 
course of his theological studies Grabe succeeded in per- 
suading himself of the schismatical character of the Bctfor- 
mation of the 16th centuiy, and accordingly presented to 
the consistory at Samland a memorial in which he compared 
the position of the evangelical Protestant churches with 
that of the Simonians, Novatians, and other ancient schis* 
matics. Hardly, however, had he resolved to join the 
Church of Borne, when his peace was again disturbed by 
Spener and others, who had pointed out some fiaws in his 
written argument, and called his attention to the En^sh 
Church as apparently possessing that apostolic succession, 
and manifesting that fidelity to ancient institutions, which 
he desired. In 1697, accordingly, he removed to London, 
and received priest's orders, attaching himself to the non- 
juring party. The learned labours to which the remainder 
of his Ufe was devoted were rewarded with an Oxford de- 
gree and a royal pension. He died on the 3d of November 
1711, and in 1726 a monument was erected to him by 
Lord Oxford in Westminster Abbey. 

8om« oeeoantof Grabe's life is ciTon by Dr Hickos in • ditcoana 
pielized to the^punphlet against Whi>ton*> Collection ^ TeatimonUt 
aoainti Uu Tnu 2>cUy nf th4 Son and of the Holy Ohod. Hia works, 
wniok shov him to have been learned and laborious but lomewhat 
deficient in critical aciunen, indnde a SpieiUgium SS. Fatrum M 
ffterdieoruM (1698-00), which was designed to corer tho first three 
oentories of the Christian church, but never was continued beyond 
the dose of t)«e second; editions of Jjuim*B Jjtologia PHwa (1700), 
of Iranaus, Adverwt omnu Scnxou (1702), and of tlie Septoagini 
{ra. TmL fuxta LXX. inUrmtes, 4 vols. foL, 1707-1720); also 
soma polemical pieces now of little impoztanoe. 

OBABOW, a town of Fomerauia, Prussia, government 
district of Stettin and circle of Bandow, is situated on the 
Oder below Stettin, and dosely adjoining its suburbs. 
Shipbuilding and the manufacture of machinery are tho 
prindpal industries, and there is also a considerable ship- 
ping trade. Grabovr did not acquire the rank of a town 
till 1855. The population in 1875 was 10,238. 

GBAOCHUS is the name of a family of tho Qens 
Sempronia. To this family there attaches a remarkably 
sweet and lovable nature, which, combined with their high 
character and ability, makes their history the most charming 
page in the Boman annals. Tiberius Sempronius Qracchus 
was appointed magister equitum after the battle of Canuss, 
and held the consuUhip in 215 and Sid b.c. During the 
great weakness that followed the defeat at Cannn the re- 
solute and judicious generalship by which he ably seconded 
Fabius did much to maintain a courageous attitude at Bome. 
He raised some legions of daves ; and his generous conduct 
kept them together and made th«m important in the war. 
After several successes he was betrayed by a Lucanian into 
the hands of Mago, and having fallen in the battle that 
ensued, he was honoured with a maffuificent burial by 
Hannibal. Another Tiberius, bom about 210, married 
Cornelia, the daughter of Scipio Africanus, who is famous 
as the highest type of Boman matron. As praetor and pro* 
praetor, Gracchus governed Hither Spain from 181 to 178. 
He conquered the Cdtiberi, and by his magnanimous and 
kindly treatment of the Spaniards niade a lastisg impression 
on them. He was consul in 1 77 and 1 63. In 1 69, as cetisor, 
his review of the senate and equites was very strict; but 
though his oolleaffue became unpopular, Gracchus remained 
as' much esteemed ss ever. He enjoyed a hi^ reputation 
for his power of calming down internal seditions and con* 
dilating foreign enemies of the state. One of his daughters 
became the wife of Scipio Africanus the younger ; whUe his 
two sons, Tiberius and Gains, famous besides for having do- 
teimined the history of T&dSA% at a critical point, are as rt* 

XL — 4 


G R A — G 11 A 

markable for tlhd cliann of their personal character and for 
the careful edacation given them by their widowed mother. 
Tiberias served as qtuestor in Spain in 137 ; and the respect 
still- entertained by the Spaniards for his father's name 
enabled him to save the Roman army from atter rain after 
its defeat by the Namantines. See Romak Uistobt. 

GRACES is the name generally given to the Greek 
goddesses Charites. The chief seat of their worship was 
the ancient Boeotian city Orchomenns. They were three 
in nnmber, but their names were not known ; and stones 
fallen from heaven stood in their temple as symboU of the 
goddesses ^aus., iz. 35). Their worship wss institu^ 
by a king Eteocles, whose three daughters fell into a well 
while dancing in honour of the Charites (Westermann, 
Ifyth, Gr,^ p. 387). In no Greek legend ii the pre-Greek 
Indo-Germanic character more strongly marked. Eteocles, 
he whose glory is real, is the Yedic Satya^ravos, the sun ; 
and his genealogy consists of a string of epithets for 
sun and dawn. Charis (Skt hari^ bright), is an old 
ac^eetive, originally an epithet of the light-illumined 
clouds which seem to escort the dawn, often applied in the 
Rig-Veda to the horses of the dawn or of the sun, and at 
last growing into a distinct deity who preserves the char- 
acter of the ancient dawn-goddess (see Miiller, Led, Lang., 
il ; Sonne in Euhui Z/L, z.). The burning bright v<ua$ 
(Ushas, 4w¥, Aurora, with a different suffix Ostara, Easter) 
— who restores the blessings lost during the night, who 
lights up what, was dark and reveals the hidden wrong, 
who gives active labour and wealth to men, growth and 
fertility to plants — had been from the earliest time the 
centre of a great worship To appearance these religious 
ceremonies have been lost in Greece ; and in a people so 
retentive of all that relates to religion, this implies merely 
that the worship of the dawn has been changed in out- 
ward form. Eos is of slight importance; but Charts, 
Hebe^ Aphrodite (in so far as the genuine Greek goddess 
has not given way to the Oriental deity) preserve and 
develop the original idea. Charis then was the goddess 
of the freshness and vigour of life, of fertility and growth; 
like Aphrodite, she closely resembles Persephone > (see 
Gerhard, Venus Proserpina), and in later art the Graces 
often hold com ears in their hands; like Hebe, she is 
often associated with Hera (see Whicker, Gr. Gdit,^ iiL 
174). The single goddess grew into a triad, as occurs 
often in Greek mythology; in Sparta, however, and in 
Athens only two Charites were known. Rites of peculiar 
antique character belong to the worship of the Charites : 
in Orchomenus nightly dances took place in their honour 
(compare the legend of Eteocles*s daughters, who obviously 
are bye- forms of the goddesses) ; in Faros their worship was 
celebrated without music or garlands; in Messene they 
were worshipped along with the Eumenides; in Athens 
their rites secret from the vulgar were held at the entrance 
of the Acropolis ; one swore by the Charites as one did by 
the deities of the lower world (Pollux, viiL 106). Far as 
these characteristics seem removed from the nature of a 
dawn-goddess we find a similar double character in many 
other cases, such as Artemis-Hecate. They are thus brought 
into the cycle of older more purely nature worship, which 
wo find in Greece alongside of the more moral religion of 
the Olympian deities, and which has in mythology its 
counterpart in the older generation of Titans destroyed by 
the younger gods. The Charites were received into the 
Olympian Pantheon only in a subordinate character. In 
Homer we have a transitional stage ; they appear some- 
times as distinct independent beings, one b^ng wife of 
Hephaestus, another of Sleep (IL, xvilL 332, ziv. 231) ; 
often they are a set of nymphs attending on Aphrodite, 
herself then wife of Hephestus (Od, viii, 364, &c.). The 
4awn is naturally the wife of Hephsdstus, the firo of the sun 

in heaven and of the morning sacrifice on eartL In hlet 
literature this second form prevaik. Obviously the noun 
chart* and the connected verbs and substantives, which 
existed abngside of the mythological name, exercised a 
continually growing influence on it The Charites become 
then the impeiAonation of the bloom of all sensuous ap- 
pearance, of grace and cheerfulness, both in nature and in 
moral action. They form part of the train attendant on 
the greater gods, especially Aphrodite and Apollo. Their 
names, AgUia, Euphrosyne, and Jhalia, occur first in 
Hesiod (Theog,, 907). Pindar, however, following the 
Boeotian oelief, celebrates them (Of., xiv.) as the queens of 
glittering Orchomenus and as the guardian-goddesses of 
the ancient Minya. In art they were represented in earlier 
time as draped goddesses with varying attributes; gradually 
the one well-known conception predominated of the three 
beautiful nude figures gracefully intertwined. • Jaoobi 
(W6rterh, d. Myth!) gives a very complete list of ancient 

GRACKLE (Latin, Graeeuiut or Graeulue), a word which 
has been much used in ornithology, but generally in a vague 
sense^ though restricted to members of the families Stumidce 
belonging to the Old World, and Icieridce belonging to the 
New. Of the former those ^o which it has been most 
oommonly applied are the species variously known ss Mynas, 
Mainas, and Minors of India and the adjacent countries, 
and especially the Graevia religiota of Linnaeus, who, 
according to Jerdon and others, was very probably led to 
confer this epithet npon it by confounding it with tfao 
Stumut or Aeridotheree triitie,^ which is re^rded by the 
Hindus as sacred to Ram Deo, one of their deities, while 

Oraeuia rdigioio. 

the true Oraeuia religiosa does not seem to be anywhere 
held in veneration. This last is about 10 inches in lengtli, 
dothod in a plumage of glossy black, with purple and green 
reflexions, and a conspicuous patch of white on the quill- 
feathers of the wings. The bill is orange and the legs yellow, 
but the bird's most characteristic feature is afforded by thx) 
curious wattles of bright yellow, which, beginning behind 
the eyes, run backwards in form of a lappet on each side^ 
and then return in a narrow stripe to the top of the head. 
Beneath each eye also is a bare patch of the same colour. 
This species is common in southern India, and is tDpresonted 
further to-tha north, in Ceylon, Burmah, and some of the 

^ By tome wxittrs tli« Unla of tite gcuers Aerideihent imd 
Tewmmchut ara eoni^red to b« tli« trne Mjhm, and the spacies of 
(TriKifto SIS ciUtd "UUlHxoss" ^y way of disttnctifliL 



Maky Islands 1>y eogoAto formi. They an all f ragiyoroiu, 
andy being easilj tamed and learning to prononnee words 
Veiy distinctly, are faToorite cage-birds.^ 

In tUe New World the name Orackle has been applied 
to seTeral species of the genera Scolccophagu$ and (^nMco/m, 
though these are more commonly called in the United States 
and Canada ** Blackbirds," and some of them <« Boat-tails." 
They all bdong to the family leteridm. The bsat known of 
these are the Rnsty Grackle^ & ferrugimut^ which perrades 
' almost the whole of Korth America, and Q. fmrpurew^ the 
Purple Grackle or Crow-Blackbird, of more limited range, 
fur though abundant enough in most parts to the east of 
the Rocky Mountains, it seems not to appear on the Pacific 
aide. There is also Brewer's or the Blue-headed Qrackle, 
& cj^anocepkaltiM, which has a more western range^ not oc- 
curring to the eastward of Kansas and Minnesota. A. fourth 
•peeiea, Q. nuy'or, is also found to iohabit the Atlantic States 
as far as North Carolina. All these birds are of exceedingly 
omnivorous habit, and though undoubtedly destroying la^e 
onmben of pernicious insects are in many places held in bad 
repute from the mischief they do to the corn-crops, (a. k.) 

QEIACIAN, Baltazaa (1584-1658), one of the princi- 
pal ** coltistas ** or Spanish prose writers of the school of 
Oongora, was bom at Calatayud, Aragon, in 1584. Little 
is known of his personal history except that on attainikg 
to manhood he entered the Society of Jesus, and that ulti- 
mately he became rector of the Jesuit College at Tarragona, 
where he died in 1658. His principal works are JSl Uiro$ 
(1630), written in short compact sentences, which has been 
described as a sort of recipe for making a hero; La Agudaa^ 
f ArU d$ Inff€MO (1648), a sort of art of poetry or system 
of rhetoric in which the principles of ^'Oongorism" are 
inculcated ; Crilieon (1650-53), an allegory in which, under 
the imagery of \he seasons of the year, the course of human 
life is described; JBl Duereto, a delineation of the typical 
character of a courtier ; Oraeulo JJanwU^ a system of rules 
for the conduct of life. Uis works, which have been often 
reprinted in Spanish under the name of his brother Lorenio^ 
h:ive also fur the most part been translated into French and 
Italian. The Oraeulo Manual has been translated into 
German by A. Schopenhauer (1863), and into English 
anonymously (Courtiet^i Manual Oracle, 1684). The 
Hero also occurs in English (from the French, 1726). 
Qracian's merits as a writer have been very differently 
eetimatfid by his critics, and it is probable that from none 
of them has he received strict justice. If his st^le is hardly 
so bombastic, involved, and obscure as his enemies represent 
it, neither can he in fairnoes receive all that credit for depth 
and originality of thought which is claimed for him by his 
friends. As examples of the widely differing appreciations 
which have been passed upon him, see Ticknor's Spanitk 
lAUraiure^ vol liL, and Mr Grant Duff's J/acf/^Ai^t (1878). 

QRADISCA, a town of Austria, in the principality of 
Gors and Oradisca, situated about iO mQes S.W. of Oors, 
on the right bank of the Isonzo. It was formerly a strongly 
fortified place, but its citadel is now occupied as a prison. 
The inhabitants of the commune, who numbered in 1869 
rather more than 3000, are engaged in silk-spinning. Be- 
tween 1471 and 1481 Oradisca was fortified by tlie 
Venetians, but in 1511 they surrendered it to the imperial 
forcea. In 1647 Oradisca and its territory, including 
Aqnileia and forty-three smaller pkces, was erected into a 
prince^sountship in favour of the prince of Eggenberg. 
It lapsed in 1717 to the imperial crown, and in 1754 was 
completely incorporated with Oors. The name was revived 
by the constitution of 1861, which esUblished the crown- 
la nd of the conntship of Gdrs a nd Oradisca. See OOnz. 

^ Tor a valubte uonogniph on th« rarions •pwlM of OnuMla ud 
ftm ttUSM IM Prof. 8cli1e«er> D/Jdnifft tot d» K«H«i» «m hH Oeaeh- 
IcMki Bm {Kak/ioMtUck T^idtehrijt ton- de Dierhmde, L pp. 1 -»>. 

ORADUATCON is tlie name given to the aH of dividhig 
straight scales, circular arcs, or whole circumferences into 
any reqiiired number of equal parts. It is the must hn* 
portent and difficult part of th« work of the mathematleal 
instrument maker, and is required in the cunslraction of 
most physical, astronomical, nautical, and surveying instru- 
ments, such as thermometer' scales, linear measuriug instru' 
ments, quadrants, sextants, mural circles, tlieodolitus, ^c 

The art was, undoubtedly, first practised by clockuiakcra 
for cutting the teeth of their wheels at regnlor intervals ; but 
so long as it was confined to them, no particular delicacy 
or accurate nicety in its performance was required. TItis 
only arose when astronomy began to be seriously stodicd, 
and the exact position of the heavenly bodies to be deter- 
mined, which created the necessity for strictly accuimto 
means of measuring linear and angular magnitude. Then 
graduation began to be looked upon as an art which required 
special talents and training, and hence we find that all the 
best artists have spent their best efforts on the perfecting 
of astronomical instruments. Of these may be named 
Abraham Sharp, Bird, Smeaton, Bamsden, the Duo de 
Chanlnes, John and Edward Troughton, Simms, and Rtm. 

It is obvious that the first graduated instrument mast 
have been done by the hand and eye alone, whether it was 
in the form of a straight-edge with equal divisions^ or a 
screw, or a divided plate ; but, once in the possession of 
one such divided instrument, it was a comparatively easy 
matter to employ it as a standard, and copy its divisions %m 
any other article that might l>e desired. Hence graduatiun 
naturally divides itself into two distinct branches, oru/imtl 
graduation and copying, which latter may be done either 
by the hand or by a machine called a dividing engine. 
We may thns speak of graduation under the throe heads 
of original graduation, copying, and machine graduaiUm, 

Original Graduation, — ^This is by far the most difficult 
part of the art — so difficult, indeed, and requiring such 
accuracy of hand and eye, that but few in any generation 
have been completely competent for the task. &e earlier 
astronomers graduated their own instruments, and, from 
the examples that have eome down to us, it must have been 
very roughly done as compared with modem work. 

In regard to the graduation of straight scales, we have^ 
by elementary geometry, the means, theoretically, of divid- 
ing a straight line into any number of equal parts ; but the 
practical carrying out of the geometrical construction is so 
beset with difficufties as to render the method untrustworthy. 
This method, which employs the common diagonal scale, 
was used in dividing a quadrant of 3 feet radius, which 
belonged to Napier of Merchiston, and which only read to 
minutes— a result, say Thomson and Tait (Kat, PhiL), 
''giving no greater accuracy than is now attainable by the 
pocket sextants of Troughton and Simms^ the radius at 
whose aro is little more than an incL* 

The original graduation of a straight line is, in practioe, 
dune either by the method of continual bisection or by 
stepping. In continual bisection the entire length of the 
line is first laid down. Then, as nearly as possible, half 
that distauce is taken in the beam-compass and marked off 
by faint arcs from each end of the line. Should these marke 
coincide the exact middle point of the line is obtained. If 
not, as wOl almost always be the case, the distance between 
the marks is carefully bisected by hand with the aid of a 
magnifying glsss. llie same process is again applied to the 
halves thus obtained, and so on in succession, dividing the 
line into parta represented by 2, 4, 8, 16, d^, till the desired 
divisions are reached. In the method of stepping the 
smallest division required is fint taken, as accurately'as 
possible, by spring dividers, and that diBtance is then laid 
uff, by suocassivo steps, from one end of the line. It is 
evident that» in this method, any error at startinsr will ho 



maltiplied at etcli division by ilie number of that di?ition. 
Errors so mado are nsnallj adjnsted bj the dots being put 
either bieV; or forirard a little bj means of the dividing 
paneh gaided bj a msgnifyiog glass. This is an extremely 
tedious proeess, as the dotS| when so altered several times, 
are apt to get insuffeinbly large and shapeless. ^ 

The division of circular arcs is essentially the same in 
principle as the graduation of straight lines, and of this we 
shall now give some examples. 

The lint czampio of noto u tho 8-foot mural circle whieh waa 
gradnatod bj Graham t(tt tho National Obaenratory in 1725. In 
this two concontrio area of radii 06*85 and 95*8 inchoa roapeotivoly 
veia firtt doscribcd bj the beam-compan. On tho inner of thcso 
tho Arc of 00* was to bo diridcd into drgrcca and 12th parta of a 
d^;rec, whilo the lame on tho outer waa to be diridod into 08 equal 
parts, and those again into 16th partsi Tho roawn for adoj>ting 
the lattor^was that, 06 an 1 16 being both powers of 2, tho dirunons 
eoold bo ffot at by continual bisection alone, which, iii Graham's 
opinion, wno first employed it, Is the only accurate method, and 
would thus aerre as a check upon the aecuraov of the diviaions of 
tho outer arc With the lamo distaneo on the beam-compass aa 
was used to describo tho inner arc, laid off from 0*, tho pout 60* 
was at onoo determined. With the points 0* and 60* as oentres 
suceessirelr, and a distance on tho beam-compass very nearly 
buectiag the are of CO*, two alight marha wore made on the are ; 
tho distance botw.»pn these marlcs was carefully divided by the 
hand aided by a lens, anl this gave tho point SO*. The chord of 
80* laid off f^om the ^lotnt 80* giTo tho point 00*, and tho quadrant 
was now diride-l into three equal parts. Each of those parta was 
simiUrlj biso^tol, and the resulting diriaiona again trisected, giving 
18 parts of 5* each. Ea-'h of these quinquesectod gave degrees, the 
121 n parta of which were arrived at by bisecting and triMcting as 
before. Tho outer arc was divide I by continual bisection alone, 
and actable was eonstrueto I by which the readings of the one aro 
could be conrcrtod into those of tho other. After the dots indi- 
cating the required divisions were obtained, cither atraight strokea 
all directed towards the centre were drawn through them by the 
diridinff knife, or sometimes small Srca were drawn through theiU 
by the beam-eompau having its fixe I point somewhere on tho line 
which was a tangent to the quadrantal aro at tho point where a 
division was to be marked. 

Tho next important example of graduation was done by Bird in 
1767. Hie quadrant, whieh was also 8 feet radiua, waa divided 
into dr^o«>s and 12th parts of a degree. He employed the method 
of continual bisection aided by chords taken from an exact scale of 
equsl parts, which could read to '001 of an inch, and which ho had 
proTiously graduated by continual bisections. With the beam- 
compass an aro of radius 05*038 inchoa was first drawn. From this 
radios the chords of SO*, 15*, 10* 20', 4* 40', and 42* iO'were com- 
putod, and each of them by means of the scale of equal parts laid 
off on a aeparato boasn-compass to bo readv. The ndiua laid off 
from 0* gave the poiift 60* ; by tho chord or 80* tho are of 60* was 
bisected ; from the noint 80* the radius laid off gave the point 00* ; 
tho chord of 16* lain off backwards from 00* save the point 75* ; 
from 75* was laid. off forwards the chord of 10* 20^ ; and from 00* 
was laid off bsekwards the chord of ^ 40' ; and these wero found to 
ooincide in the point 85* 20'. Now 85* 20' boin^ - 5' x 1024 - 5' x 2**, 
the final diriaiona of 85* 20' were found by continual bisections. For 
the remainder of the quadrant beyond 86* 20^, containing 56 divi- 
siona of 5' each, the ehord of 64 such dirislons was laid off from 
the point 85* 40'. and the corresponding aro divided by continual 
bisectiona as before. There was thus a severe eheek upon the 
aeonraey of the points already found, viz., 15*, 80*, 60*, 75*, 00*, 
whieh, however, were found to coincide with the corresponding 
points obtained by oontinnal bisections. The short lines throngh 
the dots were drawn in the way already mentioned. 
< Tho next eminent artists in original graduation are tho brothers 
John and Edward Troughtou. The former was the first to devise a 
means of graduating tho quadrant by continual bisection without 
the aid of such a scale of equal parts ss was used by Bird. His 
method was as follows :— 'The radius of the quadrant laid off f^m 
0' Mve tho point 60*. Thia aro bisected and tho half laid off hom 
60'^gave tho point 00*. Tho aro between 60* and 00* bisected gave 
75*; the aro botween 75* and 00* biaocted gave the point 82* 80', 
and the aro between 82' 80' and 00* bisected gave the point 86* 15'. 
Further, the aro between 82* SO' and 86* 15' trisected, and two- 
thirds of it taken beyond 82* SO', gave the point 85*, whilo the arc 
between 85* and 86* 15' also trisected, and one»third part laid off 
beyond 85*, Kara the point 85* 25' Lastly, the aro oetween 8f* 
and 85* 25* being ouinqufseeted, and fonr-fiftha taken beyond 85*, 
gave 85* 20^, whien as before is - 5' x 2**, and so can be finally 
divided by eontinual bisection. 

Sdward Trwtgkton'$ if€ihod.—Th» method of original gfaduation 
discovered by Edward Troughton is fully described in the PAilo- 
90f^Ual 'Tranaactiott for 1800, ss employed by himself to divide a 

meridian olrelo of 4 foot ladlaa. The e(rel4 1HS first aeeurstely 
tamed both on its face and ite inner an I outer edg^s. A roller 
waa next provided of auoh diamet-r that it revolved 16 times on 
its own axis while made to roll once roun I tho outer edge of th* 
cirelo. Thla roller, mado movable on pivots, wu attached to a 
frame-work, whieh could bo slid freely, yet tightly, along the circle, 
the roller meanwhile revolving, I y mcano of fiietional contact, on 
the outer edge. The roller vas also, after having b*en properlj 
adjusted as to slao, divided as accurately as possible into 16 equal 
parts by Uncs parallel to ita axis. Whuo the ihime carrying the 
roUor waa movod onco round aionf the drole, tho jioints of contact 
of tho roUor^ivisions with tho circle wero aceurately observed by 
two microseoiiea attached to the frame, one of which (which ww 
shall call H) commanded the ring on the cirelo near its cdgc^ 
which was to receive the diviaions, and tho other viewed the roller- 
diviaiona. The exact points of contact thus ascertained were marked 
with faint dots, and the meridian circle therel y divided into 250 
Tory nearly equal parts. ' 

The next part of the oiwratlon wsa to find out and tabulate tho 
errors of these dota, whieh are called appannt errors, in conao* 
quonco of fhe error of each dot being aooertained on tho supposition 
of its neifthboura boinff all correct For this purxxMo two micro- 
scopes (which we shall call A and B) wero taken, with cross wires 
and micrometer adjustments, consisting of a screw and head 
divided into 100 divisions, 50 of which read in the one and 60 in 
the opposite direction. Those microscopes, A and B, were flxod so 
that their cross-i^res respectively bisected the dots and 128, 
which were aupposod to bo diametrically opposite, llie circle waa 
now turned hall- way round on its axis, so that dot 128 coincided 
with the wire of A, and, should dot bo found to eoincido with B, 
then the two dots woro euro to bo 160* apart If not, the cross 
wire of B waa moved till it coincided with dot 0, and the number 
of divisions of tiio micrometer head noted. Half thia number gave 
clearly the enor of dot 128, and it waa tabulated 4- or -accordiivs 
aa the arcual distance botwoon and 128 was found to exceed or 
fall abort of tho remaining part of the circumference. Tho micro- 
scope B was now shifted, A remaining opposite dot as before, till 
ita wire bisected dot 64, and, by giving the circle one quarter of a 
turn on its axis, tho difference of tho area botween dota and 64 
and between 64 and 128 was obtained. The half of this difference 
gave the apparent error of dot 64, whieh was tabulated with its 
proper sign. With the microscope A still in the same position the 
error of dot 102 waa obtained, and in the same way by shifting B to 
dot 82 the errors of dots 82, 06, 160, and 224 were successively 
aacertained. By proceeding in thie way the apparent errors of all 
the 256 dots woro tabulated. 

From thia table of apparent errors a table of real erion was drawn 
up by employing the following form ala :— 

Kx. + x,) -ha— the real error of dot 5, 
where c. is the real error of dot a, r, the real error of dot c. and s 
tho apparent error of dot h midway between a and e. Thus having 
got the real errors of any two dots, tho table of apparent errors gives 
tho meana of findinc tho real errors of all the other dots. 

The above formuU is easily derived as follows : — 

Lola and e be the numb^ of micrometer divisions from to dots 
a and e respectively ; and let h bo the number of aimilar divisions 
from to tho pomt 5, supposed to be midway betwoen a and c. 
Alao lot mm end «. be tho ml errozs of dots a and «, and a the 
apparent error of 5. Then we have 

a-6-a-J(o-a)-5-J(a + e). 

Now tho real positions of o and e are a - x. and e - «, respectively. 
Therefore the real position of 5, the point midway between o and 
and e^ is 


Therefore the xesl enor of I 

-> -'real position of 5 

- 5 - 4(a + •) + l(ar. +«.)-» + 1(*. + «•)• 

Having obtained the 256 dots and their real erron, tho third and 

last part of Troughton'a process was to employ thom to cut the 

final divisions of the circle, whioh « ere to bo spaoes of 5' ^ch. 

Now the mean interval between any two dots is ■■■ - 5' x 16|, 

and henee, in the final division, this interval must bo divided into 
16} equal parta. In order to aooompliah this a email instrument, 
called a aoDdividing eeotor, waa provided. It was formed of thin 
brass and had a nuuus about four times that of tho roller, but mado 
adjustable as to length. Tho seotor waa placed eonoeutrieally on 
the axis, and reatsd on the upper end of the roller. It turned by 
frictional adhesion along with the roller, but at the aame time was 
suffleiontly loose to allow of its being moved back by hand to any 
podtion without affecting the roller. Now it ia evident that, while 
the roller passes over aa snjpilar space equal to the moan interval 



betvwn two doti. any point of iba Motor mnat ptv ova 16 
tim«8 that interrai, that la to aaj, orer an angla repreacnted by 

^xU~2Sr9ff. T]ii8interTalw«atlianfondi?id«dl)7l0|,and 

aipaoe equal to 16 of the parte taken. Thia waa laid off on the arc 
of the eector and coreftillj divided into 16 equal narta, each e^nal 
to r 20'; and, in order to proTide for the neceeeaiy ftha of a diriaton^ 
there vaa laid off at each end of the eector, and beyond the 16 
equal parta, two of tiioee parte each aobdinded into 8 eqnal parte. 
A microBcope trith cross wires, which we shall call I waa placed on 
the main frame, eo aa to command a Tiew of the eector oiTisionai 
just aa the microseope H viewed the final diviaiona of the dicle. 
Before the first or zero mark waa eat, the zero of the eector waa 
brooght under I and then the division cut at the point on the circle 

indiMted by H, which also coincided with the dot 0. The frame 
VIS then alippcd along the circle by the elow aerew motion provided 
for the parpoee» till vm first sector-division, by the action of the 

roller, was Drought under I. The eecond mark waa then cut on the 
citde at the point indicated by H. That the marks thua obtained 
an 5' apart, aa they ahould be, ia evident when we reflect that the 
distance betareen tnem must he ^th of a diviaion on the aection 
which by conatruetion ia 1* SO'. By proceeding in thia way the 
firrt 16 diviaiona were cut; but before cutting the 17th it waa 
nacessaiy to adjust the micrometer wiree of H to the real error of 
dot 1, aa indicated by the table, and bring back the eector, not to 
zero, but to ^th short of aero. Starting from this position the 
diridons between dots 1 and 2 were next filled in,^ and then H waa 
■djnrted to the real error of dot 2, and the eector brought back to 
its proper division before commencing the third coursa. By pro- 
eeeoing in this manner through the whole circle, the ** 

vss fijully found with its wire at zero, and the aeetor with ita 16th 
diTision under ita microaoope indicatuig that the circle had been 
aocorately divided. 

Copying. — In graduation by copying the first requisite is 
a pattern^ which must be either an accarately divided 
straight scale, or an accurately divided circle, commoDly 
called a dividing plate, 

la copying a straight scale the pattern and scale to be 
divided, usually called the work, are first fixed side by side, 
with their upper faces in the same phine. The dividing 
aquare, which closely resembles an oidinary joiner's square, 
is then laid across both, and the point of the dividing knife 
dropped into the zero division of the pattern. The square 
is now moved up dosa to the poi|it of the knife; and, while 
it is held firmly in this position by the left hand, the first 
division on the work is made by drawing the knife along 
the edge of the square with the right Imnd. Great care 
must be taken that the knife is held ozacdy in the same 
position in cutting the division and in setting the square. 

It frequently happens that the divisions required on a 
scale are either greater or less than those on the pattern. 
To meet this case, and still use the same pattern, the work 
must be fixed at a certain angle of inclination vrith the 
pattern. This angle is easily found in the following way. 
Take the exact ratio of a division on the pattern' to the re- 
quired divuion on the scale. Call this ratio a. Then, if 
the required divisions are longer than those of the pattern, 
the angle is cos^'o, but, if shorter, the angle is seC^a. In 
the former case two operations are required before the divi- 
aions are cut : first, the square is laid on the pattern, and 
the corresponding divisions merely notched very faintly on 
the edge of the work; and, secondly, the square is applied to 
the work and the final divisions drawn opposite each faint 
notch. In the second case^ that is, when the angle is sec'^o, 
the dividing square is applied to the work, and the divisions 
cut when the edge of the square coincides with the end of 
each division on the pattern. 

In copying circles use is made of the <Uviding plate. 
Thia is a circular phite of brass, of 36 incEes or more 12! 
diameter, carefullj graduated near its outer edge^ It is 
tamed quite flat, ai^ has a steel pin fixed exactly in its 
centre, and at right angles to ita plane. For guiding the 
dividing knife an instrument called an index is employed. 
This consists of a straight bar of thin steel of length eqiml to 
the radius of the plate. A piece of metal, having a V notch 
with ita 0Q||le a vi^hlt angle, is riTeted Xq one «nd of the bar 

in rach a position tihat the Tertex of the notdi is exactly in a 
line with the edge of the steel bar. In tUs way, when the 
index is laid on the plate, with the notch grasping the cen- 
tral pin, the straight edge of the steel bar Ues exactly along 
a radius. The work to be graduated is laid fiat on the divid- 
ing plate, and fixed by two clamps in a position exactly con- 
centric with it The index is now laid on, with its odge 
coinciding with any required division on the dividing plate, 
and the corresponding division on the work is cut by draw- 
ing the dividing knife 4ilong the straight edge of the index. 
Machine Graduaium, — The first dividing engine was 
probably that of Heniy Bindley of York, constructed ia 
1740, and used for the most part by him for cutting the 
teeth of dock wheels. This was followed shortly after by 
an engine devised by the Due de Chaulnes ; but tHe first 
engine which obtained distinct notoriety was that made 
by Ramsden, of which an account was published by tlie 
Board of Longitude in 1777. He was rewarded by that 
board with a sum of £300, and a further sum of X315 was 
given to him on condition that he would divide, at a certain 
fixed rate, the instruments of other makers. The essential 
principles of Bamsden's machine haye been repeated in 
almost all succeeding engines for dividing cirdes, and it 
will be well, therefore, to give a brief description of it 

It conaiated of a large braea plate 46 inchea in diameter, carefully 
turned, and movable on a vertioal azia. The edge of the plate waa 
ratehed with 8160 teeth, into which a tangent acrsw worked, by 
meana of which the pUte could be made to turn through any 
required angle. Thua aix tuma of the acxew moved the plate 
through 1*, and ^th of a turn through vf«th of a degree. On the 
axia of the taa(;ant acrew waa placed a cylinder having a apinl 
groove out on ita anrfaca. A ratchet-wheel containing 60 teetli 
waa attached to thia cylinder, end waa ao arranged that, when the 
cylinder moved in one direction, it carried the tenant screw with 
i^ and ao turned the plate, but when it moved m the oppoaito 
direction, it left the tangent ecrew, and with it the plate, 
stationary. Bound the epinu groove of the cylinder a catgut band 
waa wound, one end of which waa attached to a treadle and the 
other to a connteipoiae weight When the treadle waa depreaaed 
the tangent aerew tuned round, and when the preeanre waa 
removed it returned, in obedience to the weight, to ita former poai- 
tion without affecting the acrew. Proviaion waa alao made whereby 
certain atopa could m placed in the way of the ecrew, which only 
allowed it the requiaite aAount of turning according to the gradua- 
tion required. The work to be divided waa firmly fixed on the 
plate, uid made oonoentrio with it The diviaiona were cut, while 
the acrew waa atationarr, by meena of a dividing knife attached to 
a awing fhme, which allowed it to have only a radial motion. In 
thia way the artist could divide vwy rapidly by alternately depress- 
ing the treadle and working the dividing Imife. 

Ramsden also constructed a linear dividing engine on 
essentially the same principle. If we imagine the rim of 
the circiUar plate with its notches stretdied out into a 
sUaight line and made movable in a straight slot, the 
screw, treadle, &c., remaining as before, we shall get a very 
good idea of the linear engine. 

In 1793 Sdward Troughton finished a circular dividing 
engine, of which the plate was smaller than in Bamsden's, and 
wUch differed considerably otherwise in simplifjring matters 
of detail. The plate wos originally divided by Troughton's 
4>wn ingenious method, already described, and the divisions 
so obtained were employed to ratch the edge of the plate 
for receiving the tangent screw with great accuracy. 

In the Traneactione of the Society of ArU for lb30>31 
there is a foil description, with illustrative figures, of a 
dividing engine, constructed by Andrew Boss, which differs 
considerably from those of lUmsden and Troughton. 

The eeaential point of difference ia that, in Bosa'a engine, the 
tangent acrew doea not turn the engine plate ; that ia done by an 
independent apparatua, and the function of the tangent aerew ie 
only to atop tne plate after It haa paaaed through the required 
angular interval between two diviaiona on the work to be ^rsdnated. 
Bound the droumference of the plate are fixed 48 projectiona which 
iuat look aa if the drcumfereace had been divided into aa manv 
deep and somewhat peculiarly ahaped notchea or teeth. Through 
M^ of theaa teeth a bole ia bored parallel to the plane of the ^t^ 


G R M — Q R M 

ukd iIm to & tiagakt to its draumfemnea. Into theM boks u» 
■orawedrteelicrewi with oapgtvi headland flat floda. The tangent 
aerew oonaitta only of a single torn of a large aqnara thread whidi 
works in the teeth or notches of the plate. This thread is pierced 
bj 90 eqnallj distant holea» all parallel to the axis of the screw, 
and at the same distance IVom it Into each of these holes is 
inserted a steel screw exaotlj similar to those in the teeth, hat with 
its end rounded. It is the roonded and flat ends of these sets of 
screws coming together that stop the engine pUto at the desired 
positioo, and the exact point can be nioelj a4ja8ted by suitably 
laming the screws. 

la the Mmnoin of the Attronomical Socidp, of date Jane 
1843, % deseriptioa is given of a dividing engine made by 
William Simms. From experience -be became convinced 
tbot to co^ upon smaller circles the divisions which bad 
been pat npon a Urge plato with very great accaracy was not 
only more expeditions bat better than original graduation, 
and hence be determined to constrnct a machine which wonld 
do this work as perfectly as possible. That machine involved 
essentially the same principle as Tronghtun's, and, with 
some slight modifications, is at present to be seen at work 
in tlie workshop of the eminent firm of Tronghton ^n Simms 
al Charlton near London. The accompanying fignre is 
taken by permission from a photograph of tliat iastromect 

DividijQg Bngiae. 
The plat^ A Li 16 indheft id ^Uniotof » arid is composed of gon-metal 
east in one m\ Id piecst 1 1 hoa two wti of 6' divisions— one very faint 
on an inlaid ring of »ilTer, lad tbo pther stronger on the gan metaL 
Theee vere put on by odgiim! gt^ nation, mainly on the plan of 
Edward Trough ton. Ono vory fjreat improroment in this enirineis 
that the axi bB u tabuW, ta aeea at C. The object of this hollow is 
to receiTo \h^ axu of thti dft^ls U> be divided, eo that it can be fixed 
fliat to tha plate bt tho dajnpa E, without havixig first to be de- 
tached from tkQ ^is nod otber pu^ to which it hss alread;r been 
earef ally h ttcd. Tb i a o b . intes th e nereidty for reaettinj^ which can 
baldly be do&e without soiae erz^;. i> is uie tenant screw, and F 
the frame carrying it, which tarns on careftilly polished steel pivots. 
The screw is prwmd SAainst the edge of the plato by a spiral spring 
acting under the end of the lever O, and by screwing the lever down 
the screw can be altogether removed from contact with the phite. 
The edge of the pUto is ratched by 4820 teeth which were cut 
opposite the ortffinal division by a ciroalar cntter attached to the 
screw ftoma. U is the spiral barrel ronnd which the catgnt band 
is woond. one end of which is attracted to the crank L on the end 
of the axis J and the other to a coantorpoiae weight not seen. On 
the other end of J is another crank inclined to L and carrying a 
band and coonterpoise weight seen at K. The object of this weight 
is to balance the former and give steadiness to the motion. On the 
axis J is seen a pair of bevelled wheels which move the rod I, which, 
by another pair of bevelled wheels attached to the box K, f^res motion 
to the axis M, on the end of which is an eccentric for moving the bent 
lever O, which actnates the bar carrying the cutter. Between the 
»*centric and the point of« the screw P is an undulating pUte by 
whKh loD^ divisious, at rc«xuired intervals, can be cut It will W 

seen that the cutting apparatus is supported npon the two parallel 
rails which can be elevated or depressed at pleasure by the nuts Q. 
Also the cutting apparatus can be moved forward or backward ui>on 
these rails to suit idrdes of different diameters. The box N is mov- 
able upon the bar R, and the rod I is also adjustable as to length by 
having a kind of toluscope joint The engine is quite self-airting, and 
can be driven either by nimd or by a steam-engine or other motive 
l)Ower. YTben driven by the latter it can be thrown in or out of 

Sar at once by a handle seen at S. Mr Siinms has also movided an 
genious arrangement whereby that is doue automatically directly 
any piece of work was finished. 

Space permito of but tlio mere mention of Donkin's 
linear dividing engine, iu which the priaciple employed 
is a compensating arrangement whereby great accuracy is 
obtained notwithstanding the inequalities of the screw 
nsed to adwance the catting tooL Dividing engines have 
also been made by ^etchenl ich and others in Qermauy, 
and Gambey in Paris. 

In addition to those already mentioned, the following references 
may be given : — Bird, IfdKod of dividing Atironomteal Jtutru- 
nuHt$, Londoi, 1767 ; Due de ChaulncN NouvclU MUhadi pour 
dioiter U$ Jndruituntt de Mathimatique ei dC Astronomie, 1708 ; 
Ramaden, Description af an Engine for dividing JlcUhtnuUieal 
Inetrumenti, London^ 1777 ; Troaglitou's memoir, JPhiL Trans., 
1809 ; Ifemoirt <^ the Boyal Aatronomieal Society, voL v. p. 826, 
voL viiL p. 141, voL ix. piK 17 and 85 ; Holtzapffel, Turutng and 
UtekamUxa Manipulation, pp. 061-966. -^ (J. BL.) 

QRiECIA, Magna (i) laeydXri '£XXa«), was the name 
given to the- Qreek cities along the coast of South Italy, 
while the people were called Italiotes (IroXtSruu), Like 
meet Qreelr colonies, they were estoblished first as trading 
stations, which grew into independent cities. At a veiy 
early time ^ trade in copper was carried on between Qreece 
and the Terins^n Qulf (Homer, Oc/., i 181). The trade 
fur long lay chiefly in the hands of the Enbceans; and 
Cyme in Campania was foanded far back in the pre-historic 
time, when the Eabcean Cyme was still a great city. To 
strengthen the connexion with the far off Qrme, the Chal- 
cidums, who became early the leaders of Enboean enterprise, 
estoblished Rhegium (aboat 730 B.a). After this the 
energy of Chalcis went onward to Sicily, and Uie states of 
the Corinthian Gulf carried oat the colonization of Italy. 
Sybaris (720) and Crotona (710) were Achaean settlemento ; 
Locri Epizephyrii (about 710) was settled by Osolian 
Locrians, and when (about 708) tlie Spartans wished to 
get rid of a band of unruly citizens, the connexion formed 
by the trade in purple that was common to the. shores of 
Laeonia and Tarentum directed their colony Uiither. 
Ionian Greeks fleeing from foreign invasion founded Sins 
and, much later, Elea (540). 

The Itolian colonies were planted among friendly, almost 
kindred; races (comp. the legend in Herod., viL 183), and 
grew much more rapidly than the Sicilian Greek states, 
which bad to contend against the power uf Carthage. After 
the Acb»an cities had combined to destroy the lonie Siris, 
and had founded Metopontum as a counterpoise to the 
Dorian Tarentum, there seems to have been little strife 
among the Itoliotes. An amphictyonic league, meeting in 
common rites at the temple of Hera on the Lacioian pro- 
montory, fostered a feeling of unity among them In the 
7th and 6th centuries B.O., they reached such a pitoh of 
wealth and power as to justify the name Great Greece in 
contrast to the poor and weak mother country. The 
Pytiiagorean and Eleatic systoms of philosophy had their 
chief seat in Magna Grtecio. Other departmento of litera- 
ture do not seem to Itave been so much cultivated among 
them The poet Ibycns, though a native of Bhegiuin, led 
a very wandering life. They main tolned some social inters 
course with Greece proper (Herod., iil 131) and sent com- 
petitors to the Olympic games (among them 'the famous 
Milo) ; but politically they appear to have generally kept 
themselves separate. One ship of Crotona, however, fought 
at SaUmis, though it b not recorded that Greece asked the 
miUotoS fpr belp when it sent ambassadors to Gelon (i 

G B ^ — G B A 


Sriaciiaa M atnal. dlaeord first flapped the prosperitj of 
Uagna Qnocia. In 610 Crutona, haying aefeated the 
Sjrbaritee in a great hatUe, totally destrojred their city. 
Crotona maintained alone the leading poaition which had 
belonged jointly to the Achnan citiea (Diod., zir. 103) ; 
bit from that time Magna Gnacia steadily declined. 
Foreign enemies pressed hoaYily on it The Lucaniuia 
and Brattians on the north captured one town after another. 
Dbnysins of Syracuse attacked them from the south ; and 
aftsr he defeated the Crotouiate league (389 B.a), Tarentnm 
remained the only powerful city. Henceforth the history 
of Magna Qrascia is only a record of the yidssitudes of 
Tarentnm (see TiJU^fTini). Repeated expeditions from 
Sparta and Epirns tried in vain to prop up the decaying 
Qreak states against the Licanians and Bruttians; and 
vhsa in 282 the Romans appeared in the Tarentine Gulf 
tho end was close at hand. The aid which Pyrrhns 
brought, did little good to the Tarentines, and his final 
depirture in 274 left them defenceless. During these con- 
staat wara the Greek cities had been steadily decaying ; 
aai in the second Punic war, when most of them seised the 
opportunity of revolting from Rome, their very existence 
iras in some cases annihilated. Malaria, which neyer affects 
a well-peopled city, increased in strength as the population 
diminished. We are told by Qiowo(D$Am,, 4), *' Magna 
Gnecia nunc quidem deleta est.** Many of the cities com- 
pletely disappeared ; some, like Tarentum, maintained a 
feeble existence into modem times. 

GRfiVIUS (1632-1703). Johann Geoig Grafo, Greffe, 
or GrjdTiui, one of the great classical scholars of the 
17th century, was bom at Ifaumbnij^ Saxony, 29 th 
Janniry 1632, and after receiving the usual school educa- 
tion at the gymnasium of Pforta became a student of law 
IB the university of Leipsio. During a casual visit to 
DeTenter in his eighteenth year, he became acquainted with 
Gronovins ; and this circumstance greatly stimulated a tabte 
for pure scholarship which he had already begun to display 
lomdwhot to the detriment of hia professional prospects. 
Finally abandoning jurisprudence shortly afterwards, he 
studied philology for two years under Gronovins, and 
rabsequently sat under Heinstua at L^yden, and under 
Horns and Bloadel at AmsterdauL During his residence 
ia the last-named city he abandoned Lutheranism and 
joined the Reformed Church ; and in 1656 he was called 
by the elector of Brandenburg to the chair of belles 
lettres in the university of Duisbuxg. Two years af ter- 
warda he was, on the recommen&tion of Gfonovins, 
chosen to succeed that scholar at Deventer; and in 1662 
he was transUted to the university of Utrecht, whore he 
nccnpied first the chair of rhetoricy and afterwards from 
166T until his death (January .11, 1703) that of history 
and politics. During the later years of his life he enjoyed 
a great and Earopean reputation, and repeated attempts, 
which, however, he steadfastly resisted, were made to 
iadace him to transfer his services to other universities 
aad Governments. His lecture-room was crowded by 
pupils, many of them of distinguished rank, from all parts 
of the civilised world; and by liouis XIY., as well as by 
other sovereigns, he was now and again honoured with 
ipectal recognition. 

Of his woiks tbe two most important ars tho Tkemurut AfiH^ 
^itaittm Bamanarum, pnblkhed in 12 volnmes at Utrecht (1694- 
J699), and the Th4$aurm AntiquUalttm d HidoHarum JkUitB, 
niblished after his death, and continoed by Bormaan (1 704-1 726). 
Uia eiUtiona of the eUauca, although at the time of their appear- 
aaoe thej marked a distiDct adrance in echolaiahip, are now for 
the meet part raperBeded. They inclnde ffmodi Atermi qum ttknU 
Onera (1667). Luckad FmidMopkiMa (1668), Juatini HiMvrim 
miippiem (1660X StuUmiiu (10'72), Oaiuau$, TibuUw, tt Pnh 
fertiua (1680), and leTend of the works of Cicero. The Oraiio 
ftmtM* by P. Burmann (Utneht, 1703) oontaias an eshaostive 
list of ^ works of this scholar* 

GEAFE, Albbbcht ton (1828-1870), German oculist, 
son of Karl Ferdinand von Griif e, noticed below, was bom at 
Berlin in May 1828. At an early age he manifested a pre- 
ference for the study of mathematics, but this was gradually 
superseded by an iaterest in natural science, which led him 
ultimately to the study of medicine. After ohtoining 
Government licence at Berlin, he proeecuted his studies at 
Vienna, Prague, and Paris, devoting special attention to 
ophthalmology. In 1850 he began practice as an oculist 
in Berlin, where he founded a private institnticin for the 
treatment of the eyes, which became the model of many 
aimilar ones in Germany and Switzerland In 1853 he was 
appointed teacher of ophthalmology in Berlin university, 
in 1856 extraordinary professor, and in 1866 ordinary pro- 
fessor. Yon Gr&fe contributed largely to the perfection 
of the science of ophthalmology, especially by the establish- 
ment in 1855 of his ArcJUvfUr Ophtluimoiogie, in which 
he had Arlt and Donders as collaborateurs. Perhape hia 
two most important discoveries are his method of treatment 
for fflaueoma, until then deemed incurable, and his new 
method of opeiation for the extraction of cataract, by which 
the danger of the operation became minimised. He was also 
regarded as an authority in diseases of the nerres and brain. 
He died at Berlin 20th August 1870. See Alfred Griife, 
JSin Wori sur Mrinnerung an AlhreeM von Gr^e, Halle^ 
1870. .. 

GRAPE, HuKRicH (1802-18G8), educationist, was bom 
at ButUt&dtin Weimar, ddMay 1802, studied mathematics 
and theology at Jena, and in 1823 obtained a curacy in the 
stadtkirche of Weimar. Thence he was transferred to Jena 
as rector of the town school in 1825 ; in 1840 he was sJso 
aj>pointed extraordinary professor of the science of educa- 
tion (Piidagogik) in that university ; and in 1842 he became 
head of the bdrgerschule in CasseL After reoiganixing the 
schools of the town, he became director of the new realschule 
in 1843 ; and, devoting himself with great seal and energy 
to the interests of educational reform in electoral Hesse^ he 
became in 1849 a member of the school commission, and 
also entered the house of representatives, where he attached 
himself to the democratic party and made himself some- 
what formidable as an agitator. In 1852 for having been 
implicated in the September riots and in the movement 
against the unpopular minister Hassenpflug (who had dis- 
soUed the school commission) he was condenmed to three 
years' imprisonment, a sentence which was afterwards re- 
duced to one of twelve months. On his release he with- 
drew to Geneva, where he engaged in educational work till 
1855, when he was appointed director of the school of in- 
dustiy at Bremen. He died in that atj 21st July 1868. 

Beaidei being lire author of many text-booka and occasioDal 
papers on educational aubjects, he wrote Jkts Stehtsvcrhdltnits dtr 
YolktachvU ten tfniMa tc au$$tn (1829) ; DU Sehulrtform (1884) ; 
SAuU u. Unitrriekt (1889) ; Allffemsins Poda^ogik (1846) ; Du 
BMtidu VcikachiiU (1847). Along with Daumaim, he alao edited 
the ArchivfVar da» prakMU FoUeaehvlvfe$tn (1828-^6). 

GRAPE, Ejlbl FxBDnrAHD von (1787-1840), German 
suigeon, was bom at Warsaw, 8th March 1787. He studied 
medicine at Halle and Leipsic, and after obtaining licence 
from the latter university, he was in 1807 appointed private 
physician to Dnke Alexius of Anhalt-Bembuig. In 1811 
he became professor of surgery at Berlin, and dttring the 
war with' Napeleon he was saperintendent of the military 
hospitals. When peace was concluded in 1815, he reeumed 
his professorial duties. He was also appointed to the 
medical staff of the army, and he became a director of the 
Prederick-WilUam Institute, and of the Medico-Chimrgical 
Academy. He died suddenly, 4th July 1840, at Hanover, 
whither he had been called to operate on the eyes of the 
crown-prince. Yon Griife did much to advance the practice 
of surgeiy in Germany, especially in the case of wounds^ 
both by ^e invention of new instruments and the discovery 


GB A — G R A 

of new meihoda of treataueni He improTed the rhino- 
plastie prooeaSi and its reTival waa chiefly due to him. His 
iectoree at the anivenity of Berlin attracted atadenta from 
all parte of Europe. 

The following aro his iirindpal worki i—Normenfnr dii AhUffuna 
ffro$aer GlUdnuMen, Berlin, 1812 ; Shinqplcutik, 1818 ; New JBei- 
trUge mtr JCunsi TheiU des Angeriehti organi$eh cu trtetxcn, 1821 ; 
DU tpicUmisch'kmUagidae AugtnbUnnorrlUi* uBgypUnt in den 
wrop&isehm Stfreiungshetrtn, 1824 ; JahreaberiehU Hber dot Htn- 
iich<hirurgiieK^ugen&rxaichs InatUtU der UnifferHUU eu Berlin, 
1817-«4. He also edited, along with Ph. Ton Walther, the Journal 
fir Ohirurffie und Augenheilkunde, 

GBAFBA.TH, a town of Bhemah Fmasia, government 
district of Dilsseldorf, circle of SoUngen, aitoated on the 
small river Itter, 14 miles E. of Diisseldorf. It has iron 
f onndries, and mannf actnrea of steel wares^ chemicals, cotton, 
and ribbons. The population in 1876 was 5604. 

GRAGNAKO, a town of Italy, in the province of Naplea 
and circle of Castellamare,aboat 2^ miles R of Castellamaie. 
It is the aeot of a bishop and has a collegiate chnrch, 
mannf actnrea doth and maccaronL and exports an excellent 
red wine which is well known at i^aplee. Im earlier timea 
it waa anrronnded with walls and defended by a castle. 
Fopnlation (1871) of town 7321, of commnne 12,27& 

GRAHAM, Sib James QsoBaB Bobxbt, Bart (1792- 
1861), a well-known British statesman, was bom at Naworth, 
Comberland, Ist Jane 1792. From Westminster school he 
doly passed to Qneen's College, Cambridge ; and ahortily 
after quitting the university, while making tiie "grand tour" 
Abroad, he became private secretary to the British minister 
in Sidiy, in which capacity he not only acquired mudi use- 
ful experience but also rendered some important servicea. 
Shortly after his return to England he, in 1818, after a 
contest of extraordinary keenness, was returned to parlia- 
ment as member for Hull in the Whig interest ; but he 
was unseated at the election of 1 820. In 1 824 he succeeded 
to the baronetcy on his father's death ; and in 1826 he 
again entered parliament as representative for CarlislsL In 
the same year he published a pamphlet entitied Com and 
Currency, which brought him into considerable prominence 
in the political world as a man of advanced Libwal opinions ; 
and having been returned in 1830 for the county of Cum- 
berland, he became one of the moat energetic advocatea in 
parliament of the Reform BiH On the formation of Earl 
Grey's admimstration he received the poet of first lord of 
the admiralty, with a seat in the cabinet. From 1832 to 
1837 he sat for the eastern division of the county of Cum- 
berland ; but dissensions on the Irish Church question led 
to his withdrawal from the ministry in 1834, and ultimately 
to his joining the Conservative party. Bqected by hia 
former constituents in 1837, he was in 1838 elected for 
Pembroke, and in 1841 for Dorchester. In the latter year 
he took office under Sir Robert Feel as secretary of state 
for the home department, and this post he retdned nntil 
1846. As home secretary he incurred considerable odium, 
in Scotland at least, by his nnoondliating policy on the 
church question prior to tho ** disruption " of 1843 ; and in 
1844 the detention and opening of letters at the poet-office 
by his warrant raised a storm of public indignation, which 
was hardly allayed by the favourable report of a parlia- 
mentary committee of investigation. From 1846 to 1852 
he was out of office ; but in the latter year he joined Lord 
Aberdeen's cabinet aa first lord of the admiralty, in which 
cipadty he acted also for a short time in the Folmerston 
ministry of 1850, until the appointment of a select com- 
mittee of inquizy into ihe conduct of the Russian war put 
him upon hia defence, and ultimately led to his withdrawal 
from official life. He continued, however, aa a private 
member to exercise a considerable influence on parliamen- 
tary opinion until his death, which oecnrred at Kethfirby. 
Ooihberlaad/ 26tii October 1861, 

GRAHAM, Teouab (1804-1860), bom at Qhisgow on 
the 2 1st of December 1804, was the son of a merchant of 
that dty. In 1819 he entered the university of Glasgow, 
and graduated in 1 824. At this time the chair of chemistry 
was held by Dr Thomas Thomson, whose researches bear- 
ing on the atomic theory cannot fail to have had much 
influence in turning Graham'a thoughts to the study of 
molecular physics to which he so patiently devoted his life. 
The beginning of his career appears to have been much 
embittered by his father's opposition, who wished him to 
become a minister of the Established Church. His own 
views, however, prevailed, and he worked for two years iu 
the laboratory of Dr Hope of Edinburgh before retamiog 
to Glasgow, where he taught mathematics, and subsequently 
chenustry, until the year 1829, when he was appointed 
lecturer in the Mechanics' Institute. In 1830 he succeeded 
Dr Ure as professor of chemistry in the Andersonian Insti- 
tution, and, on the death of Dr Edward Turner, he was 
transferred to the chair of chemistry in University College, 
London. He presided over the chemical section of the 
British Association at the Birmingham meeting in 1839, 
and in 1841 was chosen as the first president of tiie Chemi- 
cal Society of London. He resigned his nrofessorship on 
being appointed to succeed Sir John Herschel as Master of 
the Mint, a post he held untiOl his death in September 1869. 
This appointment waa doubtiess offered to hun by Govern- 
ment in recognition of his scientific services, but the 
onerous duties of the important office severely tried his 
energies ; and it is unfortunate that, in quitting a purely 
scientific career, he should have been subjected to the caroa 
of official life for which he was by temperament singularly 
unfit The researches, however, which he conducted 
between 1861 and 1869 were aa brilliant as any of those in 
which he engaged. Graham was elected a fellow of the 
Royal Society in 1837, a corresponding member of the 
Institute of France in 1847, and doctor of civil law in 
1855. The presidency of the Royal Society was offered 
him towards the close of hia life, but his failing health 
caused him to shrink from accepting the honour. 

The persistency with which he traced and developed tho 
laws of atomic motion was remarkable. It is interesting 
therefore to remember that his future work must have been 
indicated in no small measure by the researches of the 
illustrious Black, who, at the beginning of the century, 
r^ected the definitions of chemistiy proposed by Stahl, 
Bperhaave, and Fourcroy, and lectured ''on the eSectM 
produced by heat and mixture in all bodiea or mixtures 
of bodiea natural or artificial" Graham communicated 
papers to the Fhilosophical Society of Glasgow before 
the work of that society was recorded in TrafuaeUons, But 
hia first published paper, ** On the Absorption of Gases by 
liquidsy'^appeared in the Annali of PhUoiophy for 182^ 
and ia of apodal interest, as in it he speaka of the 
liqu^action of gases in much the same terms as those 
employed in the last paper he wrote. The snlgect 
with which his name will alwaya be most prominently 
associated ia the molecular mobility of gases. Friestley 
observed in 1799 that hydrogen eecaped from a fissured 
glass jar in exchange for external air, which "had nothing 
inflammable in it," and Dalton proved in 1806 that gases 
conflned in glass phials, connected by glass tubes, intermix 
even against the action of gravity. Graham in his first 
paper on this sntgect (1829) &n8 summaiizea the knowledger 
experiment "had afforded aa to the laws which regulate the 
movement of gasea '* Fruitful aa the miscibilily of gaiua 
haa been in interesting speculations, the experimental infor- 
mation we possess on the subject amounts to little more than 
the well-establiahed fact that gases of a different nature^ 
when brought into contact^ do not anange themselvea 
aooording to thdr deoaity, but thejr spontaneoiialy diflkiae 

GR A — G R A 


t]troQgb each other so as to remain ia an iutimato state of 
Euxtoio for anj leDgth of tline." For the fissured jar of 
Pfiestley and Dobereiner he sabstitoted a glass tube dosed 
by a plog of plaster of Fans, and with this simple ap- 
pliance he developed his now well-known law *' that the 
diffnaion rate of goses is inversely as the square root of 
their density." 

With regard to the special importance of Graham's law to 
the chemist and physicist^ it may be sufficient to point out 
that a great number of chemical as well as physical facts are 
co-ordinated by the assumption that all substances in the 
state of gas have the same molecular volume, or contain the 
samo number of molecules in a given space (Avogadro's 
bw); and, iu the second place, it has become evident that the 
phenomena of heat are simply the manifestations of mole- 
cular motion. According to this view the absolute tempera- 
taro of a gas is proportional to the vii viva of its molecules ; 
and since all molecules at a given temperature have the 
same vU viva, it follows that the molecules must move with 
velocities which are inversely proportional to the square 
roots of the molecular weights. Moreover, since the mole- 
cular volumes are equal, and the molecular weights are 
therefore proportional to the densities of the aeriform bodies 
in which the molecules are active uniti, it also follows that 
the average velocities of the molecules in any two gases are 
in versdy proportional to the square roots of their respective 
densities. Thus the simple numerical relations first ob- 
served in the phenomena of diffusion are the direct result 
of molecular motion, and it ia now seen that Oiaham's 
empirical law is included under the fundamental law of 

Orahom also studied the passage of gases by transpiration 
dirough fine tubes, and by effusion through a minute hole 
in a platinum disc, and was enabled to show that gas may 
enter a vacuum in throe different ways : (1) by the molecular 
movement of diffusion, in virtue of which a gas penetrates 
through the pores of a diw of compressed graphite ; (2) by 
cffosion through on orifice of sensible dimensions in a 
platinum disc (the relative times of the effusion of gases 
in mass being similar to those of the molecular diffusion, 
although a gas is usually carried by the former kind of im- 
pulse with a velocity many thousand times as great as is 
domonstroble by the latter) ; and (3) by the peculiar rate of 
passage due to transpiration through fine tubes, in which 
the ratios appear to be in direct relation with no other 
known property of the same gases, — ^thus hydrogen has 
exactly double the tmnspiration rate of nitrogen, the relation 
of those gases as to density being as 1 : 14, 

He aubsequentiy examined the passage of gases through 
Bepta or partitions .of indiarrubber, and plates of non- 
crystalline metals such as palladium, and proved that gases 
pass through these septa neither by diffusion, effusion, nor 
transpiration, but in virtue of a selective absorption which 
the topta appear to exert on the gases in contact with 
thesL By this means he was enabled partially to separate 
oxygen from air, and to calculate the density of metallic- 
hydrogen from the remarkable expansion which attends th^ 
absorption of hydrogen by palladium. The experiments led 
him to believe that palladium with its occluded hydrogen 
was an alloy, a view that has been greatly strengthened by 
the recant experiments of MM. Cailletet and Pictet 

His early work on the movements of gases led him 
td examine the spontaneous movements of liquids, and 
ss a result of the experiments he divided bodies into two 
classes, — crystalloids, such as common salt, and colloids, 
of which gum-arabic is a type, — ^the former having high 
and the latter low diffusibility. He also proved, by a 
series of beautiful experiments, that the process of liquid 
diffusion actually causes partial decomposition of certain 
chomical compounds^ the sulphate of potash, for instance, 

being separated xrom tne snlphate of almnioa In olnm by 
the higher diffusibility of the former salt 

He also extended his work on the transpiration of 
gases to liquids, adopting the method of manipulation de- 
vised by Poiseuille. He found that dilution with water 
do<« not effect proportionate alteration in the transpiration 
velocities of different liquids, and a certain determinable 
degree of dilution retards the transpiration velocity. Thus 
in the case of alcohol the greatest retardation is with six 
equivalents of water, nitric acid with threes and acetone 
with as much as twelve equivalents. 

It is only poosible here to indicate the prominent features 
of Graham's more purely chemical labours. In 1833 he 
showed that the various compounds of phosphoric acid and 
water constitute distinct salts, in each of which the hydrogen 
may be displaced by other metalsi He was the firsts there- 
fore, to establish the existence of polybasic compounds, in 
each of which one or more equivalents of hydrogen are 
replaceable by certain metals, and he further showed that 
by heating biphosphate of soda a metaphoephate is f ormed^ 
and from this he obtained a corresponding hydrated acid. 
In 1824 he demonstrated that the spontaneous inflamma- 
bility of one variety of phosphuretted hydrogen is due to 
its admixture with a very small proportion iS an oxide of 
nitrogen, probably nitrous acid. In 1835 he published the 
results of an oxamination of the properties of water as a 
constituent of salts. Kot the lea^t interesting part of this 
inquiry was the discovery of certain definite salts with 
alcohol analogous to hydrates, to which the name of alco* 
holates was given. A brief paper entitled Speeuiativ& 
Idea$ on the Cotuiituium of Matter deserves notice as 
possessing special interest in connexion with work done 
since Graham's death. In it he expressed the view 
that the various kinds of matter now recognized as dif* 
f erent elementary substances may possess one and the same 
ultimate or atomic molecule in different conditions of move- 

Graham's work, viewed as a whole, is remarkable alike 
for its originality and for the singular simplicity of the 
methods employed in obtaining most important results. 

niognphicsl notices of Onham wHl be found in the ^^oetedtngi 
oflhe £ayal Soeiety, xriiL, 1870, p. xviii. ; ProoudinQt^thiltoyQl 
Soeitty of Edinburgh, viL, 1872, p. 16 ; Proceeding rf tht JZdyol 
IruCUtUion, tL, 1872, p. 16; Deuteeh, Chem, Gu«llsehaft, Berllni 
ii., 1809, p. 763; Ifknehen Akad. SUzungtb., 1870, L, p. 408; 
Ameriean Journal of Seienee^ L, 1871, p. 116; Smithtonian iteporU, 
1871, p. 177; ProecedinM of Afneriean Aeademy, vUL, 1870, p. 
280. Hi« works have been collected and printed by Dr James 
Yonng and Dr Angos Smith, the latter contnbuting to the voloms 
a valuable preface and analysia of its contents. (W. 0. R.) 4 

GRAHAME, Jakes (1706-181 1), autiior of The Sabbath 
and other poems, was oom at Glasgow, April 22, 1766^ 
His father was a successful lawyer, and, by a very common 
error, he conceived that no otiier profession could be so 
suitable or so advantageous for his son. James, dutiful, 
and shrinking from opposition, as he did all through life, 
obeyed the parental wish, and after completing his literary 
course at the university of his native city, went in 1784 to 
Edinburgh where he studied law, first to qualify himself for 
the business of writer to the signet, and aubsequentiy for 
the Scottish bar, of which he was elected a member in 
1790. His indkations, however, were all for retirement 
and literature; and finally, when he had reached the 
mature age of forty-four, he took orders in the English 
C9iurch, and became curate first at Shipton, Gbncester^ 
shire, and then at Sedgefield in the county of Durhanu 
He did not long eigoy an office which he adorned by his 
pious and eloquent ministrations. HI health compelled 
him to tiy the renovating e£fects of his native air, but he 
died shortly after his return, September 14^ 1811. The 
works of GrsJiame consist of a dramatic poem Jfary 
quern 0/ Scote (published io 1601), Th4 Sabbath (1804), 


G R A — G R A 

Briiitk Georgia (1804), Tht Bird* of Scotland (1806), and 
Foinu on the Aholitton of the Slave Trade (1810). Ha 
principal work is Th4 SaJthath — a sacred and descriptive 
poem in blank Terse, characterized by a fine vein of tender 
and devotional feeling, and by the happy delineation of 
Scottish scenery. He is the Cowper of Scotland, but wants 
Cowper*s mastery of versification and easy idiomatic vigour 
of style. The blank verse of Qrahame is often hard and 
constrained, though at times it swells oat into periods of 
striking imagery and prophet-like earnestness. His descrip- 
tion of the solemn stillness and unbroken calm of "the 
haUowed day " in the rural districts of Scothmd, and of the 
Scottish Sabbath preachings among the hills in times of 
persecution, when 

" The scattered few would meet in some deep dell 
By rocks o'er-canopied,** 
are finished pictures that will never fade from our poetry. 
In his Georgiee he tried the wider field of rural occupations 
and manners, and produced some pleasing daguerreotypes 
of nature, — ^f or he was a careful as well as loving student, — 
but descended too much into minute and undignified detail 
In the notes to his poems he expresses manly and enlight- 
ened views on popular education, the criminal law, and 
other public questions. He was emphatically a friend of 
humanity — a philanthropist as well as a poek 

GRAHAM'S TOWN, the metropolis of the eastern dis- 
tricts of the Cape Colony, South Africa, is situated in the 
division of Albany, 80 miles inland from Algoa Bay, 40 
miles inland from Port Alfred, and 600 miles from Cape 
Town. In 1812 the site of the town was first chosen as 
the headquarters of the British troops engaged in protecting 
the frontier of the colony from the inroads of the Ka£Ere 
tribes, and it was named after Colonel Graham, theii com- 
manding the forces. In 1819 an attempt was made by the 
Eafires to surprise the place, and a body of 10,000 men 
attacked it^ but were gallantly repulsed by the garrison, 
which numbered not more than 320 men, infantry and 
artillery, under Colonel Willshire. From 1820 Graham's 
Town was the centre of what was termed the *' Albany 
Settlement," and it soon became the chief emporium of 
frontier trade. The town is built in a basin of the grassy 
hUls forming the spurs of the Znurberg mountain range, 
1760 feet above sea-leveL It is a pleasant place of resi- 
dence, and is regarded as the most English-like town in 
the colony. The streets are broad, and most of them 
lined with trees. The principal thoroughfare is the High 
Street, where stand St George's English Cathedral, bu^t 
from designs by Sir Gilbert Scott, and Commemoration 
Chapel, the chief place of worship of the Wesleyans, erected 
by the British emigrants of 1820. There are no fewer 
than twelve churches and chapeb in Graham's Town — 
Church of England, Boman Catholic, Wesleyan, Presby- 
terian, Baptist, and Independentb It is the seat of the 
Eastern Districts' Court, presided over by a chief judge and 
two puisne judges. Among the institutions of the town are 
an ezceUent public hospital, a lunatic asylum, colleges and 
grammar sdiools, a museum and natural lustory society, a 
public library, a dub, and masonic, templar, and other 
societies. There is also a botanic garden, in which there 
is a memorial of Colonel Fordyce of the 74th regiment, 
who fell in the Eafire war of 1861. The population of 
Graham's Town, according to the last census, is 7000. It 
is the centre of trade for an extensive pastoral and agri- 
cultural country, and has easy communication both with 
Port Alfred, at the mouth of the Kowie Biver, and with 
Port Elizabeth on Algoa Bay. 

GBAIL, or Gsatls, Thx Holt (Saint Graal, Seynt 
Greal, Sangreel, Sank Byal), the namo given to the legendary 
wonder-working vessel said to have been brought by Joseph 
^ Arlmathea t9 Britaio* The correct spelUng is ** Oraal" 

In the present article the nibject will be considered under 
the following four heads : — (1) the meaning of the Graal 
conception ; (2) the authorship of the conception \ (3) the 
meaning of the word; (4) the spread of the conception 
from the land of its origin to other countries. 

1. The '* Saint Qraal" was the name given — if not 
originally, yet very soon after the conception was started — 
to the dish, or shallow bowl (in French, escttelle), from which 
Jesus Christ was said to have eaten the paschal lamb on 
the evening of the Last Supper with lus disciples. In the 
French prose romance of tlie Satni Graal, it is said that 
Joseph of Arimathea, having obtained leave from Pilate 
to tflJce down the body of Jesus from the cross, proceeded 
first to the upper room where the supper was held and 
found there this vessel ; then, as he took down the Lord's 
dead body, he received into the vessel many drops of blood 
which issued from the still open wounds in his feet, hands, 
and side. This last feature, which Tennyson in his beauti- 
ful idyll The ffolg Grail has overiooked, is obviously of the 
essence of the conception. According to Catholic theology, 
where the body or t^e blood of Christ is, there, by virtue of 
the hypostatic union, are His soul and His divinity. That 
the Graal, such being its contents, should be marvellous — 
divine— ;mysterious, was jt>ut logical and natural Tlie 
Graal was ''the commencement of all bold emprise, the 
occasion of all prowess and heroic deeds, the investigation 
of all thesciences^ ... the demonstration of great wonders, 
the end of all bounty and goodness, the marvel of all other 
marvels." Nasciens, taking off the paten which covered 
the Graal, comprehends innumerable marvels, but is struck 
blind. By the Graal Joseph's life is sustained in prison 
during forty4wo yean without food, while as an oracle it 
instructs him in heavenly knowledge. Nothing could be 
more fantastic and extravagant than all this, were the Graal 
conceived of merely as a tSdOj however venerable ; but all 
is altered when it is brought into close relations, according 
to tike design of its inventors, with the mystery of the 

2, The authorship of the conception involves one of the 
moat difficult of literaiy questions. Mr Price, in the able 
and eloquent dissertation prefixed to vol. l of Warton's 
Ilietory of Englith Poetry, seems to maintain the viewlJiat 
it can- be attributed to no individual, but was the spontane- 
ous outgrowth of a group of widely prevalent superstitions, 
iu all which a magical cup or divining bowl was the central 
object Others, as Fauriel, Simrock, and Schuls, find the 
original home of the legend in Provence. M. Paulln Paris, 
who has been engaged for nearly forty years in the study of 
Arthurian romance, and whose latest speculations (Ronuxne 
de la Table Sonde, v. 352) bear the recent date of 1876, is 
of opinion that the original conception came from some Welsh 
mosk or hermit who lived early in the 8th century ; that 
its guiding and essential import was an assertion for the 
British Church of an independent derivation of its Christi- 
anity direct from Palestine, and not through Rome ; that 
the oonception was embodied in a book, called Liber Gradalii 
or De Gradali ; that this book was kept in abeyance by the 
British clergy for more than 300 years, from a fear lest it 
should bring them into collision with the hierarchy and make 
their orthodoxy suspected; that it came to be known and 
read in the second half of the 12th century ; that a l^rench 
poet, Robert de Boron, who probably had not seen the book^ 
but received information about it, was the first to embody 
the conception in a vernacular literary form by writing his 
poem of Joeephe ePArimathie ; and that, after Boron, Walter 
Map and others came into the field. Lastly, it is maintained, 
by English writers generally, that the conception arose 
certainly on British ground, but in the 12th century, not in 
the 8th ; that it was introduced by some master-hand, pro- 
bably that of Walter Map, into every branch of Arthurian 



fomanee; tnd tfaai if Map was not the aaihor of tha con- 
ception, as seems highly probable, ha ftut, by writing the 
French romancoB of the Saint Graal, the second part of 
lanedoif and JioH iHur^ inTested it in liteiaiy foim. 

These theories cannot be discossed here ; but it may be 
lemarked that» in order to pave the way for any rational 
theoiy, it ia indispensable to have a dear view of the con- 
dition of romance llteratnre at and before the time when 
ibe conception aroseu The legend of Arthur, which barely 
nses to the surface in the narratiTe of Oildaa, had in tiie 
time of Nennius (9ih century) attained to considerable 
consistency, and throngh the appearance of the EUtoria 
BritonMm of Qeoffrey of Monmouth, which eveiywhere 
eicited an eztraordinozy sensation, had become European. 
To tiie Norman and French poets it had become known, 
long before the appearance of Qeofiroy's book, through the 
Breton lays ; and the mysticism, the tender depths of senti- 
ment the wild flights of imagination and fanqy which 
were found in these laya^ had so eapttyated and dazsled 
tiiem aa to indnce them dmost to deaert their own rough 
CSbMOM d4 Qtde^ of which CSiarlemagne was the chief 
flgore^ for this new field. A succession of startling inci- 
dental in which giante^ knic^te^ dwarfs^ fairiea, and goblina 
were acton, andanature in mystic sympathy with man was 
the background, appealed to the feelings of wonder and 
awe; the instinct of reyenge and the lust of warlwere 
gratified by battte-iecitals innumerable, while around the 
chief diaractecs cIL the iQgends there floated the rapture and 
Ae hyperbole of amorous passion. In the BnA of Wace^ 
founded on Qeoffirey'a work, we find the atory of Arthur in 
ample pn^ortlons, and the " Bound Table " appears for the 
fast tima-— 

«< Fist Id! Ertnr la BondA TUd^ 
Dant Bieton diient meinta fiibuw" 

The eruberance of inyention here attributed to the 
Brstooa was faithfully imitated by the poets of northern 
ftaaoeb Ghreatien of Troyes, bom near the middle of the 
13th century, besidea yersifying many talea from Ovid, re- 
piodooed parts of the Arthur legend in his poem on King 
Mmk and TseuU ths Blonde, and the Cheffalier au Lion. 
In these^ however, there is no mention of the QraaL 6ud- 
Mfy a naiiative, possibly in Latin but more probably in 
Frendi proae^ makes its appearance, containing the story 
of the commission of the Holy Qraal to Joseph of Arimsr 
Ihea, as given above^ of hia subsequent advcpturea in Syria 
lad ehewhere^ and of (he ultimate arrival of his son, his 
faratfaer-in-law, and others of his kindred, in Britain, where 
Ihey settle in the isUnd of Avallon. Tha birth of Arthur 
■ prophesied in this nanativeb but otherwiae he is scarcely 
Bentioned. About the same time, the prose romancea oi 
Laicdot ^part i> and Tridan, containing rich develop- 
ments of the ArtnmJan legend, made their appearance and 
vera warmly welcomed. The first is aaeribed in the MSa 
to Walter Map^ and the second to Lne or Lncea de Gaat ; 
bat both statements, in the ofdnion of M. Faulin Paris, are 
extremely doubtful. At any rate^ if Map wrote the first 
port of Lanedot, he contmued and finiahed it in a totally 
different spirit The first part ia mere love and chivalry, 
** the moat secukr,* saya M. Faulin Faria, ^of all romancea"; 
vAiletiieseooDdpart iathemoatmyctiealof alL Tliafirat 
pert eontaina no aUnaion to the Graal; in the aeeond it ia 
an element of overpowermg interest Lancelot jdna in the 
quest lor the Graal, Isila to sea it or only half sees it, 
repenta^ becomes a holy hermit^ and diea. Tridan in its 
onpnal form was the legand of a favourite Breton hero; it 
waa then connected with the cyde of Arthur; lastly, per- 
hapa by the aama powerful hand that tranamuted Zoacsfs^, 
it WM brou^ within the aweep of the Qraal eoncepti(». 

But who invented the atory of Joaeph of Arimatheat or 
Other, lAo oomioaM tiial atoiy Witt die Qnwl 1^^ 

both with Arthur t The importance of a work of William 
of Malmesbuiy in assisting us to answer this question has 
been somewhat overlooked. In his treatise De AtUiguitate 
GtaiUmientit Bcdeaice, written probably soon after Henry 
of Blois, abbot of GlastonbuTy, to whom it is dedicated, 
was raised to the see of Winchester (1129), Malmesbury 
records with considerable detail the legend which brought 
Joaeph to Glastonbury, and made him the first preacher of 
Christianity to the Britons. Everything connected with 
Glastonbury hod a duodenary character; Joseph was sent 
to Britain by St Philip the evangelist ss tiie chief among 
twelve missioners ; the holy men who afterwards tenanted 
the abbey always sought to maintain the number of twelve ; 
Glaatdng, from whom the place was named, was one of 
twelve brothers ; the chief estate of the abbey was called 
<<the Twelve Hides,'' &c This same feature distinctly 
reappears in the Graal Isgend, where Bron, the brother-in- 
law of Joseph, has twelve sons, who are all sent to Britain, 
but one amcHig them, Alain, who renouncea marriage, ia aet 
over the reat Again, we read in Malmesbury that Avallon 
is another name for Glaatonbury ; and in the Graal legend 
we read that Joaeph*s kindred are directed by a divine voice 
to seek, in the far west, the *^ vaUeys of Avaron." Lastly, 
in the strange story about the altar called '' sapphirus," 
which angels brought from Palestine to St David, anid 
which after a long disappearance was rediscovered in 
Malmesbury's own day, we seem to lay our finger, as iA 
were, on the origin, the rudimentary auggeation, of the 
Graal conception. ^ 

Now if we accept the [general testimony of the MSS., 
and asaume without further proof that Map oompoaed, 
whether in Latin or in French, the original book of the 
Saini Graal, the genesis of the work seems not difficult to 
teace. lb early Ufe Map waa a canon of Saliabniy (see 
Wright's preface to the i>« 2fugia Curialium) ; either after- 
wards or at the same time he was'parish priest of Westburj 
near Bristol Gloucestershire and Wiltslure are both nei|^ 
borring counties to Somersetshire, in which Glaatonbury 
was the most sacred and celebrated spot Visiting that 
ancient abbey, Map would have become acquainted with the 
legend of Joseph of Arimathea in all its detaila ; and he 
would have aeen the altar said to have been transported by 
angela from Paleetine, and which, long hidden from mortal 
ai^t on account of the wickedness of the times, had lately 
been revealed and reinstated. Hia versatile and capaciou 
mind would, as a matter of course, have been familiar with 
the whole Arthur legend aa it then (1170-1180) existed, if 
for no other reason, becanae he lived in the verjrpiirt of 
Engknd which was studded with Arthurian sites. He fully 
anawera to the deacription of the ^ great derka" who^ 
according to Bobert de Boron first made and told the his- 
tory of the Graal He seems to have conceived the vast 
derign of steeping the Arthurian legend, and through it the 
whole imaginative literature of the age, in the doctrine of 
ihe Christian sacrifice. He is generaUy credited in the 
MSSb with the composition of the Sainl Graal (eoaUamag 
the legend of Joseph of Arimathea), of the Queti tfihs 
Saimt Graal, of Lanedot in whole or in part, and of the 
Jiort Artur, But it appears that no MS. of any of these 
romances now exists of an earlier date than 127^ and it ia 
certain that a set of " arrangers" and continoatora (like the 
rhapeodista and cydio poets of the Homeric epos) com- 
menced their confusing operations on the legend at an early 
period. Hence it aeema impossible now to recover the 
exact order in which the different romancea were composed. 

8. On the origin ot the word Graal, the opinion of M. 
Paulin Paris seems to be satisfactory. He thinks that greal 
18 a corruption of gradale, or gradnale, the Latin name for 
a liturg^ collection of psalms and taxta of acriptor^ aa 
called ** qiuod in gradibus canitur^" as the priest ja paialD| 


G R A — G R A 

fom the epirtle to the goepel aide of the altar. The author 
of the Oraal conoeption meant by graal, or gradale, not the 
saoed dish ^eecaelle), but the mysteriooe book revealed to 
the anppoeea hermit of 717, in which he finds the Idetory 
of the eecaelle^ Bobert de Boron, mistaking this, transfen 
the name to the dish, and connects it with gr^ (gratna, 
gratia) on account of the inward solace connected with 
it (see Bomant de la T. £, I U3). The woid raj^y 
became popalar in the sense of bowl, or shallow cnp, so 
that H^hnand (1204) could say, **Dicitur Tulgari nomine 
ffTxuUt, quia grata et acceptabilis est in ea comedentL" This 
etymology is the same as Boron's. The older French word 
ffrMf meaning service-book (Dncange, article " Gradole **), 
was displaced by the new ffraal or ffreal. On the other 
hand, 11 Fauriel derives graal from an old Provencal word 
for a cup, grazoL But this gratal, according to the article in 
Dncange, seems to be of Armorican origin; anyhow H. 
Faniiel has not proved its use in the sense of cup at a 
period earlier than the rise of the Qraal legend. 

i. The spread and ascendency to which the Qraol con- 
ception rapidly attained in all Christian countries made the 
creations of Arthurian romance the delight of all cultivated 
minds, from Caerleon to Venice, and from Iceland to the 
Btraits of Gibraltar. From England, whidi we must 
regard as the land of its origin, the Graal legend at once 
passed to France, and found an enthusiastic and capable 
interpreter in Bobert or Bobiers de ]poron. This Boron 
was no Englishman of yottjughamahire, as some Englidi 
writers have protended, but, asPaulin Paris conclusively 
proves, a Fronch poet of the county of Montbeliard in the 
region of the Voegea. Chrestien de Troyee in his Percivcd 
(written beforo 1191, for it is dedicated to Count Philip of 
Flanders who died in that year), gives in a metrical dress 
the legend of PerdVal, one of the knights of the round 
taUe^ under the tmnsformation which tiie introduction of 
the Graal conception had effected. The continuations of 
the poem, by Denet and Maneasler, come down to about 
1240. The famous Mid-German poem of 'PartwcH^ by 
Wolfram von Eschenbach, which appeared near the begin- 
ning of the 13th century, is founded partly on Chrestien's 
Periiwdlf but partly also on some other, perhaps Provenoali 
source, which is now lost A rude English metrical version 
of the French prose romance of the BetitU Gratd^ by oue 
Harry Lonelich, dating from the reign of Henry TL, has 
been recently edited by Mr FurnivaU for the Boxburghe 
Club. Fleimsh, Icelandic^ and Welsh roproductions of the 
Graal romancee have been found to exist One of the first 
employments of ihe printing press in England, France, and 
Germany was to multiply poems or romances embodying 
this legend. Hence Cuton printed for Sir Thomas Malory 
(1485) Tk9 Hittone of King Arthur cmd hu IToUe Knightet, . 
a version in English prose of the Fronch romances of 
Merlin, Lanedot, Tritian, the Quite du Saint Oraal, and 
Mart Artur, or at any rate based upon them. An early 
French edition of the Trietan, of which there jb a copy in 
the British Museum, is dated 1489. Lancelot du Lac 
was printed at Paris in 1513; and not long afterwards 
editions of the Tristan and other portions of the Arthur 
qyole, always as interpenetrated by the Graal legend, 
appeared both in Italy and Spain (Schnls's Kaeayt p* 11^)* 

SesPknlia Parii, Ztt Uanuaaritt de la Bibliothejue Sovab, 1839, 
and Le$ Somatu de la TabU Sonde, 1868-77; Madden*! Sir 
Chwaifne, edited for the Bannatyne aab, 1880; the Se^ Graal 
(part i), edited by F. FnmivaU, with a pxe&toiv eeaav on the 
ataal.«an by Saa Karte (SchnlxK 1861-8; aevenl MS& of the 
Kini^a libraiy in the British Mnaeitm, Beff. 14 E. iii, 19 0. jdL, 
aOG. vL, lEO.; Fanrid, SieL de la JPMe J»rwen^; Wolfram 
von KioheBbach, Farnval und Titurd, edited bv Pfeifler, 1870 ; 
Wextni*9Si9Ufryo/3nglUkFoetnf,YoLU La Frmee LUUmiire, 
wiL jr.; UeUnand's '•Chronicles" (in V\^^% Pairologie, toL 
flodL); MiviU*e£euyentheX/iJluence ef Wdeh TradUioHt Llaa- 
«oveiy, 1841, Jw., *c — cr.A.) 

GBATNS OP PARADISE, OunriA OnusB, or >rEL»l 
'OITETA P^PXR (German, ParadieAorner ; Frendi, Grahee 
de Paradie, Manigueite), the eemina eardamomi majori* or 
piper mdegueta of phnrmaceutiBtS) are the seeds of ^fnoin»tA 
Melegueta, Boscoe, a reed-like plant of the natural order 
Singiberacea, whidi is a native of tropical western Africa, 
and of Princes and St Thomas's Islands in the Gulf uf 
Guinea, Ib cultivated in British Guiana, and may with 
ease be nown in hot-houses in England. Ihe plant luis a 
branched horizontal rhixome ; smooth, nearly sessile, alter' 
nate leaves, with the blade oblong-lanceolate ; large, white, 
pale pink, or purplish flowers; and an ovate-oblong fruit, 
ensheathed in bracts, which ii of a scarlet colour when fresh, 
and reaches under cultivation a longth of 5 inches. Tho 
seeds are contained in the acid pulp of the fruit, are com- 
monly wedge-shaped and bluntly angular, are about 1 1 
line in diameter, and have a glossy dark-brown husk, with 
a conical light-coloafed membranous caruncle at the base, 
and a white kernel They contain, according to Fliickiger 
and Haubury, 0*3 per cent of a faintly yellowish neutral 
essential oil, having an aromatic, not acrid taste, and 
a specific gravity at 15-6* C. of 0*825, and giving on 
analysis the formula C^H,jO, or CioHj^ + CjjHi^O ; also 
5*83 per. cent of on intensely pungent, viscid, brown resin. 
Grains of paradise were formerly officinal in British phar- 
macopoeias, and in the 13th and succeeding centuries were 
used as a drng and a spice, the wine known as hippocraa 
being flavoured with them and with ginger and cinnamon. 
In 1629 they were employed among tiie ingredients ofthe 
twenty-four herring pies which were the ancient fee-favour 
of the city of Norwich, ordained to be carried to court by 
the lord of the manor of Carleton (Johnston and Church, 
ChenL of Common Life, p. 355, 1879). Grains of paradise 
were in pest times brought overland from West Africa to 
the Mediterranean ports of the Barbaiy States, to be shipped 
for Italf. They are now exported almost exclusively from 
the Gold Coast The amount received by Great Britain in 
1871 was upwards of 760 cwts. Grains of paradise arc 
to some extent used in veterinary practice, but for the most 
part illegally to give a fictitious strength to malt liquors, 
gin, and cordials. By 56 Geo. HI. c. 58, no brewer or 
dealer in beer shall have in his possession or use grains of 
paradise, uuder a penalty of £200 for each offence ; and no 
druggist shall sell the same to a brewer under a penalty of 
J&500. They are, however, devoid of any injurious physio- 
logic^ action, and are much esteemed as a spice by the 
natives of Guinea. 

Bee Bentlev and Trimen, Ifedicinal Pkmit, part 80, tab. 268; 
Laneaaan, Mid. dee Drogue^ j(^ 468-480, 1878. 

GRAM, or Cbick-pxa, called also Egyptian Pea, or 
Bengal Gram (Hindi, cAoiuf; Bengali, cAAo^ Italian, c«c0 ; 
Spamsh,par6afiJo), an herbaceous, annual, leguminous plant^ 
tiie Oicer arietinum of linnaua^ so named from the rcsem- 
Uaace of its seed to a ram's head, is a native of the south 
of Europe and India. Its leaves are imparipinnate, with 
ovate, equal, and serrate leaflets; the flowers are ojdllaiy, 
and of a bluish-purple colour, and bloom in India from 
September to Octobw ; and the pods have a length of 1 to 
1} inch, and contain either one or two somewhat pointed 
and commonly pale yellow seeds, about 3 lines long; Gram 
is largely cultivated in the Eas^ where the seeds are eaten 
raw, or cooked and prepared in various ways, both in their 
ripe and unripe condition, and when roasted and ground 
are made to subserve the same purposes as ordinary flour. 
In Europe* the seeds are used as an ingredient in soupai 
They contain, in 100 parts withont husks, nitrogenous 
substancea 22*7, fat 3*76, starch 63*18, mineral matters 
2*6 parts, with water (Forbes Watson, quoted in Porkes's 
Bpgiene). The liquid which exudes from the glandular 
haiiB clothing the leaves and sterna of the plantf more' 

G R A — G R A 


ftspomlly dating tho eold season, when the seeds ripen> 
eoatains a notable proportion of oxalic acid, and la said to 
be Terjr iignriooa to the leather shoes of those who walk 
through fields of gram. In Mysore the dew containing it 
is collected by means of cloths spread on the plant over 
nighty and is valned as a remedy for dyspepsia, indiges- 
tion, and costiveness. The steam of water in which the 
fresh plant is immersed is in the Deccan resorted to by 
the Portnguese for the treatment of dysmenorrhoea. The 
seed of PAateoluB Munga, Linn., or green gnm (Hind, and 
lieng., vu>0Mff), a variety of which plimt, F» Uvmgo mdaiuh 
upermuM (F. Max, Boixb.), is termed black gram, is an 
important article of diet among the labouring cloiBses in 
ludi 1, and is annually exported in large quantities from Soup made from it is considered to be especially 
•oited to sick persons. The meal is an excellent substi- 
tute for soap, and is stated by Elliot to be an invariable 
concomitant of the Hindu bath. P, Roxburghii, W. and 
Aru., or P, radicUu3, Iloxb. (Hind., urid; Bong., mda^^ 
kaldi), which also is known as green gram, is perhaps the 
most esteemed of the leguminous plants of India, where 
the meal of its seed enters into the composition of the more 
dalicrite cakes and dishes, and is used in medicine both ex- 
tern illy and intomally. P, aconitifolius goes by the name 
of Turkish gram. Horse gram, DolicKos uniflorutt Lam. 
(Kiad. and Beng.,X'tf///ii), which supplies in Madras the place 
d the chick-pea, affords seed which, when boiled, is exten- 
si vcfy employed as a food for horses and cattle in South India, 
where als) it is eaten in curries, and, made into poultices 
or pastes, is applied to medicinsl purposes. Turkish gram 
is the Do^.iehot Cafjang of Roxburgh. White gram. Glycine 
{Sqja} hispula, produces the beans from which soy is made. 
The q'untity of gram exported from India in 1876-77, 
diieQy to Mauritius, Ceylon, and tho Straits, amounted to 
316,593 cwL, a^nst 322,661 cwt in the previous year. 

• Sje Vr. Elliot, "On tho Farinacooos Grains and iLo voiions 
kiihU of Poises used in Soathern India,'* Ediu, New PhiL Joum,, 
1S62, ToL XTi. p. 15 sy.; H. Druxy, Tlu VKfuX Plants of India, 
1873; U. C. Datt, IfaUria Jledica iff the Hindus, CalcntU, 1877. 

QRAMMAIL By the grammar of a koguage is meant 
either the relations borne by tho words of a sentence 
and by sentences themselves ono to another, or the svs- 
tematized exposition of these. Tho exposition may do, 
and frequently is, incorrect; but it always presupposes 
the existence of certain customary uses of words when 
in combination. In what follows, therefore, grammar 
vrill be generally employed in its primary senso, as denot- 
ing tho mode in which words are connected together in 
ufder to express a complete thought, or, as it is termed in 
logic, a proposition. 

The object of language is to convey thought, and so long 
OS this object is attained the machinery for attaining it is 
of comparatively slight importance. The way in which we 
combine our words and sentences matters but little, pro- 
vided that our meaning is clear to others. The cxprossious 
"horseflesh " and " fle£ of a horse," are equally intelligible 
to an Euglishman and therefore are equally recognized by 
English grammar. The Chinese manner of denoting a 
genitive is by placing the defining word before that wluch 
it defines, as in louejin, '*maa of the kingdom,** literally 
"kingdom roan,** and the only reason why it would be 
mcorrect in French or Italian is that such a combination 
would be unintelligible to a Frenchman or an Italian. Hence 
it is evident that Uie grammatical correctness or incorrect- 
ness of an expression depends upon its intelligibility, that 
ii to say, npon the ordinary use and custom of a particular 
language. Whatever is so unfamiliar as not to be generally 
anderstood is also ungrommaticaL In other words, it is 
contrary to the habit of a language, as dcterniinod by com- 
mon uss^o and consent. 

In this way we can explain how it happens that the 
grammar of a cultivated dialect and tlmt of a local dialect 
in the same country so frequently disagree. Thus, in tho 
dialect of West Somerset, thee is the nominative of tho 
second personal pronoun, while in cultivated English the 
plural accusative you (Anglo-Saxon, eow) has come to ro- 
present a nominative singular. Both are grammatically 
correct within the sphere of their respective dialects, but 
no further. Tau would be as nngrammatical in West 
Somerset as thee is in classical English ; and both you and 
thee, as nominatives singular, would have been equally un^ 
grammatical in Early Englislu Qrammatical propriety is 
nothing more than the established usage of a particular 
body of speakers at a particular time in their history. 

It follows from this that the grammar of a people changes, 
like its pronunciation, from age to age. Anglo-Saxon or 
Early English grammar is not the grammar of Modem 
English, any more tlian Latin grammar is tho grammar of 
modern Italian ; and to defend an unusual construction or 
inflexion on tho ground that it once existed in literary Anglo- 
Saxon, is as wrong as to import a peculiarity of some l^al 
dialect into the grammar of the cultivated speech. It 
further follows that different ktnguages will have different 
grammars, and that the differences will be more or less 
according to the nearer or remoter relationship of the 
languages themselves, and the modes of thought of those 
who speak them. Consequently, to force the grammatical 
framework of one language upon another is to misconceive 
the whole nature of the latter, and seriously to mislead tho 
learner. Chinese grammar, for instance, can never be 
understood until wo discard, not only the terminology of 
European grammar, but the very conceptions wliich underlie 
it, while the polysynthetio idioms of America defy all 
attempts to discover in them " the parts of speech " and 
the various grammatical ideas which occupy so large a place 
in our school-grammars. The endeavour to find the dis- 
tinctions of Latin grammar in that of English has only 
resulted in grotesque errors, and a total misapprehensioD 
of the usage of the English language. 

It is to the Latin grammarians, — or, more correctly, to 
the Qreek grammarians, upon whoso labours those of the 
Latii^ writers were based, — that we owe the classification of 
the subjects with which grammar is commonly supposed to 
deal The grammar of Dionysius Tlirax, wMch he wrote fur 
Roman schoolboys in the time of Pompey, has formed the 
starting-point for the innumerable school-grammars which 
have since seen the light, and suggested that division of 
the matter treated of which they have followed. He defines 
grammar as a practical acquaintance with the language of 
literary men, and as divided into six parts, — accentuation 
and phonology, explanation of figurative expressions, 
definition, etymology, general rules of flexion, and critical 
canons. Of these, phonology and accentuation, or prosody, 
can properly be included in grammar only in so far as the 
coustruction of a sentence and the grammatical meaning of 
a word are determined by accent or letter-change; the 
accentual difference in English, for example, between incejise 
and inehue belongs to the province of grammar, since it 
indicates a differenco between noun and verb; and the 
dianges of vowel in the Semitic languages, by which various 
nominal and verbal furms are didtinguitihcd from ono an- 
other, constitute a very important part of their grammatical 
machinery. But where accent and pronunciation do not 
serve to express the relations of words in a sentence, they 
fall into tlie domain of phonology, not of grammar. Tho 
explanation of figurative expressions, again, must be left 
to the rlictorician, and definition to the lexicographer ; tho 
grammarian lias no more to do with thfm than ho has with 
the canons of critLcism. 

In fact, the old (ubdivislun of grammar, inhorivid from 



the grammariana of Bomerimd Alexandria, must be giyen 
op, and a new one pnt in its place. What grammar reallj 
deals with are all those contrivances whereby the relations 
of words and sentences are pointed *oni Sometimes it is 
position, sometimes phonetic sjmbolization, sometimes com- 
position, sometimes flexion, sometimes theuse of aoziliaries, 
which enables the speaker to combine his words together 
so that they shall be intelligible to another. Grammar 
may accordingly be divided into the three departments of 
composition or ''word-bnilding," syntax, and accidence, by 
which is meant an exposition of the means adopted by 
language for expressing the relations of grammar when re- 
course is not had to composition or simple position. 

A systematized exposition of grammar may be intended 
for the purely practical purpose of teaching the mechanism 
of a foreign language. In this case, all that is necessary 
is a correct and complete statement of the facts. But a 
correct and complete statement of the facts is by no means 
so easy a matter as might appear at first sight. The facts 
will be distor0^ by a false theory in regard to ihem, while 
they will certainly not be presented in a complete form if 
the grammarian is ignorant of the true theory they presup- 
pose. The Semitic verb, for example, remains unintelligible 
so long as the explanation of its forms is sought in the con- 
jugation of the Aryan verb, since it has no tenses in the 
Aryan sense of the word, but denotes relation and not time. 

A good practical grammar of a language, therefore, 
should be based on a correct appreciation of the facts which 
it expounds, and a correct appreciation of the facts is only 
possible where they ore examined and co-ordinated in ac- 
cordance with the scientific method. A practical grammar 
ought, wherever it is possible, to be preceded by a scientific 

Comparison is the instrument with which science works, 
and a scientific grammar, accordingly, is one in which the 
comparative method has been applied to the relations of 
speech. If we would understand the origin and real nature 
of grammatical forms, and of the relations which they 
represent, we must compare them with simOar forms in 
kindred dialects and languages, as well as with the forms 
under which they appeared themselves at an earlier period 
of their Idstory. We shall thus have a comparative gram- 
mar and an historical grammar, the latter being devoted to 
tracing the history of grammatical forms and usages in the 
snhie knguage. Of course, an historical grammar is only 
possible where a succession of written records exists ; where 
a language possesses no older literature, we must be content 
with a comparative grammar only, and look to cognate 
idioms to throw light upon its grammatical peculiarities. 
In this case we have frequently to leave whole forms un- 
elplained, or at most coi\jectnraUy interpreted, since the 
machinery by means of which the rehitions of grammar are 
symbolized is often changed so completely during the 
growth of a language as to cause its earlier shape and 
character to be unrecognizable. Moreover, our area of com- 
parison must be as wide as possible ; where we have but 
ttro or three languages to compare, we ore in danger of 
building up conclusions on insufficient evidencei The 
grammatical errors of the classical philologists of the last 
C3ntury were in groat measure due to the fact that their 
area of comparison was confined to Latin and Greek. 

The historical grammar of a single language or dialect, 
which traces the grammatical forms and usages of the 
language as far back as documentary evidence allows, affords 
material to the comparative grammarian, whose task it is 
to compare the granmiatical fonns and usages of an allied 
group of tongues, and thereby reduce them to their earliest 
forms and senses. The work thus carried out by the com- 
parative grammarian within a particular family of languages 
is made use of by uuTenol ^mmor, tlie object of which 

is to determine the ideas that nnderlie all grammar whatso- 
ever, as distinct from those that are pectdior to sgedsl 
families of speech. Universal grammar is sometimes known 
as " the metaphysics of language,*' and it has to decide such 
questions as the nature of gender, or of the verb, the true 
purport of the genitive relation, or the origin of grammar 
itself. Such questions, it is dear, can only be answered by 
comparing the results gained by the comparative treatment 
of line grammars of various grou]^ of language. What his- 
torical grammar is to comparative grammar, comparative 
grammar is to universal grammar. 

Universal grammar, as founded on the results of the 
scientific study of speech, is thus essentially different from 
that '* universal grammar " so much in vogue at the begu- 
iling of the present century, which conskted of a series of 
a priori assumptions based on the peculiarities of European 
grammar and illustrated from the same source. But uni- 
versal grammar^ as conceived by modem science, is as yet 
in its infancy; its materials are still in the process of being 
collected. The comparative grammar of the Aryan lan- 
guages IB alone in an advanced state, those of the Semitic 
idioms, of the Ugro-Altaic tongues, and of the B&-ntu or 
Eaffre dialects of southern Ahica, are still in a backward 
condition ; and the other families of speech existing in the 
world, witii the exception of the Malayo-Polynesian, and 
the Sonorian of North America, have not as yet been treated 
scientifically. Chinese^ it is true, possesses an historical 
grammar, and Mr Yan Eys, in Ids comparative grammar of 
Basque, has endeavoured to solve the problems of thai 
interesting language by a comparison of its various dialects ; 
but in both cases the area of comparison is too small for 
more than a limited success to be attainable. Instead a' 
attempting the questions of universal grammar therefore 
it will be better to confine our attention to three points,-^ 
the fundamental differences in the grammatical conceptioni 
of different groups of knguages, themain rasults of a scien 
tific investigation of Aryan grammar, and the light thrown 
by comparative philology npon the grammar at our own 

The proposition or sentence is the unit and starting-poini 
of speech, and grammar, as we have seen, consists in the 
relations of its several parts one to another, together with 
the expression of them. These relations may be regarded 
from various :point8 of view. In the polysynUietic lan- 
guages of America the sentence is conceived as a wholes nol 
composed of independent words, but, like the thought which 
it expresses, one and indivisible. What we should denote 
by a series of words is consequently denoted by a single 
long compound, — bUiffotchit in Delaware, for instance, signi- 
fying *'give me your pretty little paw," and agUkkigiartor' 
tuvamipokf in Eskimo, *'he goes away hastily and exerts 
himself to write." Individual words can be, and often are, 
extracted from the sentence ; but in this case they stand, 
as it were, outside it, bemg represented by a pronoun within 
the sentence itself. Thus, in Mexican, we can say not only 
ni-totii-temoa, <*I look for flowers," but also ni^p-tenu*^ 
totsitlf where the interpolated guttural is the objective pi»-. 
noun. As a necessary result of this conception of the ses^ 
tence the American languages possess no true verb, each ac$ 
being expressed as a whole by a single word. In Chen^ee, 
for example, while there is no verb signifying **to wash** 
in the abstract, no less than thirteen words are used to 
signify every conceivable mode and object of washing. In 
the incorporating languages, again, of which Basque may 
be taken as a type, the object cannot be conceived except 
as contained in the verbal action. Hence every verbal form 
embodies an objective pronoun, even though the object may 
be separately expressed. If we pass to an isolating lan- 
guage like Chinese, we find the exact converse of that which 
meets us in the polysynthetic tongues, Ser9 each proposi- 



tian or llumght is asalTBed Into its Berenl dementB, and 
tliese are set oyer against one cnother as bo many inde- 
pendent words. The relations of grammar are consequently 
denoted bj position, the particular position of two or more 
words determining the relation they bear to each other. 
The analysis of the sentence has not been carried so far in 
agglutinatLve languages like TurkisL In these the relations 
of grammar are represented by indiHdoal words, which, 
however, are subordinated to the words ezpressing the main 
ideas intended to be in rebtion to one another. The de- 
fining words, or indices of grammatical relations, are, in a 
large number of instances, placed after the words which 
they deBne ; in some cases, howeyer, as, for example, in 
the BA*ntu languages of soutliem Africa, the relation is con- 
cdred from the opposite point of view, the defining words 
being prefixed. The infiezional languages call in the aid 
of a new principK The relations of granmiar are denoted 
ijmbolically either by a change of yowel a change of 
termination, more rarely by a change at the beginning of 
I word. Each idea, together with the relation which it 
bears to the other ideas of a proposition, is thus represented 
hj a single word; that is to say, the ideas which make up 
the elements of a sentence are not conceiyed seyerally and 
lodependentiy, as in Chinese, but as always haying a certain 
eoDuezion with one another. Inflexional languages^ how- 
ever, tend to become analytical by the logical separation of 
^^9 flexion from the idea to which it is attached, though 
tiis primitiye point of yiew is neyer altogether discarded, 
lid traces of flexion remain eyen in English and Persian. 
In fac^ there ia no example of a language which haa wholly 
fonaken the conception of the sentence and the relation of 
ita elements with which it started, although each class of 
languages occasionally trespasses on the grammatical usages 
of &e others. In huiguage^ as elsewhere in nature, there 
ue no sharp lines of division, no sudden leaps ; species 
passes insensibly into species, class into class. At the same 
tune the seyeral types of speech — polysynthetie, isolating, 
Bgglutinatiye^ andmflexional — ^remain clear and fixed; and 
BTen where two languages belong to the same general type, 
B, for instance, an Aryan and a Semitic language in tiie 
inflexional group, or a Eaffre and a Turkish language in 
the egglntinatiye group, we find no certain example of 
gnmmatical interchange. A mixed grammar, in which the 
granmiatical procedure of two distinct families of speech is 
intermingled, is almost, if not altogether, unknown. 

It is obvious, therefore, that grammar constitutes the 
attest and most important bams for a dassiflcation of lan- 
gnages. Words may be borrowed freely by one dialect from 
i&otiier, or, though originally unrelated, may, by the action 
of phonetic decay, come to assume the same forms, while 
the limited ^umber of articulate sounds and conceptiona out 
of which language was first developed, and the similarity 
of the circumstances by Which the fint speakers were every- 
yhers snirounded, naturally produce a resemblance between 
the roots of many unconnected tongues. 'Where, however, 
fte fundamental conceptions of grammar, and the nuichinery 
hf which they are expressed are the same^ we may have no 
hesitation in inferring a common origin. 

The main results of sdentiflc inquiry into the origin and 
pcixnitiye meaning of the forms of Aryan or Indo-European 
grammar may be summed up as follows. We start with 
tons or themes, by which are meant words of two or more 
tyllablea which terminate in a limited number of sounds. 
13iese stems can be classed in groups of two kinds, one in 
which the groups consist of stems of similar meanings and 
dinilar initial syllables, and another in which the flnal 
ijrHables alone coincide. In the first case we have what 
tie termed roots^ the simplest elements into which words 
can be decomposed ; in the second case stems proper, which 
Bay be daciflM at Qoniistiog of sufitoa ftfefeachea to roots. 

Boots, therefore, are merely the matepah out of whic& 
speech can be made, the embodiments of isolated conceptions 
with which the lexicographer alone haa to deal, whereas stems 
present us with words already combined in a sentence 
and embodying the relations of grammar. If we would 
rightiy understand primitive Aryan grammar, we muat con- 
ceive it as having bieen expressed or implied in the suffixes 
of the stems, and in the onler according to which the stems 
were arranged in a sentwce. In other words, the relations 
of grammar were denoted partly by juxtaposition or syntax, 
partly by the suffixes of stems. 

These suffixes were probably at first unmeaning, or rather 
clothed with vague significations, which changed according 
to the place occupied in the sentence by the stom to which 
they were joined. Gradually this vagueness of signification 
disappeared, and particular suflixes came to be set apart 
to represent particular relations of grammar. What had 
hitherto been expressed by mere position, now attached 
itself to the terminations or suffixes of stems, which accord- 
ingly became full-grown words. Some of the snfEbces 
denoted purely grammatical ideaa, that is to say, were 
fiexions; others were dasstficatory, serving to distinguish 
nouns fi;x)m verbs, presents from aorists, objects from agents, 
and the like; while others, again, remained unmeaning 
adjuncts of the root This origin of the flexions explains 
the otherwise strange fact that the aame auffix may sym- 
bolise wholly^difTerant grammatical relations. In Latin, for 
instance, the context and dictionary will alone tell us that 
M1I4-CM is the accusative plural of a noun, and am-aM the 
second person singular of a verb, or that mtu-a is the nomin- 
ative singular of a feminine substantive^ hon-a the accusa- 
tive plural of a neuter adjective^ In short, the flexions 
were originally merely the terkninations of stems which were 
adapted to express tiie various relations of words to each 
other in a sentence, as these gradually presented themselves 
to the consciousness and were extracted from what hod been 
previously implied by position. Necessarily, the same 
suffix might be used sometimes in a classiflcatory, some- 
times in a flexional sense, and sometimes without any 
deflnite sense at all. In the Greek dative-locative w^^onn, 
for example, the suffix -cs is dassificatoiy; in the nomina- 
tive v6B-€if it is flexional 

YHien a particular termination or suffix once acquired a 
special sense, it would be separated in t)iought from the 
stem to which it belonged, and attached in the same sense 
to other stems and other terminations. Thus in modem 
English we can attach the suffix -us to almost any word 
whatsoever, in order to give the latter a transitive meaning, 
and the Greek r6U<r<n, quoted above, really contains no 
less than three suffixes, •<«, frv, and -c, the last two both 
denoting the locative, and coalescing^ through <r/t, into a 
single syllable -oi. The latter instance shows us how two 
or more suffixes denotihg exactiy the same idea may be 
tacked on one to another, if the original force and significa- 
tion of the first of them comes to be forgotten. T^us, in 
Old English ming-tttre was the feminine of tang-tre, 
''singer," but the meaning of the termination has so entirely 
died out of the memory that we have to add the Romanic 
-«n to it if we would still distinguish it from the masccdine 
$inger, A familiar example of the way in which the full 
sense of the exponent of a grammatical idea fades from the 
mind and has to be supplied by a new exponent is afforded 
by the use of expletives in conversational English to denote 
the superlative. •* Very warm " expresses little more than 
the positive, and to represent the intensity of his feelings 
the Englishman has recourse to such expressions as " horri- 
bly warm" like the Gorman "achrecklich warm." 

Such words as "very," "horribly," " schrecklich," illus- 
trate a second mode in w^ch Aryan grammar has found 
means of es^r^wion. Words may lose their true slgnifica- 


G K A M M A K 

tion and bocome die mere exponexkts of grammatical ideas. 
Professor Earlo dividdf all words into pneseniive and tym- 
yoliCf the former denoting objects and conceptions, the ]atter 
the relations which exist between these. Symbolic words, 
therefore, are what the Chinese grammarians call ** empty 
words," — words, that is» which liave been divested of their 
proper signification and senre a grammatical purpose only. 
Many of the clossificatory and some of the flexional suffixes 
of Aryan speech can bo shown to have had this origin. 
Thus the suffix tar, which denotes names of kinship and 
agency, seems to come from the same root as the Latin 
terminus and trans, our througlt^ the Sanskrit tar-dmi, ** I 
pass over,'* and to have primarily signified " one that goes 
through " a thing. Thus, too, the English head or hood, in 
wbrds like ^(xfA^ and brotherhood, is the Anglo-Saxon hdd, 
** character" or " rank /* dom, m kingdom, the Anglo-Saxon 
dom, '^ judgment f and lock or ledge, in wedlock and know- 
ledge, the Anglo-Saxon Idc, "sport" or ** gift" In all these 
cases the '* empty words," after first losing every trace of 
their original significance, have followed the general analogy 
of the language and assumed the form and functions of the 
suffixes with which they had been confused. 

A third mode of representing the relations of grammar is 
by the symbolic use of vowels and diphthongs. In Greek, 
for instance, the distmction between the reduplicated present 
ZS^yx and the reduplicated perfect ScScaxa is indicated by 
a distinction of vowel, and in primitive Aryan gramniar the 
vowel d seems to have been set apart to denote the subjunc- 
tive mood just OS ya or i was set apart to denote the poten- 
tial. So, too, according to H. Hovelacque, the change of 
a into i or u in the parent-Aryan symbolized a change of 
meaning from passive to active. This symbolic use of the 
vowels, which Is the purest application of the principle of 
flexion, is far less extensively carried out in the Aryan than 
in the Semitic languages. The Semitic family of speech is 
therefore a much more characteristic type of the inflexional 
languages than is the Aryan. 

The primitive Aryan noun possessed at least eight cases, 
— nominative, accusative, vocative, instrumental, dative, 
genitive, ablative, and locative. M. Bergaigne has attempted 
to show that the first three of these, th) *' strong cases " as 
they are termed, are really abstracts formed by the suffixes 
•as (-*), -an-, -m, 4, -t-, -4, and. -ya (-»), the plural being 
nothing more than an abstract singular, as may bo readily 
seen by comparing words like the Greek aro-^ and oir(-«, 
which mean precisely the saoie. The remaining " weak " 
C16C3, formed by the suffixes -sma, -sya, -eyd, -yd, -t, -an, -t, 
Jfhi, -su, -t, -a, and -d, ar^ really adjectives and adverba 
No distinction, foreximplo, can be drawn between ''a cup 
of gold " and " a golden cup," and the instrumental, the 
dative, the ablative, and the locative are, when closely ex- 
amined, merely adverbs attached to a verb. The terniin- 
Uions of the strong cases do not displace the accent of the 
item to which they are suffixed ; the suffixes of the weak 
cises, on the other hand, generally draw the accent upon 

According to Hubschmann, the nominative, accusative, 
and genitive cases are purely grammatical, distinguished 
from one another through the exigencies of the sentence 
only, whereas the locative, ablative, and instrumental have 
a logical origin and determine the logical relation which 
the three other cose? bear to each other and the verb. The 
nature of the dative' is left undecided. The locative 
primarily denotes rest in a place, the ablative motion from 
a place, and the instrumental the means or concomitance 
of an action. The dativo HUbschmann regards as "the 
cose of the participant object." Like Hubschmann, Hok- 
weissig divides the cases into two classes, — the one gram- 
matics and the other logical; and his analysis of their 
prlmitiyo moaning is the some aa that of Hflbschmonn, 

except as regards the dative, the primary sonao of which 
he thinks to have been motion towards a place. This is 
also the view of Delbrlick, who makes it denote tendency 
towards an object Delbrfick, however, holds that the 
primary sense of the ablative was that of separation, the 
instrumental originally indicating concomitance, while there 
was a double locative, one used like the ablative absolute 
in Latin, the other baing a locative of the object 

Tlie dual was older than the plural, and after the develo^v 
ment of the latter survived as a merely useless encumbrance, 
of which most of the Aryan languages contrived in time to 
get rid. There are still many savage idioms in which the 
conception of plurality has not advanced beyond that of 
duality. In the Bushman dialects, for instance, the plural, 
or rather that which is more than one, is expressed by 
repeating the word ; thus fu is " mouth," tutu " mouths." 
It may be shown that most of the suffibces of the Aryan 
dual are the longer and piore primitive forms of those of 
the plunil which have grown one of them by the help of 
phonetic decay. The plund of the weak cases, on the 
other band (the accusative alone excepted), was identical 
with the singular of abstract nouns ; so far as both form 
and meaning are concerned, 10 distinctibn can be drawn 
between ojtc? and Im. Similarly, humanity and men 
signify one and tlie same thing, and the use of English 
words like sheep ozflth for both singular and plural shows 
to what on extent our appreciation of number is determined 
by the context rather than by the form of the noun. The 
so-called "broken plurals" of Arabic ond Ethiopic aro 
really singular collectivea. employed to denote the plnroL 

Gender is the product partly of analogy, partly of pho- 
netic decay. In many languages such as Eskimo and Chock- 
taw, its place is taken by a division of objects into animate 
and inammate, while in other knguages they ore separated 
into rational and irrational There are many indications 
that the parent-Aryan in an early stage of its existence 
had no signs of gender at all The terminations of the 
names oifatJier and motJter, pater and mater, for example, 
are exactly the same, and in Latin and Grcsk many diph- 
thongal stems, as well as stems in t or ya and « (like yaw 
and yiicw, ir6\is and Ar9), may be indifferently masculine 
and feminine. Even stems in and a (of the second and 
first declensions), though the first are generally masculine 
and the second generally feminine, by no means invariably 
maintain the rule ; and feminines like humus and oSos, or 
masculines like advena and voXittj^, show that there wna 
a time when these stems also indicated no particular gender, 
bnt owed their subsequent adaptation, the one to mark the 
masculine and the other to mark Che feminine, to the in- 
fluence of analogy. Tlie idea of gender was first suggested 
by the difference between man and woman, male and female, 
and, as in so many languages at the present day, wna 
represented not by any outwit sign but by the meaning of 
the words themselves. When once arrived at» the concep- 
tion of gender was extended to other objects besides those 
to which it properly belonged. The primitive Aiyan did not 
distinguish between subject and object, butpersonifiedobjects 
by ascribing to them the motives and powers of living beings. 
Accordingly they were referred to by different prononnsy 
one class denoting the masculine and another class the 
f eminmo, and the distinction that existed between these two 
classes of pronouns was after a time transferred to the 
nouns. As soon as the preponderant number of stems in o 
in daily use had come to be regarded as masculine on 
account of their meaning, other stems in 0, whatever might 
be their signification, were made to follow the general ana- 
logy, and were similarly classed as masculines. In the same 
way, the suffix % or ya acquired a feminine sense^ and was 
set apart to represent the feminine gender. Unlike the 
S^nitcs, tho Aiyana were not satisfied wit^i these twq 



gendon, maacalluo aiicl feminino. As soon as object tnd 
ftubjoct, patient atid agoiit* were clearly dUtingaished from 
each other, tbero art»o a need fur a third gender, wliich 
•hoold be neither masculine nor feminiae, bat denote things 
withoat life. This third gender was fittingly expressed 
either by tlio objective case nsed as a nominatiTe (e.g.^ 
lY^iun), or by a stem without any case ending at all (^y., 

The adverbial meaning of so many of the cases explains the 
readinesa with which they became crystallised into adverbs 
and prepottitiona. An sdvorb is the attribute of an attri- 
bate, — " the rose smelU sweetly," for example, being resolv- 
able into "the rose has the attribute of scent with the 
furtlier attribute of sweotnesSb" In our own language oiMf, 
twice, needs, are all genitives ; iddom is a dative. The Latin 
and Greek humi and wioi are locatives, faeiUime (JacU- 
Umeil) and c^rvx^c ablatives, vaamj and cl^ instmmentals, 
wdfHK, iiii, and r^XoS genitives. The frequency with which 
particular cases of particular nouns were need in a specif 
fically attributive sense caused them to become, as it were, 
petrified, the other coses of the nouns in question passing 
out of use, and the original force of those that were retained 
being gradually forgotten. Prepositions are adverbs em- 
ployed to defiue noons instead of verbs and adjectives. 
Their appearance in the Aryan languages is comparatively 
Ute, and the Homeric poems allow us to trace their growth 
in Greek. The adverb, originally intended to define the 
verb, came to be construed with the noun, and the govern- 
ment of the cose with which it was construed was accord- 
ingly transferred from the verb to the noun. Thus when 
we read in the Odjfuey (iv. 43), avrovc 8* cur^yoK BtXav SSfiw, 
we sea that cic is still an adverb, and that the accusative is 
governed by the verb ; it is quite otherwise, however, with 
a line like *Arp<tSi;9 8) y^orras doXXcav ^yw 'Avaiuv is 
Kkunfj¥ {IL, I 89.) where the adverl^ has possea into a 
preposition. The some process of transformation is still 
going on in English, where we can say indifierently, *' What 
are you looking at T" using "at " as an adverb, and govern- 
ing the pronoun by the verb, and "At wliat are you look- 
ing t" where "at" has become a preposition. With the 
growth and increase of prepositions the need of the case- 
endings diminished, and in some languages the letter dis- 
appeared altogether. 

Like prepositions, conjunctions also are primarily adverbs 
u^ in a demonstrative and relative sense. Hence most 
of the coig unctions are petrified cases of pronouns. The 
relation between two sentences was originally expressed by 
simply setting them side by side, afterwards by employing 
a demonstrative at the beginning of the second danse to 
refer to the whole preceding one. The relative pronoun can 
be shown to have been in the first instance a demonstrative; 
indeed, we can still use that in English in a relative sense. 
Since the demonstrative at the beginning of the second 
chose represented the first clause, and was consequently an 
attribate of the second, it had to stand in some case, and 
tliis case became a conjunction. How cloedy aUied the 
adverb and the conjunction are may be seen from Greek, 
and Latin, where ins or guum can be used as either the one 
or the other. Our own OAd, it may be observed, has pro- 
bably tlie same root as the Greek locative adverb ht, and 
originally signified " going further." 

Another form of adverb is the infinitive, the adverbial 
force of which appears dearly in such a phrase as " A 
wonderful thing to see." Varioos cases, such as Uie loca- 
tive^ the dative, or the instrumental, are employed in Vedic 
Sanskrit in the sense of the infinitive, besides the bore stem 
or neuter formed by the suffixes man and van. In Greek 
the nenter stem and the dative case were alone retained for 
the purpose. The first is fqund in infinitives like &(/icy and 
^^p«y ^for an earlier ^^»W«v), the i^qopd in the iDfioitiTW 

in -at. Thus the Greek iawat answers letter for letter to 
the Vedic dative ddvdne, ** to give," and tho form ^cu8«r(?ai 
is explained by the Vedic vayodhai, for vayds^lhai, liter- 
ally ** to do living," dkai being the dative of a noun from 
the root dkd^ "to pUce" or '*da" When the form ^«i;. 
8c<r^ had once come into existenca, analogy wss ready to 
create such false imitations as ypaalnurOai or ypa^^ifacoAu. 
The liStin infinitive in -re for -m hss the same origin, 
amare, for instance, being the dative of an old stem amat. 
In ^fieri for fierei or ftueif from the same root as our 
English fte, the original length of the final syllable is pre- 
served. The suflix in -urn is an accusative, like the corre- 
sponding infinitive of classical Sanskrit This origin of the 
infinitive explains the Latin constmction of the accnstetive 
and infinitive. When the Boman said, " Hirer te ad me 
nihil scribere," all that he meant at first was^ " I wonder at 
you for writing nothing to me," where the infinitive was 
merely a dative case used adverbially. 

The history of the infinitive makes it dear how little dis- 
tinction must have been felt at the outset between tlie noun 
and the verb. Indeed, the growth of the verb was a slow 
process. There was a time in the history of Aryan speech 
when it had not as yet risen to the consciousness of the 
speaker, and in the period when the noon did not possess 
a plural there was as yet also no verb. The attachment of 
the first and second personal pronouns, or of suffixes re- 
sembling them, to certain stems, was the first stage in the 
dovdopment of the latter. Like the Semitic verb, the 
Aryan verb seems primarily to have denoted relation only, 
and to have been attached as an attribute to the subject 
The idea of time, however, was soon put into it, and two 
tenses were created, the one expressing a present or con* 
tinnous action, the other an aoristic or momentary one. 
The distinction of sense was symbolized by a distinction 
of pronunciation, the rooteyUable of the aorist being an 
abbreviated form of that of the present TMs abbreviation 
was due to a change in the poeition of the accent (which 
was shifted from the stem-syllable to the termination), and 
this change again was probably occasioned by the prefixing 
of the so^alled augment to the aorist, which survived into 
historical times only in Sanskrit, Zend, and Greek, and the 
origin of which is still a mysteiy. The weight of the first 
syllable in the aorist further caused the person-endings to 
be shortened, and so two sets of person-endings, usually 
termed primary and secondary, sprang into existence. By 
reduplicating the rootsyllable of the present tense a perfect 
was formed ; but originally no distinction was made between 
present and perfect, and Greek verbs like ScSu/u and ^«r« are 
memorials of a time when the difference between "I am 
come " and " I have come" w«s not yet fdt Bednpb'cation 
was further adapted to the expression of intensity and 
desire (in the so-called intensive and desiderative forms). 
By the side of the aorist stood the imperfect, which differed 
from the aorist, so far as outward form was concerned, only 
in possessing the longer and more original stem of the pre- 
sent Indeed, as Brafey first saw, the aorist itself was 
primitivdy an unperfect, and the distinction between aorist 
and imperfect is not older than the period when the stem- 
syllables of certain imperfects were shortened through the 
influence of the accent, and this differentiation of forma 
appropriated to denote a difference between the sense of the 
aorist and the imperfect which was beginning to be fdt 
After the andogy of the imperfect, a pluperfect was created 
out of the perfect by prefixing the augment (of which the 
Greek ifUpaiKw is an illustration) ; though the pluperfect^ 
too, was origindly an imperfect formed from the redupli- 
cated present 

Besides time, mood was also expreased by tho primitive 
Aryan verb, recourse being had to symbolisation for tha 
purpose^ The imperative was represented by the bare stem, 


G B A M M A B 

like the TOoattTe, the accent being drawn back to the fint 
^yllablei though other modes of denoting it soon came into 
TQgae. Possibility was symboliied by the attachment of 
tlie gnfiSz -ya to the stem, probability by the attachment of 
•a and -dy and in this way tiie optBtive and ooignnotiTe 
moods first arose. The creation of a fntare by the help of 
the snG&z -tya seems to belong to the same period in the 
history of the verb. This snffix is probably identical with 
that naed to form a laige class of adjectlYSS and genitiYee 
(like the Greek ixvtNo for trwxrco) ; in this case fntnre time 
will have been regarded as an attribute of the subject^ no 
distinction being drawn, for instance, between " rising sun ^ 
and ^ the sun will rise." It is possible, however, that the 
anziliary yerb ob, "to be,** enters into the compoeltion of 
the future ; if so, the -future will be the product of the 
second stage In the development of the Aryan verb when 
new forms were created by means of composition. The 
mgmatie or first aorist is in favour of this view, as it cer- 
tunly belongs to the age of Aryan unity, and may be a 
compound of the verl^ stem with the auxiliary as. 

After the separation of the Aryan hmguagee, composition 
was largdy employed in the formation of new tenses. Thus 
in Latin we have perfects like terip-n and amo-vt, formed 
by the help of the auxiliaries at (sum) andyVo, while such 
forms as amaveram {amavi-eram) or atnarem (ama-wm) bear 
their Origin on tiieir fac& Bo, too, the future in Latin and 
Old Oeltio (amabOf Irish earvb)jB based upon the substan- 
tive verb fito, '< to be," and the English preterite in -ed goes 
back to a suffixed did, the reduplicated perfect of do. New 
tenses and moods, however, wero created by the aid of 
suffixes as well as by the aid of compoution, or rather wero 
formed from nouns whose stems terminated in the suffixes 
in question. Thus in Greek we have aorists and perfects 
in -tea, and the characteristics of the two passive aorists, ytf 
and ike, are more prob^ly the sufllxes of nominal stems 
\\ iiat tbe roots of ihe two verbs yo, " to go^" and dhd, " to 
place," as Bopp supposed. How late some of these new 
formations were may be seen in Greek, where the Homeric 
poems are still ignorant of the weak future passive, the 
optative future, and the aspirated perfect, and where the 
strong future passive occurs but once and the desideretive 
but twice. On the other hand, many of the older tenses 
were disused and losi In classical Sanskrit^ for instance, 
of the modal aorist fonns the precative and benediotive 
almoet alone remain, while the pluperfecti of which Del- 
brack has found traces in the Yeda, has wholly disappeared. 
The passive voice did not exist in the parent-Aryan 
speech. No need for it had arisen, since such a sentence 
as « I am pleased " could be as well represented by *' This 
ploasea me," or " I please myself." It Was long before the 
speaker was able to ima^e an action without an object, 
and when he did so, it was a neuter or substantival rather 
than a passive verb that he formed. The passive, in fact, 
grew out of the middle or reflexive, and, except in the two 
aorists^ continued to be represented by the middle in Greek. 
So,- too^ in Latin the second person plural is really the 
ndddle participle with ettit understood, and the whole class 
of deponent or reflexive verbs proves that the characteristic 
r which Latin shares with Celtic could have had at the out- 
let no passive force. 

Much light has been thrown on the chamcter and con- 
atruetion of the primitive Aryan sentence by. comparative 
lyntax. In oontradiatinctlbn to Semitic, where the defining 
word foillowq that which is defined, the Aryan hmguagee 

Cthat whidi is defined after that which defines it ; and 
igne has made it clear that the original order of the 
sentence was (1) object^ (2) verb, and (3^ subject Greater 
complication of thought and its expression, the eonnexion 
of sentences by the aid of coi^unctions^ and rhetorical 
inversioa caused that dislocation of the original order of the 

whioh leadiaa ill Eliminating pcrfnt in the involvBd 
periods of Latin Utecatoxe. Our own language still remaina 
true, howBfar, to the syntax of the parent-Aryan when it 
acts both adjective and genitive before the nouns which 
they define. In oonrse of time a distinction came to be 
made between an attribute used as a mere quaHfieative and 
an attribute used predioativtty, and this disthiotion was 
expressed by placing the predicate in oppositiou to the 
subject and accordingly after it The opposition wae of 
itsdf sufficient to indicate the logical copula, or subeiantive 
verb ; indeed, the word which afterwards commonly stood 
for the latter at first aignified ** existence^" and it wae only 
through the wear and tear of time that a phrase like Deu* 
hornu at, ''God exists as good," came to mean simply 
** God is good." It 18 needless to obserTO that neither of 
the two articles was known to the parent-Aryan ; indeed, 
the definite article^ which is merely a decayed demonstrative 
pronoun, has not yet been developed in several of the 
languagee of the Axysn fimiily. 

We must now gUmce briefly at the results of a scientific 
investigation of English grammar and the modifications 
they necessitate in our conception of it The idea that the 
free use of speech is tied down by the rules of the gram- 
marian must first be given up ; all that the grammarian 
can doJs to formulate the current uses of his time, which 
are determined by habit and custom, and are accordingly 
in a perpetual atate of flux. We must next get rid of tiie 
notion that English grammar should be modelled after that 
of ancient Rome ; until we do so we shall never understand 
even the elementary principles upon which it is based. Wo 
caimot speak of dedensions, smce English has no genden 
except in the pronouns of the third person, and no cases 
except the genitive and a few faint traces of on old dative. 
Its verbal conjugation is essentially diflerent from that of 
an inflexional limguage like Latin, and cannot be com- 
pressed into the same categories. In English the syntax 
has been enlaiged at the expense of the accidence ; position 
has taken the place of forms. To speak of an a4jective 
** agreeing " wiUi its substantive is as misleading as to speak 
of a verb "governing" a case. In fact, the distinction 
between noun and adjective is inapplicable to English 
grammar, and should be replaced by a distinction between 
objective andTattributive words. In a phrase like ** this is 
a cannon," cannon is otrjective ; in a phrase like '< a cannon- 
ball," it is attributive ; and to call it a substantive in the 
one case and an adjective in'the other, is only to introduce 
confusion. With the exception of the nominative, the 
various forms of the noun are all attributive ; there is no 
difference, for example, between '* doing a thing" and 
» doing badly." Apart from the personal pronouns, the 
accusative of the classical languages can be repreeented only 
by position ; but if we were to say that a noun which follows 
a verb is in the accusative case we ahould have to define 
** king " as an accusative in such sentences as ''he became 
king" or " he is king." In conversational English " it is 
me" is as comet as "c'eet moi" in French, or "det er 
mig" in Danish ; the literary "it is I " is due to the in- 
finence of classical grammar. The combination of noun or 
pronoun and preposition results in a compound attribute. 
As for the -verb, Mr Sweet has well said that "the really 
characteriatic feature of the English finite verb is its in- 
ability to stand alone without a pronominal prefix^" Thus 
"dream" by itaelf is a noun ; " I dream" is a verb. The 
place of the pronominal prefix may be taken by a noun, 
though both poetry and vulgar English f requentiy insert 
the pronoun even when the noun precedes. The number 
of inflected verbal forms is but small, being confined to the 
third person singular and the special forms of the preterite 
and past partieiple, though the latter may with more justice 
be re^nded as bdonging to the province of the kxioographOT 

G R A — G R A 


nther tliaii to that of thegrammariao. Th» inflected sub- 
janctiTB (6tf, were, tave in ''God aaye the Qneen," ise.) b 
npidlj diaappearing. New inflected fonne, however, are 
coming into existence; at all erents, we haye as good a right 
to consider voni, shant, eatU new inflected forms as the 
Frsneh aimerui (amare habeo), ainurait (amare habebam). 
If the ordinaiy grammars are correct in treating forms like 
•* I am loving/ "I was lovbg," "I did lore,* as separate 
teoae^ they are strangely inconsistent in omitting to notice 
the eqoally important emphatic form '*! do lore" or the 
D^gatlTeform '^Ido not loTe ('*I don't love"), as well 
IS the semi-inflexional "HI love* <<he*B loYing." It is 
tme that these latter contracted forms are heard only in 
conyereation and not seen in boohs; bat the grammar of a 
Ungoage, it most be remembered, is made by those who 
■peak it and not by the printers. 

Oar school grammars are the inheritance we have 
receiyed from Greece and Rome. The necessities of 
ihetorio obliged the Sophists to inyestigate the stractare of 
the Greek language, and to them was accordingly dne the 
first analysis of Greek grammar. Protagoras distingaished 
the three genders and the verbal moods, while Prodicns 
hosted himself with the definition of synonyms. Aristotle, 
taking the nde of Democritas, who had held that the 
meaning of words is pat into them by the speaker, and that 
there is no necessary connexion between sotmd and sense^ 
laid down that^words '* symbolize " objects according to the 
wiU of those who nse them» and added to the i¥o/ia or 
"nonn," and the Jt^/ia or ''verb,'' the crwScvfMg or ^'particle." 
He also introduced the term vrwrts, <* case/ to denote any 
flexion whatsoever. He farther divided nouns into simple 
tnd compound, invented for the neuter another name than 
that given by Protagoras, and starting from the termination 
of the nominative singidar, endeavoured to ascertain the 
mles for indicating a difierence of gender. Aristotle was 
foQowod by the Stoics^ who separated the fy$pov or 
"srtide" from the particles, determined a fifth part of 
ipeedi, the ntrScxTiT^ or *' adverb," confined the term 
" case " to the flexions of tiie nouns, distinguishing the 
four principal cases by names, and divided the verb 
into its tenses, moods, and classes. Heanwhfle the Alez- 
indrian critics were studying the language of Homer and 
the Attic writers, and comparing it with the language of 
their own day, the result being a minute examination of 
&e facts and rules of grammar. Two schools of gram- 
noriaofl sprang up, — ^the Anabgists, headed by Aristarchus, 
who held that a strict law of analogy existed between idea 
iod word, and refused to admit exceptions to the gram- 
matical mles they laid down, and the Anomalists, who 
denied general ndes of any kind, except in so far as they 
were consecrated by custouL Foremost among the Anoma- 
iiata was Crates of Hallos, the leader of the Pergamenian 
•dioo], to whom we owe the flrst formal Greek grammar 
and collection of the graounatical facta obtained by the 
lahoan of the Alexandrian critics, as well as an attempt to 
reform Greek orthography. The immediate cause of this 
grammar seems to have been a comparison of Latin with 
Qreek, Crates havmg lectured on the subject while ambas- 
Bidor of Attains at Bome in 169 B.a The seal with whidi 
the Romans threw themselvee into the >tudyof Qnek re- 
salted in the school grammar of Dionytius Thraz, a pupil 
of Aristaichus, which he published at Rome in the time ef 
Fbmpey, and which is stfll in existence. Latiii gramoaan 
vera BOOH modelled upon it, and the attempt to translate 
the technical terms of tne Greek grammarians into Latin 
vaa productive of numerous blunders which have been per- 
petuated to our own day. Thus tenua is a mistranslation 
of the Greek ^iXa, "unaspirated ; * ^«ae<wM of 70^ the 
case ''of the genus;** axu$aii9UB of olnarur^, the case *'of 
the object ; " injm^^ of hrapfy4am, <'. without a second- 

ary meaning " of tense or person. Now names wore coined 
to denote forms poesessed by Latin and not by Greek ; 
aUative, for instance, was invented by Julias Cdcsar, who 
also wrote a treatise De Aualogicu By the 2d centary of 
the Christian era the dispute between the Anomalists and 
the Analogists was finally settled, analogy beiog recognized 
as the principle that underlies language, though every rule 
admits of exceptions. Two eminent gnimmorians of Alex- 
andria, ApoUonius Dyscolus and his son Herodian, summed 
up the labours and controversies of their predocc&iors, and 
upon their works were based the Latin grammar composed 
by ^lius Donatus in the 4th century, and tlio oighteen 
books on grammar compiled by Priscian in tho age of 
Justinian. The grammar of Donatus dominated tho schools 
of ^e Middle Ages, and, along with the productions of 
Priscian, formed the type and source of the Lati** and Greek 
school-grammars of modem Earope. 

A few words remain to be said, in conclusion, on the 
bearing of a scientific study of grammar upon tho practical t 
task of teaching and learning foreign languages.^ The 
grammar of a language is not to be confined within the 
rules hud down by granunarians, much less is it the creation 
of grammarians, and consequently the usual mode of makin g 
the pupil learn by heart certain fixed rnlea and pan^igms 
not only gives a false idea of what grainmar really is, but 
also throws obstacles in the way of acquiring it The nnit 
of speech is the sentence; and it is with the sentence 
therefore, and not with lists of words and forms, that the 
pupil should begin. When once a sufficient number of 
sentences has been, so to speak, assimilated, it will be e^ 
to analyse them into their component parts, to show the 
reUtions that these bear to one another, and to indicate the 
nature and varieties of the latter. In this way the learner 
will be prevented from regarding granmiar as a piece of 
dead mechanism or a Chinese puzde, of which the parts 
must be fitted together in accordance with certain artificial 
rules, and will realize that it is allying organism which haa 
a history and a reason of its own. The method of nature 
and science alike is analytic; and if we would learn a foreign 
language properly we must leam it as we did our mother* 
tongue, by first mastering the expression of^ a complete 
thought and then breaking up this expression into its 
several dements. 

8«e SUiathd, ChardkUridik dor haupMehliehdem Typm det 
Spraekbaua, Berlin, 1860; Bohleicher, Compendium of tha Com- 
varaiive Gramwuar <jt tht Indo-European Languageo, trtnalaiod by 
H. BesdftlU London, 1874 ; Poxxi, Aryan Philology according to M« 
mod roeent Seaeardut, tranaUtcd by £. 3. Boberts, London, 1879; 
Sayo^ IntrodudUm to tho Seitnee qf LangungCy London, 1679: 
Lenoh, Dio Sprwshphilooophic der AUen, Bonn, 1888-41 ; Steinthsl, 
CfooehiehU dor Sprachviooenochqft bei den Orieehen und JUhnem mil 
booonderer BOektieht auf die Logik, Berlin. 1863 ; Delbriick, JUaiiw 
Loealio Inatrwnentalit in AUinditchen, laUiniochen, Orieehiaehen, 
und JkuUehon, Berlin, 1864 : Jolly, £in Kapitel vergUiehendor 
Sfniax. Unnich, 1878; Hubachmann, Zur Canttlehre, Mnnieh, 
1876 ; HoUweiarig, WakrheU und Irrlhum der loealiMiaeken Catuo' 
theorie, Leipaic. 1877; Drocger, Historioehe Syntax der Lateinioehon 
Spraehe, Leipaic, 1874-76; Sweet, Word*, Logic, and Orammar, 
London, 1876. ^ (A. H. a) 

GRAMMONT (Belgian, OteraerdBhergen), a town of 
Belgium, province of East Flanden, is situated on both 
sides of the Pender, 21 miles 3.3.E, of Ghent Xt is sur- 
rounded by walls and possesses a college, a town-hall, and 
a hospital. Its principal manufactures are lace, eotton, and 
woollen goods, leather, beer, paper, and tobacco ; and there 
are also bleaching and dyeing works. The population in 

1866 was 886l7^ ^ ^ 

GBAMONT, Phiumbt, Pouht db (1621-1707). A 
happy acddent has preserved for the instruction of mankind 
rather than for thur edification the portrait and the histoiy 
of a man who entirely represents one section, fortunately a 
small section, of the society of his day. Of good family, 
rich, a g^ant soldier, endowed with every kind of clever* 


G R A — G R A 

ness, the Oonnt de Qnunout endeayoared to live the life of 
nnrestrained eigoyment. In this he so far soooeeded that» 
altkough the f oUowing contnry f urnishod more nnmerons 
ezataiples of his kind, he may be taken as the most finished 
opedmen. His ideal man was a being without conscience^ 
without principle, without religion, without a souL At 
the court of Charles IL he found companions like himself, 
—women without Tirtue, men without honour, jet disguised 
and adorned with courtly manners and that external refine- 
ment which did duty for principle; and had it not been 
that his brother-in-law, Hamilton, conceived the design of 
writing the memoirs which have made him famous, 
Gramont would have been as entirely forgotten as most 
of his friends, savo for a brief mention by St Evremond 
and another by Bussy Babntin in that little-viuted gallery 
of portraits, the Histoire Amotereute. ^ His grandfather had 
the distinction of being husband to' Diane d'Andouiua^ 
la heUe Goritande, one of the mistresses of Heniy IV. 
The grandson always regretted that the king had not 
acknowledged his father for his own son, lamenting even 
in the presence of Louis XIV. that his family had missed 
the chance of becoming, in this illegitimate fashion, a 
branch of the royal line. The anecdote ia^eutirely char- 
acteristic. It was at first proposed to enter him in the 
church, but he speedily perceived that his vocation was not 
ecclesiastical, and joined the army, in which he saw a 
great deal of active service, and was rewarded with the 
governorship of the Pays d'Aunis, and with othe? small 
posts. He crossed over to England during the protectorate 
of CromwelL In the year 1662, two years after the restorer 
tion of Charles IL, he was exiled from the French court 
and again repaired to London, where he found such a 
welcome as was due to lus manners, lus gaiety, his 
extraordinary good spirits, and his love of gamblings 
intrigue^ gallantly, and pleasure. It is the period of lus 
residence at the English court which forms the greater 
part of Hamilton's memoirs. He is described by Bussy 
Babutin as having ^'laughing eyes, a well-formed nose, 
a pretty mouth, a little dunple in the chin which gave an 
agreeable effect to the whole face, a certain finesse in his 
countenance, and a fairly good stature but for a stoop." 
In the whole English court there was no one more full of 
wit, more avid of pleasure, more devoid of all moral 
restraint^ not even Bochester himself, than the Count de 
GramontL Naturally, the court being what it was, there 
was no one more popular. In a court where the women 
vied with each other for the king^ favour, where* the men 
habitually cheated at play, seduced their friends' wives, and 
corrupted their friends' daughters, that man would be most 
popular in whom the absence of principle became^ by reason 
of his graoe^ Mpr»f» and elegance, in itself a recommendation. 
Gramont was as purely a sensualist as any Boman of the 
later empire. 

He married, in London, bnt on compulsion, the sister of 
his future biographer. Miss Hamilton, who, her brother tells 
us in the memoirs, was able to fizhis affections. The state- 
ment must be received with some qualifications. The count, 
it is true, was by no means young when he married. At 
the same time, he *< galantisait " for many yearn afterwards^ 
and, in fact, to the very end of a long lifa He was the 
only old man, says Kinon de I'Endos, who could affect the 
follies of youth without being ridiculous. In fact, Gramont, 
like La Fontaine, was a spoiled child, to whom everything 
was allowed, and who repaid indulgence by perpetuid hioh 
spirits, and a continnal flow of wit and hon$ moU, At tibie 
age of seventy-five he had a dangerous illness, daring which 
he became reconciled, in lus way, to the church, bnt on 
recovery relapsed into his old haUts. At eighty he either 
dictated or revised his own memoirs, written by his brother- 
feo-law Antony Hamilton, When they were j&^oshed he sold 

tho manoscript for 1500 francs and kept most of the money 
himself. FonteneUe, then censor of the press, refused to 
license the work, from considerations of respect to the old 
man who had so strangely exposed in its pages the whole 
of his character. These scruples were overcome by the count 
himiijelf, who had the pleasure of seeing lus biography appear 
in hu own lifetime, and of laughing with the rest of the 
world at his own rogueries at cards, his amorous adventures^ 
and his secret intrigues. 

He died at the great age of eighty-six. His biographer 
Hamilton died thirteen years later at the age of seventy- 
four. The memoirs of the Count de Gramont are not to 
be recommended for general reading; yet th^ have the 
merit of being true ; in no other work is the reality 
of that profii^te society of St James's so vividly ex- 
pressed; in no other contemporary memoirs is there so 
much wit, such grace of style, such skill in portraiture. 
Numerous editions and translations have been issued of this 
work, whose popularity seems destined to continue and 

GBAMFUS lOrca gladiator^ Locep.), a cetacean belong- 
ing to the JDelphinida or dolphin fondly, and characterised 
by its rounded head without distinct beak, its high dorsal 
fin, and its large conical permanent teetL Its upper part 
is of a nearly unifonn glossy black colour, and tiie under 
part white, with a strip of the same colour over each eye. 
The name "grampus" is derived from the French grand 
pomon, through the Norman grapoii. It is also known as 
the ** Idller," in allnsion to its iecodty in attacking its prey, 
which consists largely of seals, poi]poise8, and the smaller 
species of dolphins; Its fierceness is only equalled by its 
voracify, which is such that in a specimen measuring 21 
feet in length, dissected by Professor Eschricht, the remains 
of fourteen seals and thirteen porpoises were found, while 
the animal appeared to have been choked in the endeavour 
to swallow another seal, the skin of which was found en^ 
tangled in its teeth. They also pursue and commit great 
havoc among the bulky but gentie belugas or white wholes, 
which sometimes throw themselves ashore in order to escape 
from their remorseless persecutors. The grampus is an 
inhabitant of northern seas, occurring on {he shores of 
Greenland, and having bten caught^ although rarely, as far 
south as the Mediterranean. It is not conmion, dthoujgh 
there are numerous instances of its capture, on the British 
coast& - The Utest of these occurred in Maroh 1876, about 
a mile to the west of Granton, on the Firth of Forth. The 
creature on being dragged ashore^ while still alive^ was said 
by the onlookers to have given forth shrill piercing cries 
somewhat resembling in tlwir sharpness a woman's voiceL 
Thb specimen was an adidt male^ and measured 21 feet 10 
inches along the curve of the back, with a girth of 13 
feet It had 24 teeth in ^h jaw, the front tooth on each 
side of the lower jaw being exceedingly small and almost 
hidden by the overlapping of the gum, while the two 
immediately succeeding these on each side were worn 
down almost to the level of the gum. A striking feature 
in the grampus is the high dorsal fin, which in the specimen 
mentioned measured within 2 inches of 4 feet in height 

GBAN (the ancient latrogranum, whence Hungarian 
BuUrgom, and Latin Strigonium), the capital of a county 
of the same name, seat of tiie prince primate, and former^ 
a royal free city, is situated on the right bank of the 
Danube, nearly opposite the oonfiuence of the Garam (Gran), 
25 miloB nortii-west of Buda, 47* 46' N. kt, 18* 44' K 
long. It may be generally divided into the town proper, 
the episcopal quarter, also called Yiziviros (Watertown), 
and tlie communes of St Thomas and of St George. The 
finest terraces and public buildings are to be found in tho 
two first-named portions of the town. On an elevated and 
commanding position, where once a fortress stpod. are th% 

a R A-OR A 


ieminaxy <uid tti«ological intiitote for the oducatlon of 
priests, tlie residences of the chapter, and the basilica. 
This cathedral, commenced in 1821, consecrated in 1356, 
and completed in 1870, is bailt after the model of 
St Peter's at Borne, and is one of the finest churches in 
Hnnffoiy. Among the other public edifices and educa- 
tions ertablishments, besides several churches and two 
monastic houses, are the archiepiscopal residence^ the county 
and town halls, a training schod for teachers, an upper 
gymnasium, a hospital, a library, a ssTings-bank, Ac. The 
population in 1870 was 8780, chiefly employed in cloth- 
weaying, wine-makings and agricultural pursuits. There is 
connexion with the market-town of PArkAny on the left 
bank of the Danube by moans of a bridge of boats. 

Gran is one of the oldest towns of Hungary, and it famous 
a^ tho birthplace of St Stephen, the first prince croKnod ** a{K»tolio 
king'* of Hungary. During the early times of t^e Hunoariau 
moiiarcliy it was the most important mercantile centre in the 
eoontxy, and it was the meeting place of the diets of 1016, 1111, 
1114. and ]2.''>6. It was alinoHt completely destroyed by Tartar 
hordes in 1241, but was rebuilt and fortified by King Beta IV. 
In 1543 it fell into tho hands of tho Turks, from whom it was 
rccoTered, in 1595, by Carl von Mansfeld. In 1604 it rererted 
to the Turks, who held it till 1683, when it was rwained by the 
Baited forces of John Sobieski. king of Poland, and Prince Charles 
of Lorraine. In 1708 it was declared a tree city by Joseph I. On 
the 13th April 1818 it was iwrtly destroyed by firt. Oran lay in 
the direct ronto of the Tictorions revolutionary campaign of April 
1849. Since 1876 its dvii privileges have Doen of a corporate 

GRANADA, a modem province of Spain, consisting of 
tho central portion of the old kingdom of the same name, 
13 bounded on the N. and N.E. by Jaen, Albocete, and 
Morcla, on the £. by Almoria, ou tho S. by tho Meditor- 
nnean, and on the W. by Malaga and Cordova, having an 
area of 4937 English square miles and an estimated popalor- 
tion (1870) of 485,346. It includes, and indeed chiefly 
(onsists of, the western anl loftier portion of the Sierra 
Nevada, wldch in the peaks Cerro de Muihaoen and Picacho 
de la Yelota, overlooking the town of Qranado, attains the 
heights of 11,781 and 11,597 feet respectively. From the 
central chain of this Sierra all tlie principal riven of the 
province taVe their rise : — the Quadianamenor which, flowing 
post Quadix in a northerly direction, falls into the Quadal- 
quivir in the neighbourhood of CJbeda ; tho Qenil whicli, 
after traversing the vega of Qronada, leaves the province a 
little to the westward of Loja, and joins the Guadalquivir 
betinzt Cordova and Seville ; and the Rio Grande which 
falls into the Mediterranean at MotrlL The climate in tlie 
Ipwer valleys and the narrow fringe along the coast is 
warm, but on the higher grounds of the interior is somewhat 
levere; and the vegetation varies accordingly from the 
subtropical to tho dpine. The soil of the plains is very 
productive, and that of the vega of Granada is considered 
the richest in the whole peninsula ; from the days of the 
Moors it has been subjected to most careful and systematic 
irrigation, and it continues to yield in great abundance and 
in good quality wheat, barley, maixe, wine, oil, sugar, flax, 
cotton, sUk, and almost every variety of fruit There are 
productive mines of lead, silver, copper, zinc, and man- 
ganese, which In 1866 gave employment to 1099 persons ; 
mining indeed, with various agricultural and horticultural 
operations, induding bee-farming, constitutes the staple 
industry of the province. In the mountains immediately 
surrounding the city of Granada occur many kinds of ala- 
baster, some of which are very fine ; there are also qnanti- 
ties of jasper and other precious stones in considerable 
variety. Mineral waters, chiefly chalybeate and sulphurous, 
are abundant, the most important springs being those of 
Alhama, which have a temperature of 118* Fohr. The 
chief centres of population are, bemdes Granada, the capital, 
Motril, Alhama, Loja, Guadiz, and Huescar. Apart from 
the great highways traverung the province^ which are ex- 

cellent, the means of cotnibttnlcatton tth few, and on the 
whole bad. The only railway is that which connects 
Granada with Bobadilla on the Mahga and Cordova line. 

Daring the Soman period, Granada from the time of Augustus 
formed an nndistinguished portion of the province of HeUca, ol 
which the four eontcnt%ts juridiH were Cadiz, Curdora, Ecijs, and 
Seville. Along with the rest of Andahicia, ss a result of the great 
invasion from the north in the 6th century, it fell to the lot of th« 
Vandals. Under the oaliphs of Cordova, onirards from the 8th 
century, the toim of Grenada rapidly gsined in importance, and 
ultimately became the seat of a provincial government, which, after 
the fall of the Ommiades (lOM), ranked with Seville, Jaen, and 
others as an independent prineipality. By the conquests of 8t 
Ferdinand in the first half of the 18th century, Granada was left 
the sole representative of the Mahometan power in Spain ; and even 
it was compelled to pay tribute to the sovenigns or Custile. The 
limiU of the kingdom at that time were nearly identical with those 
of tho province prior to 1888, the modem provinces of Malaga and 
Aluiena being until that date included. It u said to have contained 
a population of 8.000,000, and to have had conaidorable commerce, 
especially with Italy in sUk. On the capitulation of Boabdil in 
January 1402, Granada was united to the crown of Castile, but with 
special privileges which were afterwards treacherously withdrawn. 

GRANADA, tlie capital of the above province, is situated 
at the confluence of the Darro and the Genii, not far from 
the base of the Sierra Nevada (37* 13' N. lat, 3* 41' W. 
long). Different suggestions hive been made as to the 
etymology of the name, which is rather obscure, — the least 

I'lott of Granada. 

probable being toat it is derived from granada, " a pomu 
granate," in allusion to the abundance of pomegranate trews 
in its neighbourhood. The Moors called it Kamattah or 
Karnattiih-al-Yahoud, and possibly the name is compoaed 
of the Arabic words htm, " a hill,'* and -zaUah, " strabger *• 
—the "city" or "hill of strangert." Granada is built 



portly on IofbI gcound near Uie QenH and partly en tltt 
dopes of two ac^aceiit hiUi, at an elevation of abont 2300 
feet above tbe sea. * The more ancient qnarteia of the town 
stUl retain much of the Moorish style, bat the modem part 
is somewhat commonplace. It contains several sqnareSi d 
which the most remarkable is the Blbarramblai where 
tonmamenfcB were f ormedy held. There is also a beantif ol 
shady walk, called the Alameda^ which is one of the most 
frequented promenadea The dd 'city comprises the 
faubourgs of Antequerueh^ Alcamba, Alhambra^ and 
Albaicin, the List being named after the settlers who came 
from Baeza, after the capture of that city by St Ferdinand. 
For a detailed account of the Alhambra the reader is referred 
to the spedal article, vol L p. 570. The Anteqnemela 
and Albucin are mostly inhabited by the working Heiwes 
In the cemetery of the latter there are still a few ruins of 
an ancient mosque^ The town proper contains a great 
number of churches and other pnblio edifices. The 
cathedral, a somewhat heavy and irregular buildings was 
begun in 1529 by Diego de Siloe, and finished in 1639. 
It is {Profusely ornamented with jasper and coloured marble 
and surmounted by a dome ; and it contains several valuable 
pointings by Alonso Cano, portraits of Ferdinand akid 
Isabella by Rincon, and marble statues of several kings and 
queens of Spain. In one of its numerous chapeb (the 
Chapd Royal) are buried their << OathoBo Migesties^'' and 
FhiLip and Juana. The church of Kueetra Sefiora de las 
Angnstias has a splendid high altar and fine toweis. That 
of St Jos^ is an elegant modem building Otlier remark* 
able edifices are the monastery of St Gertnimo, founded by 
Qonzalo de Cordova, who is buried there; the Oarthnsian 
convmt (Cartiqa) adorned w^th pamtings by Murillo^ 
Morales, and Cano ; the university, founded in 1531 by 
Charles Y.; and the library. Qranada is the birthpUoe A 
many eminent writers and artists, both Mahometan, and 
Christian; among the latter may be mentioned Fray Luis 
de Granada (1505); Hurtado de Mendosa (1505)) the 
historian of the war of Granada; Alonso Cano (1601), the 
great painter ; and Moya (1610), who was both painter and 
sculptor. The climate of the town is pleasant and healthy^ 
especially during the spring and summer months. Its manu- 
factures are uuimportanty the chief being coarse woollen 
stufiiB, hats, paper, saltpetre^ and gunpowder. Silk-weaTing 
was once extensively carried on, and large quantitieB of silk 
were exported to Itdy, France, Germany, and even America; 
but the production no^v js very limited. The. education of 
the lower classes is much neglected, the city having only a 
few insignificant schools. In the year 1 878 the population 
amounted to about 75,000. 

The hiBtoiy of GrooaiU does not go bsck frr, if at all, into the 
Boman period (for it is not to be canfomided with the snciant 
lUiberis); and even nnder the Hooxs it held e pkce of very 
fubordinato importance until the period of the conquests of St 
Ferdinand, when it becomo the exclnsiTO seat of Isliun in Spain, 
and rose to almost nnparallelod splendour, nnder Mohainmed>£hn« 
Alahmar, the bnilder of the Alhambra. It is said in its best days 
to have had 400,000 inhabitants, 70,000 hoosea^ and eO,000 
wairiors, bnt this is probably an ezamration. In the 16th een- 
tnry it was the last stronghold of tiieMoors against the Christian 
forces nnder Ferdinand and Isabella, and alter a long siege it was 
iorrendered by Boabdil on 2d Janaary 1492. From that time 
Granada's wealth and magnificence rapidly decieaaod till 161 0^ when 
the Moors were expelled from Spain. 

GRANADA, a city of Central America, atate of Nicar- 
agua, is situated on the N. W. bank of the Lake of Nicar- 
agua, 30 miles N.N.W. of the town of that name. The 
suburbs are composed of cane huts occupied by the poorer 
inhabitants, but th^ city proper is formed of one-storied 
houses built of adobes or sun-dried bricks^ roofed with tiles. 
They have balconied windows, and are surrounded by court- 
yards with ornamental gateways. It possesses several old 
drarchea and the remains of andenl fortiflottonai ^y 

neaiia of the lake and the river San Joan, it commnnieatea 
witiitheOaiibbeaa 8e% and carries on a eonaidemble trade 
in cocoa, cochineal, indigOi and hides. The steamer 
^^Ooboig" in the end of 1878, after several unsuccessful 
attempts, f oreed a passage up the river San Juan from the 
sea to Lake Nicaragoa, thua eatablishing steam navigation 
betVreen Qranada, the Bay de la Vieige, San Qeorge, and 
other towns, and direct commnnication between &oyton 
and Qranada. The feat is of importance in view of the 
project of constructing an oceanic canal by this route. 

Oraaada was foondsd by Fnndsoo Femandes ds Cordova in 
1522, and he areoted a fort for its protection. At sn early period 
it sarpaased Leon in importance, and was one of the rieh^ eitiea 
in North America. It suffered greatly from the attacin of pirates 
in the latter half of the 17th oentnry, and in 1606 waa completely 
aaeked by them. In 1856 it waa taken by the filiboater William 
Walker, and partially .destroyed by fire, and though retaken in 1857 
It haa never recovered ita former prosperity, a great part of it being 
atill in mina. The population is about 10,000. 

QRANADA, Luia db (1604-1688), a Spanish preacher 
and ascetic writer, was bom of poor parents at Qranada in 
1604. At five years of age he was left an orphan, bnt the 
Oonde de Tendllla, alcdde of Alhambra, having accident- 
aUy observed his singular intelligence, took him under hia 
protection and had him educated wiUi his own sons. At 
the age of nineteen he entered the Dominican couTcnt of 
Santa Cruz, Qranada, whence he went to the college of St 
Qregory, Yalladolid. After completing hietbeoli^gical edu- 
cation he was named prior of the convent ol Sceila Coeli, 
where he exercised his preaching gifts under the direction 
of the celebrated orator Juan de Avila, whom he subse- 
quently rivalled, if he did not surpass him, in eloquence. 
Having been invited by Oardinal Henry, infanta of 
Pcartu^ and archbishop of Evora, to Badajos in 1665, he 
founded a monastery there, and two yean later was elected 
provincial of Portugal He was also appointed confessor 
and councillor to the queen regent^ but he declined promo- 
tion to the archbishopric of Braga, and on the expiry of his 
provincial office in 1661 he retired to a Dominican convent 
afr Lisbon, where he died in 1688. Luis de Qranada en- 
Joyed the reputation of being the first ecclesiastical orator 
of his day, and his description of the ** descent into hell " 
is onet of Uie finest specimens of eloquence in the Spanish 
language. He abo acquired great fame as a mystic writer, 
lus €htia de Feeadores, or Owde to Sinners, first pnUished 
in I6669 being still a fiivourite book of devotion -in Spain, 
and having been translated into nearly every European 

His pnndpal ether woiks aro Libra dt la Oradon y Meditaeien, 
Salamanca, 1607; IntroduecMn al rimMo d* la Fi^ Salamanca, 
15S2; JthtttriMEeeUtUidkcBttimderaHonseoneion^ VI., 

lisbon, 1676 ; SUna looorvm eo«URtm<iis» omnUhuM mtM condoma- 
toribui ntesttaria, 1682 ; and aeveral series of anmona. A eolleoted 
edition of the works of Lnia de firanada waa published by Planta 
at Antwerp, In 1672, at the expense of the dnke of AlvS, end by 
Lnia ICefionl, Kadiid, in 1667. afterwarda reprinted at variona 
periods. See prefaoa to this edition of hia works; preliMs to Quia 
de TteadertM, kadrid, 1781; BibUoteea dt Autortt JEap., torn, vi, 
viu., zL; Tkiknoi^tSidorvfifSpimiALUenawrt; and£ng.Baret, 
EtiL delalHL iqNtsmob. Ploia, 1868. 

QRANADILLA, the name applied to Pauiflora qua- 
drangvlaru, Linn., a plant of the natural order Patsiflareof, 
a native of tropical America^ having smooth, cordate, ovate, 
or acuminate leaves; petioles beanng from 4 to 6 glands; 
an emetic and narcotic root ; acented flowers ; and a hirge, 
obbng fruit, containing numerous seeds^ imbedded in a 
subacid edible pulp. The granadilla ia sometimes grown in 
British hothouses. Hie f nuts of several other species 01 • 
PoMHjlara are eaten. P, lavri/olia is the *' water lemon," 
and P. sMtfiforsiwthe *' sweet calabash*' of the West Indies. 

QBAN OEkOOi an extensive region in the heart of 
South America, whidi Btretchee from 90* to 29* of & kt, and 
bekmgB partly to Bolivia and partly to the' Argentine 
Bepublie^ the boundaiy befcwten m two elates coinciding 

OB A-aE A 


triUi l^e parallel 3d*. TU tftt is ^fttimaUd at tWt 
425,000 sqtiBn ihQm, or mor* tlun twiet tiu area of France, 
tod the gMter portion is etill unexplored. It all belongs 
to the La Plata basin and in general terme may be deeeribed 
as a plain inclining towards the &£. and watered by the 
Pilcomayo, the Yermejo, and other tributaries of the Para- 
guay. - The northern portion, lying within the region of 
trofncal raina, has a profusion of marshes and lakes, while 
the aouthem portion is a dry cactus-growing steppe, ezcent 
in the neighbourhood of the riTers, which annually sub- 
merge large aress with the surplus water they bring from 
the north. The whole of the G*'an Chaco is still in the 
hands of the Indians, who are just beginning tp learn a 
little agriculture, — ^to grow pumpkins, water melons, and 
maize; but the richness and extent of its forests and pas- 
tures will certainly secure the country a prosperous future. 
It possesses more timber suitable for erery purpose than the 
whole of Europe; it already exports large numbers of cattle 
to the neighbouring states ; and, according to Majot Host^ 
it will be able to furnish abundant supplies of petroleum. 
"At the foot of the western slope of the S&nta Barbara 
range, 25 leagues from the confluence of the Sen Francisco 
river and the Yermejo, there is an extensire petroleum basin 
called the Laguna de la brea de San Migud del Bastro, 
capable of yidding 2000 gallons per day.*' 

See Yon Reden, ** Die Staaten im Btrom-Gebiot dei Ls Plata,** 
in Fletarmann*s StiUh., 1856; Petermann and Bunneister, JXe SBd- 
vurikaniaehen lUpubliken, Argentina, Ac., 1876 ; Major Boat in 
£a Plata Monataduifl, 1878. 

ORAND'COMBE, a town of Frsnce, in the department 
sf Qard and arrondlBsement of Alais, is situated on the 
Gardon, 35 miles N.W. of Nhnes. In the neighbourhood 
there are very extensive coal-mines, and the town possesses 
manufactures of sinc^ lead, and gloss. The population in 
1876 was 5342. 

GBAND HAYEK, a city of the United States, capital 
of Ottawa county, Michigan, is situated on Lake Michigan, 
at the mouth of Grand Biver, opposite Milwaukee, to 
which, as well as to the principal other towns on the lake^ 
leveral steamers ply daily. It is a station of the Grand 
Haven Bailway, and the terminus of the Detroit, Grand 
Haven, and Milwaukee line. On account of its fine situa- 
tion and its medicinal springs, Grand Haven is becoming a 
favourite summer resort. It has saw and shingle miUs, 
sad manufactories of agricultural implements, of sashes 
and blinds, and of winduuUs. Shipbuilding is also carried 
00. In the neighbourhood there are extensive peach forests. 
Lumber and fruit are the principal shipments. Grand 
Jlaven was laid out in 1836, and became a city in 1867. 
Population (1870) 3147, now about 5000. 

GRANDIMONT AKES, or GKAiacoNnm (Ordo Grandi- 
montensis), a small religious order confined almost entirely 
to France. Its origin, which can be traced to about the 
dose of the 11th century, is involved in some obscurity. 
The founder, St Stephen of Tigemo or Thiers, was bom 
at Ch&tean Thiers, in Auvergne, in 1046, was educated for 
the church partly at Benevento and partly at Borne, and, 
returning home about 1073, in obedience to the solicitations 
of an inner voice which had been making itself heard for 
years, embraced a life of solitary asceticism. The scene of 
his retreat was the lonely glen of Muret, about a league 
eastward from Limoges; as his reputation for piety ex- 
tended, his cell became a favourite resort with many like- 
minded persons, and ultimately a community large enough 
to excite public attention was formed. The nature of the 
rule observed by them at that time is not accurately known ; 
a reply which, according to tradition, Stephen gave to the 
papal legates when asked to give some account of himself, 
forbida alike the belief that he identified himself with any 
eC tbo rellgioai ocden then in enrtenoe and theaeeamptton 

thai he had already received permission to establish a new 
onsi Shortly after his deaths which occurred on the 8th of 
February 1 134, the htnds at Muret were claimed by the neigh* 
bearing Angustinian friars of Ambazac, — a circumstance 
which in 1 154 compelled the foUowers of Stephen to remove 
their abwde, under the leadership of their second "corrector," 
some miles further eastward, to Grammont or Qrandmont, 
whence the order subsequently took ita name. ^ So far as 
can be ascertained, the rule by which the community was 
governed was not reduced to writing until the time of 
Stephen of Lisiac, ita fourth corrector. This rule, which 
was confirmed byUrban HL in 1186, was characterized by 
considerable severity, especially in the matters of silence, 
fasting and flagellation ; ita rigour, however, was mitigated 
by Innocent IV. m 1247, and again by Clemetit V. in 130D. 
Under Stephen of Lisiac the order greatly flourished in 
Aquitania, Anjou, and Normandy, where the number of ita 
eetabUshmente in 1 1 70 is said to have exceeded sixty. The 
first Grandimontane house within the dominions of the king 
of France was that founded at Tincennes near Fans by 
Louis TIL In 1164; it soon acquired a position of con- 
siderable importance. Stephen of Thiers was, at the re* 
quest of Henry IL of England, canonized by Clement IIL 
iu 1 189 ; and the bestowal of this honour seems to hare 
marked a culminating point in the history of the order 
which he had originated. The Grandimontanes (sometimes 
also like the followers of Francisco de Paoht called Les bona- 
hommes), owing to an almost endleiw seriee of internal dis- 
putes at once symptomatic and productive of disunion and 
disorganisation, fa«led to achieve any considemble place in 
history, and were finally pensioned off and disbanded in 
1769. To them belonged, until 1463, the priory of Ores- 
well in Herefordshire, and also until 1441 that of AIber< 
burr or Abberbnry in Shropshire. 

The Annales of the order were publiahed at Troycs in 1662; and 
the Jtegula, aometimca attributed, though erroueooaljr, to Stephen 
of Thiers, was flrat printed in the 17th ceutary. A collection uf 
maxima or instmctiona, professedly by the same author, haa also 
been largely circulated in France since 1704. See Helyot, Hisloire 
dea Ordra JfoHaatiques, toL yL 

GRAND RAPIDS, a city of the United States, capital 
of Kent county, Michigan, ia picturesquely situated on both 
sides of the Grand River near the rapids, 30 miles E. of 
Lake Michigan. The river is navigable up to this point, 
and steamers connect the city with Grand Haven and the 
navigation of Lake Michigan. The city is also the point 
of intersection of six railways. It possesses two public 
parks, a county jail, a central school, a large public library, 
and a sdentifio institute. It is tlie seat of the United 
States circuit and district courts for the western district of 
Michigan. The manufactures include a great variety of 
woodware (especially furniture, carriages, and waggons), 
agricultural implements, machinery, chemical substances, 
lather, beer, fruit, bricks of a very fine quality, and 
gypsum, which is very abundant in the neighbourhood. 
There is also a very extensive trade in lumber. The fall 
of the river at the rapids is about 18 feet in 1| miles, and 
thb water power has been taken advantage of for mauy of 
the manufactories. Grand Rapids was settled in 1833 and 
incorporated m 1850. The population has been rapidly 
increasing ; while in 1850 it was only 2686, it was 16,507 
in 1870, of whom 5725 were foreigners. 

GRANDSON. See Gkansox. 

GRANDVILLE. See G^rakd, Jean L L 

GRANET, Fban^ois MAwrs (1777-1849), was the^rst 
pamter who felt and ettempted to render the aesthetic charm 
of Middle Age and^Renaissance architecture. He was bom 
at Air in Provence, on the 17th December 1777 ; his father 
was a small builder, but the boy's own strong desires led 
his parents to place him — after some prelimii^ry teaching 
from a pining Italian artist— in a free school of art directedl 


GR A-ttR A 

b]r IL OoiMitaBttn, & lAndaoipo punter of some lepataUon 
who liyed ia the towiu In 1793 Granet followed the 
volanteeiB of Aiz to the siege of Toulon, at the close of 
which he obtained employment as a decorator in the aisenaL 
Whilst yet a lad ho hod, at Aiz, made the aoqoaintance of 
Uie yonngComte do Forbin, and it was upon his invitation 
that Granet, in the cooise of the year 1797, proceeded to 
Paris. De Forbin was one of the pupils of David, and 
Granet entered the same studia Later on he got posses- 
sion of a call in the convent of Capuchins, which, having 
served for a manufactory of assignats during the Eevolution, 
was afterwards inhabited almost exclusively by artists. Li 
the changing lights and shadows of the corridors of the 
Capuchins, Granet found tho materials for that one picture 
to the paintiikg of which, with varying success, he devoted 
his lif& In 1802 he left Paris for Kome, where he remained 
until 1819, when he returned to Paris, bringing with him 
besides various other works one of fourteen repetitions of his 
celebrated Choeur des Capncins, executed in 1811. The 
Bgures of the monks celebrating mass are taken in this 
subject as a substantive part of the architectural effect^ and 
this is the case with all Granet's works, even with those in 
which the figure subject would seem to assert its import- 
ance, and its historical or romantic interest Stella painting 
a Madonna on his Prison Wall, 1810 (Leuchtenbeig collec- 
tion); Sodoma k I'Hopitil, 1815 (Louvre); Basilique basse 
de St Francois d'Assise, 1823 (Louvre) ; Rachat de Prison- 
niers; 1831 (Louvre); Mort de Poussin, 1834 (Villa 
Demidoff, Florence), are among his principal works; all 
are marked by the same peculiarities, everything is sacrificed 
to tone. In 1819 Louis Philippe decorated Granet, and 
afterwards named him Chevalier de TOrdre St Michel, and 
Oonservatenr des tableaux de Versailles (1826). He be- 
came member of the Tnstitate in 1830; but in spite of these 
honours, and the ties which bound him to M. de Forbin, 
then director of the Louvre, Granet constantly returned to 
Bom& After 1848, he retired to Aiz, immediately lost his 
wife, and died himself on the 2lBt November 1849. He 
bequeathed to his native town the greater part of his fortune 
ana all his collections; these are now exhibited in the 
Mns4e, together with a very fine portrait of the donor 
painted by Ingres in 1811. M. Del!k^laze, in Lauu David 
H ion tempSf devotes a few pages to Granet and his friend 
the Comtede Forbin. 

GRANITE, a rock so named from the Latin granum^ 
% grain, in allusion to the granular texture of many of its 
varieties. Tlie term appears to have been introduced by 
^e early Italian antiquaries, and it is believed that the 
Ccst recorded use of the word occurs in a description of 
Home by Flominius Vacca, an Italian sculptor of the 16th 
century. This description was published by Montfaucon 
in uis Liarium ludieum, where we reid of certain columns 
" cz marmore granito .^gyptio " (cap. zvil), and of others 
*'ez marmore granito ^thalin insulfls" (cap. zviiL), showing 
that the Romans of Vacca's day were acquainted with 
granite from Kgypt and from Elba. Granite is also referred 
to by Cnsolpinus in his treatise De Maaliieit (1596), and 
by Tonmefort in his RSUxtUm d^un Voyage au Levant (1 698) ; 
indeed the latter has been cited by Smmerling (Lekrb, d. 
Mineral,) as the first author who uses the term. By these 
early writers, however, the name wss loosely applied to 
several distinct kinds of granular rock, and it remamed for 
Werner ti give it that precise meaning which it at present 
possesses as the specific designatbn of a rock. 

Granite is a crystalline^ranular rock consisting, in its 
typical varieties, of orthochuM^ quarts^ ond mica, to which 
a plagioclostlc felspar is usually added. These minerals 
are aggregated together without the presence of any matriz 
or connecting medium. Thin sections of a true granite, 
exuniiMd ui^ the micnsoope b^ transmitted li|^t» show 

no trace of aAy amorplMnui ct crypto-OTstallina ground- 
mass. The chemical composition of the rock will, of conxae^ 
vary with its mineralogical constitution. For an average 
analysis see Geologt, vol z. p. 233. The proportion of aiUca 
varies from 62 to 81 per cont^ Granite belongs theieforo 
to Bunsen's cbss of acid rocks, or those which contain more 
than 60 per cent, of silica. Dr Hanghton has found an 
ezceptionoUy low proportion cf tibJs ozide in some of the 
Irish granites (G8'44 per cent., «.^., in some Donegal granite. 
Quart Joun^ Qeol. Soc, zviii, 1862, p. 408). The spocifio 
gravity of granite varies from 2*09 to 273. 

OrUiodase, or potash felspar, is th^ priBcipol constituent 
of moot granites. This mineral occurs either in simple 
crystals, or in twins formed on what is known as the 
** Carlsbad type,'' such crystals being common at Carlsbad 
in Bohemia. In porphyritio granites, such as tiiose of 
Cornwall and Devon, the orthOclase crystals may attain to 
a length of several inches, and the twinning is marked oa 
the fractured crystals by a line running longitudinally down 
the middle, and dividing the ciystal into two halves. In 
colour th9 orthoclase generally varies between snow-white 
and fiesh-red. The green felspar known as Amazon stone, 
which occurs in certain granites, has lately been shown by 
Des doiseauz to belong to the species microdine, and not| 
as previously supposed, to orthoclase {Atmaleed, Ch,^ 5 ser., 
iz., 1876, p. 433). The plagioclastic, anorlhic, or tridinic 
felsnar of granito occurs in crystals which are generally* 
snudler than those of the orthochse, and which ezhibit, 
even to the naked eye, their characteristic twin striation. 
Moreover the lustre is frequently resinous or fatty, while 
that of the orthoclase is pearly on the cleavage-planes. In 
most cases the plagiodase is the sodarlime f dspr called 
ciigodate; but in some granites it is albitt or soda felspar, 
as shown by Hanghton in many of the Irish and Cornish 
granites {Proe. Hoy. Soe., zvil, 1869, p. 209). When a 
granite becomes leathered, the felspar may decompose into 
kaolin or ehina^y ; the commencement of this alteration 
is indicated under the microscope by the turbidity of the 
felspar, by the ill-defined edges of tlie crystals, and in the 
case of pUigioclase by disappearance of tho cliaracteristic 

The quarts of granite occurs generally in irregularly- 
shaped angular grains ; but occasionally in distinct ciysttds 
which are double hezagonal pyramids with or without the 
corresponding prism. Colourless quartz is most common, 
but grey, brown, or bluish varieties also occur. Whatever 
its colour, it is as a rule transparent in microscopic sections, 
though sometimes rendered milky by the presence of vast 
Dumbors of minute cavities containing liquid (see Gboloot, 
fU*eupra, and for Sorby's original researches Quart. Journ. 
Geol. iSoe., zlv. pu 453). In many granites the quartz fills 
up the apaces between the crystals of felspar and of mica, 
and receives impressions from tliese minerals. This fact 
has been advanced against the view that eranito has ezisted 
in a state of fusion; since it is assumed uiat^ as the quartz 
IS the most infusible of the three component minerals, it 
would have been the first to solidify on the cooling of the 
magma, whereas the relation of the quartz to the associated 
minerals in most cases shows tliat it must have solidified 
after the crystaUixation of the felspar and mica. In somo 
graniteB, however, the quartz is developed in free crystals, 
thus pointing to an early solidification of this mineral The 
micaL whidi is usually the least abundant constituent of 
the granite, occurs in thin scales of irregular slmpe or in 
hex^ional plates. It is either a white biaxial potash mica 
(muKomle) or a dark-brown magnesian mica, generally 
uniaxial (bioiite). Both species may occur in Uie same 
granite. Hanghton has ahown that aome of the w^ite 
mica of the Cornish granites is Upidoliie, or Uthia mW; 
while some of the blask miea in the same rosks n iha hon- 

G li A N I T E 


poUsli mica, Upidonulans (Froe. Jioy, Soc,, xrii. p. 209). 
Professor Heddle finds tluit the binck mica of most Scottiah 
granites is a distinct species, wbich he calls ffauffhfonife 
{MiwTolog. Mag,^ Na 13, 1879, p. 72). A large nnmberof 
accessory minerals occur in granite, no fewer than fortj-fonr 
being cited by Zirkel (Lehrb, d. P€(ry.,lp. 481). Upon the 
presence of tliese supplementary miner us namerons Tarie- 
lies of granite hare been founded. Titos, if tourmaline be 
present, the rock is a Khorlaceous or tourmaline granite ; 
when cisaiterite or tin-atone occnrs, it forms a 9innniftrou$ 
granite ; the presence of epidote givea rise to an tpidaU 
yraniie ; and so on with other minerals. The most common 
accessory constituent of granite is hornblende, a mineral 
which appears to replace to some extent the* mica, and 
thos produces a horMendie or tyenUie granite. This rock 
was formerly, and by some petrographers is Btill« termed 
tifeniie ; it is the tyenitee of Pliny, 83 named from Syene 
in Upper i^gypt^ where a smiliar rock was quarried by the 
ancient Egyptians. By modem petrographen, however, 
the term syenite is usually restricted to a rock which ia an 
aggregate of orthoclase and hornblende,— in other words, a 
granite in which the quartz has disappeared while the mica 
has been superseded by hornblende. A beautiful schorla- 
eeous rock, which is apparently a Tariety of granite, has been 
described by Pisani under the name of luxullianiie (Com- 
pUa Jiendusy lix., 1864, p. 913). It occurs in the parish 
of Luzullion, near Lostwithiel, in Cornwall, where it is 
foond in the form of boulders, but has not been detected in 
nhL This rock is composed of tourmaline;, or schorl, with 
quartz and orthoclase ; the last named mineral occurring in 
hige flesh-coloured crystals, which by contrast with the 
dark bass produce a very beautiful effect Two varieties 
of tourmaline, one brown and the other bluish, haye been 
detected by Professor Bonuey (Mineralog. Mag,, Na 7, 
ld77, p. 215). The sarcophagus of the duke of Wellington, 
ia St Paul's Cathedral, is wrought out of a splendid block 
of luxulliaotte. Many varieties of granite are founded 
npon structural clmracteriatics. Occasionally the oonstitu« 
ents are developed in such large individuals as to form 
a giant granite. Crystals of orthoclase, associated with 
quarts in a peculiar parallel arrangement, produce the 
Tariety known as graphic granite or Z^na Judaieus — ^names 
which refer tu the resemblance which the rock presents, 
when cut in certain directions, to lines of Hebrew charao- 
ten. Qraphio granite was termed by Kauy pegmatite, but 
this namo is now generally applied* to a coarse admixture 
of orthoclase, quartz, and silvery mica. When any of the 
component minerals occur in large crystals, embedded ia a 
iioe^grained base, a porphgritie granite is produced. Oene- 
lally the crystals are those of orthoclase, as in many of the 
West of Ebgland granites, and in the characteristic rock of 
Sbp Fell in Westmoreland. Oranitite is a name applied 
to a variety of granite made up of orthoclase and quartz, 
with more or less pla^odase and a small proportion of mica. 
A granite composed of only felspar and quartz is called 
hsptite or eemi-graniie. Some of the mic&less varietiea are 
hewn OS granulite. When, instead of the mica disappear- 
ing, the felspar is absent, the resulting aggregate of quartz 
ai& mica is termed greieen ; it is frequently a tin-bearing 
nek. Occasionally the granite^ when fine in grain, loses 
ita mica, and an intimate mixture of orthoclase and quartz 
is thus obtained; such a rock is known as tkfeUtone, 
Crystals of orthoclase disseminated through a f elaitio matrix, 
either compact or microayBtalline, give rise to H feUpar 
yrrpkyry ; while dyfttab or rounded grains of quartz in a 
BiBiilitf felsitic base produce a quarle-porphgrg or quarte-f el- 
ate. Bv Cormsh minen these quartz-porphyries are termed 
deans (dvaniu of Jukes); bat this name is also applied to 
iine^^Tuned granites and to almost any rock whi^ occurs 
SI a dyke nmning through the killaa or day slate. 

Few questions have boeu mdH Warmly discussed ihan the 
origin of granite. When this rock ia found forcing its way 
thn>ugh older rocks, and app«^ng at the surface in large 
bosses from which veins are sent forth in all direcUons, 
there can be little doubt of its eruptive character. The 
small width of some of these granitie veins, or apophyses, 
suggests that the rock must have existed in a condition of 
perfect fusion or complete liquidity, and not simply as a 
viscous piste, before It could have been injected into such 
narrow fissures as those which are now occnpied by granite. 
In many cases, the rocks which are penetrated by the 
granitic veius are altered in such a manner as to indicate a 
considerable elevation of temperature : a limestone in the 
neighbourhood of the veios may become saccharoidal, and 
shalee may become indurated or even converted into horn- 
stone, while new minerals are often developed in the 
vicinity of the intruded veins. In these veins tlie granite 
is apt to change its mineralogical constitution, becoming 
either fine-grained or felsitic, or even reduced at the extre- 
mities of the vein to quartzL From the days of Button it 
has been generally admitted that moat granite is of igneous 
origin. Since it appean to have been solidified at great 
depths beneath the surface, it has been distinguished as a 
plutonic rock, while those eruptive rocks which have risen 
to the surface, and have there consolidated, are termed 
voleame rocks. The, older geologists regarded granite as 
the primitive rock of the earth*B crust, forming the fioor 
of all stratified deposits and the nucleus of mountain 
chaina. Such a view, however, has been long exploded. 
It vk known indeed that granite, so far from being in all 
cases an original rock, may be of almost any geological age. 
Some is undoubtedly as old as the Silurian period, while 
other granites are certainly as young as the Tertiary 
rocks, and perhaps of even more recent date. By many 
field-geologists granite has of late vean been regarded as a 
metamorpnic rather than as a truly igneous rock. Meta- 
morphism, however, is a term which has been so vaguely 
used that most of our eruptive rocks may, in a certain senses 
be said to be metamorphic. Still, in the case of granite, it 
has often been pointed out that a passa^ may be traced 
from this rock into gneiss, and that gneiss itself may be 
regarded as an altered sedimentary rock. Thus so experi- 
enced an observer as Professor Bamsay expresaes his opinion 
that " granite is sometimes merely gneiss still further meta- 
morphosed by heat in the presence of moisture" (Phge. 
Geol. of Gt. Brit,, 5 ed., 1878, p. 42). For a number of 
inatances in which granite is said to pass into gneiasose 
rocks, and these in turn, by numerous gradations, into un- 
doubtedly stratified deposits, see Green's Geology, part i 
pi 807, and alsoGiOLOOT, vol x, p^ 809. 

Chemists have also brought forward arguments against 
the Igneous origin of granite. Thus it has been argued 
that the specific gravity of the quarts of granite is about 
2*6, while that of silica after fusion is only 2*2. It must 
be remembered, however, that the quartz of granite has 
solidified under great pressure^ as proved by Mr Sorby's 
observations, and it is probable that auch pressure would 
bcrease the density of the silica. Moreover, it has been 
pointed out by the hite D. Forbes (Geol. Mag., iv., No. 10, 
1867, p. 443) that the siliceous tests of certain infusoria, 
which assuredly have not been fused, are as low as 2*2. 
Another argument which has been advanced against the 
igneous origin of granitic rocks is based on the fact that 
uey contain mhienJs of a basic character wldch could not 
have existed in a state of fusion in the presence of free 
silica, without forming a combination with the latter. 
Again, some of the accessoiy mmerals in granite would suffer 
d^nge by an elevation cf temperature, while many of them 
contain water which, it is assumed, would be expelled on 
fusion. FrobabVt however, these minerals are in most 

XI. — y 



casea of secondaiy origin, and liave been prodnced bj the 
alteration of the granite. The mere presence of water is 
not incompatible with a pyrognoetio origin; and Forbes 
has asserted (op, dt,) that specimens of kTa, taken from a 
cnrrent on Etna while the lava was still flowing, contained 
crystals of stilbite, a mineral containing 16 per cent of 
water. Mr Sorby has shown, too, that the quarts of yol- 
canio rocks contains microscopic cavities enclosing liquid. 
It appears, indeed, that in the fosion of all eruptive rocks 
water has played a very important part Dr Hanghton has 
sought to reconcile the apposing views as to the origin of 
granite by admitting what he calls a Jiydrometamorphio 
origin for this rock. He believes that the rook, Having 
been poured into veins and dykes when in a state of fusion, 
was subsequently altered by the action of water at tempera- 
tures which, though high, were insufficient for the fusion 
of the granite {On the Origin of Granite : an Addrea to the 
Geol. Soc of Dublin, 1862). 

Qranitic rocks are extensively used for oonstmotive and 
decorative purposes, though their industrial applications are 
necessarily restricted by the expense of working so hard a 
material Although some granites are apt to decompose 
on exposure to atmospheric infliences, the felspar passing 
into china-clay, other varieties are remarkable for their 
extreme durabilify, as attested by the monuments of ancient 
Egypt, on which the incbed hieroglyphics still retain their 
sharpness. It appears that in England granite was not 
brought into extensive use much before the beginning of 
the present century (Creasy). It is now largely employed 
for massive structures, such as bridges and sea-walls, as also 
for kerbs and paying-sets. The best known granites are the 
grey variety from Aberdeen and the red granite of Peter- 
head, 30 nules north of Aberdeen. The granite of Dart- 
moor in Devonshire, and of the huge bosses which protrude 
through the clay slate of Comwidl, are largely worked as 
building and ornamental stones (for description of these 
granites see Sir H. T. de la Beche's Report on the Gtol. of 
Cornwall and Devon), In Ireland there is much fine 
granite, which is quarried to a limited extent, — ^the Oastle- 
wellan granite having been used in the Albert Memorial in 
Hyde Park (Hull's BuOding and Omam, Stanee, 1872). 
The homblendie varieties of granite are remarkably tough, 
and are largely employed for road-metaL For this purpose 
great quantities are quarried in the Channel islands. 
Bed granite occurs in abundance on the coasts of Maine^ 
U.S., as well as in New Brunswick, and grey granite at 
Quincy and elsewhere in Massachusetts. Granite is fre- 
quently polished when used for monumental and decoratiye 
purposes. The polishing is effected by an iron tool, worked 
drst with sand and water, then with emery, and lastly with 
putty-powder or oxide of tin ; when the emery and putty 
are used, a surface of flannel is interposed between the 
granite and the iron tool (*' On Granite Working," by Gea 
\y. Moir, Journ. Soe. Arts, xiv., 1866, p. 470). 

As an element of scenery granite generally forms rounded 
hills, scantily dad with vegetation; but it sometimes rises 
into sharp pinnacles, as in the aiguillea of the Alpei By 
denudation the rock may break up mto cuboidal blooks, 
which often remain piled upon each other, forming the 
characteristic " tors " of Cornwall and Devon. Hills of 
granite are frequently surmounted by masses of weathered 
rock of spheroidal form, such as the Cornish rocking-stonea 
or logan stones. The weathering of granite often produces 
bouldor-shaped masses in such numbers as to form, around 
the summit of the hill, a '*sca of rocks'' (Fdsenmeer), 

In Addition to the Toferencea given in tho body of thin article, the 
following autboritiea may be cited: — Lehrbueh der Petrogmkie, 
hj F. Zirkel, 2 vols., Bonn, 1866; Elcmenie der PUrographie^'hj 
Von Laaanlz, Bonn, 1875 ; Cotta*a LUhology, tranelated by P. H. 
Lawrence, 3d ed., London, 1878; Tlu Study of Socks, by F. 
Ratloji London, 1870; and the nomerons contribationa by the 


Bev. Prof. Hanghton in Proe, IriA Aead,, and Quart JouMU 
OfdL Soe. Land, For ehemical compoaition of Cleopatia's Needle^ 
by 0. W. Wigner. see the Analyd, 1878, p. 882. (F. W. IL*) 

GRANMICHELE, or OBJiinaoHSUi, a market-town of 
8icily, in the province of Catania, about 8 miles from 
Caltagirone on the road to Catania. It lies on the side of 
a hill, the summit of which is crowned by a castle whidi, 
along with the town itself, was formerly a flef of the 
Brancatelli Butera family. Beautiful marble is found in 
the vicinity, and the Inhabitants, who in 1871 numbered 
10,058, trade in oil 

GBANSON, GsAXDsoK, or GEAimaKB, a small town 
in Switzerland, canton of Taud, is situated near the south- 
western extremity of the Lake of KeufchftteL It possesses 
the ruins of an old castle, containing a collection of anti- 
quities, and has a very ancient church, once connected with a 
Benedictine abbey, with a number of pre-Christian images. 
The town is of Roman origin. It was captured in 1475 
by the Xidgenossen, and retaken in the following year by 
Charles the Bold; but in Mfurch of that year the Eidgenossen 
agun defeated him near Granson with great slaughter. 
From that time tQl 1803 it was one of their lordships. The 
site of the battle is marked by three great blocks of marbla 
The population of the town in 1870 was 1587. 
GRANT, Mbs Amos (1755-1838), a Scottish authoress 
norally known as Mrs Grant of Laggan, was bom at 
^hisgow, 21st February 1755. Her father, Duncan 
MacYicar, who held a commission in the army, went in 
1757 with his regiment to America, and his family followed 
him in 1758. He received an allotment of land on retiring 
from the army in 1765, but ill health compelled him to 
return to Scotland in 1768, and after the outbreak of the 
revolutionary war his lands were confiscated. In 1779 
Anne married the Rev. Mr Grant of Laggan, near Fort 
Augustus, Liyemess, and on his death in 1801 she was left 
wi£ a large family and only a veiy small income. It being 
known to several of her friends that she occasionally wrote 
verses, a proposal was made that she should publish a 
yolume of poems, and this being acceded to, the names of 
as many as 3000 subscribers were obtained. The volume 
appeared in 1803 under the title of Original Poems, 
with tome Trantlaiiont from the Gaelic, and met with a 
rather favourable reception, on account of its easy versifi- 
cation and the truth and. tenderness of the sentiment of 
some of its smaller pieces. In 1806 she published Letter* 
from the Afountaine, being a Selection from the Author** 
Corretpondenee with her Intimate Friend* from 1773 to 
1804, which, by its spirited descriptiona of Highhind 
scenery, character, and. legends, awakened a laige amount 
of interest Her other works are Memoir* of an American 
Lady, with Sietche* of Manner* and Scenery in America as 
they existed previou* to the Revolution (1808), containing 
reminiscences of her stay with Mrs Schuyler, the lady with 
whom she spent four years of her childhood in America ; 
Estay* on the Superstition* of the Highlander* of Scotland 
(1811); and Eighteen Hundred and Thirteen, a^Poem 
(1814). After the death of her husband, Mre Grant 
resided for some time on a small farm near Laggan ; but 
in 1803 ahe removed to Woodend near Stirling, in 1806 
to Stirling, and in 1810 to Edinburgh, in the society of 
which she was until her death a prominent figure, bemg 
much esteemed for her conversational powers, her tact 
and good sense, her cheerfulness of disposition, and her 
thorough kindness of heart For the kst twelve yeara of 
her life ahe received a pension from GoTemment ; and 
this, along with her other sources of income, not only 
placed her in easy circumstances, but enabled her to 
gratify her generosity by giving to others. She died 
November ?, 183& 

See Uimoir amd OarrtqtondMee ofUr* Grant qf laggan, edited 
by her eon J, P.arant,trQ]»., IBIL 

an A— G R A 


GRANT, 8iB Fbahcss (180a-1878), an English portrait 
painter^ and president of the Boyal Academj in London, 
was the fourth son of Franeis Grant of Kilgraston, Ferth- 
ihire, and was boru at Edinborj^ in 1803. He was 
edncated for the bar, and, according to the testimony of 
Sir Walter Scott in his diary, it was originaliy his intention 
after spending his small patrimony in field sports to make 
his fortune by the law. By the time, however, that the 
first part of his purpose had been accomplished, he had 
resolved to adopt painting in preference to law as his pro- 
fession, and at the age of twenty -fonr he began at Edinburgh 
(jstematicaUy to study the practice of art. On completing 
a course of instruction he removed to London, and as early 
as 1843 exhibited at the Royal Academy. At the beginning 
of his career he utilised his sporting experiences by painting 
groups of huntsmen, horses, and hounds, such as the Meet 
d H.31 Staghounds and the Melton Hunt ; and doubtless 
if he had chosen to devote himself to the careful treatment 
of this class of subjects his success might have been more 
rborough and permanent, if less brilliant and lucrative, than 
it was. If, however, the reputation he acquired as a fashion- 
able portrait-painter was aided by his social position and 
gentlemanly manners, it rested also on certain special artistic 
ilQalifications. The first and chief of these was his power 
of thoroughly reproducing the outward tone and manner of 
fa&hiouablo life, or, as Sir Walter Scott called it, his ** sense 
mI beauty derived from the best source, that U, the observe 
tion of really good society." If also his execution was 
lapsrficbl and thin, it was bright, clear, facQe, and uncon- 
itramed. In drapery he had the taste of a connoisseur, 
sad rendered the minutest details of costume with felicitous 
ucuracy. In female portraiture he achieved considerable 
saccess, although rather in depicting the highborn graces 
md external characteristics than the true and individual 
personality. Among his portraits of this class may be 
mentioned Lady Glenlyon, the marchioness of Waterford, 
Lidy Pbodn^^, and Mrs Beanclerk. In his protraits of 
generals and sportsmen he proved himself more equal to 
hi? subjects than in those of statesmen and men of letters. 
He painted many of the principal celebrities of the time — 
especially those occupying high social position — including 
SoDtt, Macaulay, Lockhart, Disraeli, Hardlnge, Gongh, 
Derby, Palmerston, and Buasell, his brother Sir J. Hope 
Grant, and hia friend Sir Edwin Landseer. From the first 
ids career was rapidly prosperous, and hia recognition by 
Qio Academy folly kept pace with his reputation as an artist 
la 1842 he was elected an associate, and in 1851 an 
Academician ; and in 1866 he was chosen to succeed Sir 
C. Eastlake in the post of president^ for wliich his chief 
recommendations were his social distinction, tact, urbanity, 
ftad friendly and liberal consideration of his brother artists ; 
lad its difficult and often inyidious duties he performed 
BO as both to increase the harmony and influence of the 
institution and to enhance its efficiency. Shortly after 
his election as president he received the honour of knight- 
hood, and in 1870 the degree of D.CL was conferred 
apon him by the university of Oxford. He died October 
6, 1878. 

GRANT, Sis Jauss Hope (1808-1876), an English 
general, brother of the preceding, and fifth and youngest 
ion of Francis Grant of Kilgraston, Perthshire, was ^m 
July 22, 1803. He entered the army in 1826 as comet in 
the 9th Lancers, and beeame lieutenant in 1828 and captain 
in 1835. In 1842 he acted as brigade-migor to Lord 
Baltoun in the Chinese War, and specially distinguished 
himself at the capture of Chin-Keang, after which he re- 
ceived the rank of msQor and was nominated companion of 
the bath. In the first Sikh War of 1846-46 he took part 
ia the battle of Sobraon ; and in the Poigab campaign of 
1848-49 he hdd oommaiid of his old regiment the 9th 

Lancers, and won high reputation in tiie battles of Chi]Uaii« 
walla and Gi]grat In 1864 he became breret-coloneli 
and in 1866 brigadier of cavalry. He took a leading pari 
in the anppression of the Indian mutiny of ISfit, lioldintf 
for some time the command of the cavalry ili\isiott) atid 
afterwards of a moyable column of hoiM aad fuot After 
rendering valnable service in the opefationa before Delhi 
and in the final assault on the city, he directed the victori* 
oua march of the cavalry and horse artillery despatched in 
the direction of Cawnpore to open up communication with 
the commander-in-chief Sir Colin Campbell, whom he met 
near the Alumbagh, and who raised him to the rank of 
brigadier-general, and placed the whole force under bin 
command during what remained of the pcriious uuirch td 
Lucknow for the relief of the residency. After the retiit>- 
ment towards Cawnpore he greatly aided in cfibcting there 
the total rout of the rebel troops, by nuking a dotour whidi 
threatened their rear; and following in pursuit with a 
flying column, he defeated them with the loss ^f nearly all 
their guns at Serai Ghat He also took part in the opera- 
tions connected with the recapture of Lucknow, shortly 
after which he was promoted to the nmk of nugor-generat 
and appointed to the commond of the force employed for 
the final pacification of India, a position in which his 
unwearied energy, and his Tigilance and caution united 
to high personal daring; rendered yery valuable servica 
Before the work of pacification was quite completed he was 
created E.CB. In 1 859 he was appointed to the command 
of the British land forces in the united French and British 
expedition against. China, whose object was accomplished 
three months subsequent to the landing of the forces at 
Peh-tang, Ist August 1860, Pekin having surrendered at 
discretion after the Chinese army had thrice sufiered defeat 
in the open and the Taku forts had been carried by 
assault For his conduct in this, which has been called 
**most snccessful and the best carried out of England's 
little wars," he received the thmiks of parliament, and 
was gazetted G.C.B. In 1861 he was made lieutenant- 
general and appointed commander-in-chief of the army of 
Madras; on his return to England in 1866 he was made 
quartermaster-general at headquarters; and in 1872 he 
was transferred to the commanr of the camp at Aldershot 
In the same year he was gazetted general He died at 
London, March 7, 1876. 

IiteidiTtU in the Sepoy War of 1857-58, eompiled from, the 
Fnoato Journal ^ General Sir Hope GraiU, K.C.B., together with 
oome emlanaionf chaplen hy CapL H. Knollyt, Royal AriiUery, 
was pablUhed u 1878, end Jnetiente in the China War oj 1860 
sppearad porthnmonily under the Same editorship in 1876. 

GRANTHAM, a mimicipal and parliamentary borough 
and market-town of Englimd, county of Lincob, is situ- 
ated on both sides of the Witham, at the junction of 
several railways with the Great Northern line, 106 milea 
N.N.R of London and 22 miles S.S.W. of Lincob, 
The parish church, a spacious Gothic edifice of the 13th 
century, has been restored by Sir G. G. Scott It is sur- 
mounted by an elegant spire 274 feet high, and has an 
elaborately carved front, and some splendid monuments. 
At the free grammar school, founded by Bishop Fox in 
1628, Sir Isaac Newton received part of his edocatioa 
Among the other public buildings are the guild-hall, with a 
spacious assembly-room, the two exchanges, the town-hall, 
the literary institution, the gaol, the dispensary, and the 
workhouse. A bronze statue of Sir Isaac Newton waa 
erected in 1868. The principal trade is that of malting 
which is carried on to a considerable extent. There are 
also tanneries and coach factories, and a large agricultural 
implement factory and iron foundry. Grantham returns 
two members to parliament. The population of the 
municipal borough (area, 406 acres) b 1871 was 6028, 
and of the parliamentary borough (area, 6811 acres) 1 3|26(^ 



QRANVEUiiA, Antoimx JPnnsKor, Cabdihal db 
(1617-1586), one of the ablest and most inflnentkl of the 
princes of the church daring the great political and ecclesi- 
astieal movements which immediatelj followed the appear- 
ance of Protestantism in Europe, was bom 20fch August 
1517, at Omans, Burgundy, where his father, Kicolas 
Perrenot de Qranvella, who afterwards became diancellor 
of the eminre under Charles Y., was at that time engaged 
in practice as a junior at the provincial bar. On the com- 
pletion of his studies in law at Padua and in divinity at 
Louvoin, he for a short time held a canonry at Be6an9on, but 
hb talents had already marked him for a higher sphere, 
and he was promoted to the bishopric of Arras when barely 
twenty-three (1540). In his episcopal capacity he attended 
several diets of the empire, as well as the opening meetings 
of the council of Trent ; and the influence of his father, 
now become chancellor, led to his being entrusted with 
many difficult and delicate pieces of public business, in the 
execution of which he developed a rare native talent for 
diplomacy, and at the same time acquired an intimate 
acquaintance with most of the currents of European politics. 
One of his specially noteworthy performances was the settle- 
ment of the terms of peace after the defeat of the Smalkaldic 
league at MUhlberg in 1547, a settlement in which, to say 
the least, some particularly sharp practice was exhibited. 
In 1550 he succeeded his father in the offices of secretary 
of state and chancellor of the empire ; in this capacity he 
attended Charles in the war with >Iaurice, accompanied him 
in the flight from Innsbruck, and afterwards drew up the 
treaty of P&ssau (August 1652). In the following year he 
conducted the negotiations for the marriage of Maxy of 
England and FhiUp of Spain, to whom in 1555, on the 
abdication of the emperor, he transferred his servicea In 
April 1559 Qranvella was one of the Spanish commissioners 
who arranged the peace of Catean Cambrdsls, and on Philip's 
withdrawal from the Netherlands in August of the same 
year he was appointed prime minister to the regent, Margaret 
of Parmi. The policy of repression which in this capacity 
he pursued during the next five years secured for him many 
tangible rewards; in 1560 he was elevated to the archi- 
episcopal see of Malines, and in 15C1 he received the 
cardinal's hat; but the growing hostility of a people whose 
moral and religious convictions he had studiously set him- 
self to trample under foot, ultimately made it impossible 
for him to continue in the Low Countries ; and by the 
advice of his royal master he in 1564 retired to Franche 
Comt^ Nominally this withdrawal was only of a tem- 
porary character, but it proved to be final The following 
six years were spent in comparative quiet, which was devoted 
chiefly to study and (o the society of learned men ; but in 
1-570 Qranvella, at the call of Phib'p, resumed public life 
by accepting a mission to Rome as representative of the 
interests of Spain in framing the proposed treaty of alliance 
with Venice and the papal see against the Turks. In the 
same year he was advanced to the viceroyalty of Naples, a 
post of some difficulty and danger, which for five years ho 
occupied with ability and success. Summoned to Madrid 
in 1575, to be president of the supreme council of Italy 
and afterwards of that of Castile, he still continued to find 
ample scope for his rare aptitudes. Among the more 
delicate negotiations of his later years were those of 1580, 
which had for their object the ultimate union of the 
crowns of Spain and Portugal, and those of 1684, which 
resulted in a check to France by the marriage of the Spanish 
infanta to Duke Philip of Savoy. In the same year he waa 
made archbishop of Besan^on, but meanwhile a lingering 
disease had laid an nnrelenting grasp upon his iron frame ; 
he never was enthroned, but died at Madrid, Slst September 
1 586. His bodv was removed to Beaan^on, where hk father 
bad been buried before hioL 

Nomnoiu lett«ri And mftmotrs of Cranvells are i^teterred m the 
•rehivM of ]«eMn9on. Theto were to aome extent mude tiao of by 
Proeper Lov^ne in his Afimoins pow mvir (1758), m well m by 
the AbM Boiaot In the Tfttor de Oranvella. A couiniaidoii for 
pnblidiiiig the whole of the letters and mcmoin was A]iiioiiitcd by 
Qaiwt in 1884, and the roenlt hea been the iwue of nine volnnios 
of the PapUn <r£uu du CardituU d» OrauvelU^ edited by 'NVcim 
(1841-1862). They form a part of the CoUuiion d« doeutuents 
iiUdilt Mur PKiitoir* d* France. Bee also the anonvnioni JJuloire 
du Cardinal de Granville, attributed to Courchetet D Eenaus cPaii<, 
1761), an d Mot ley's RiaeqfOu Dutch Uepublie, 

GRANVILLE, a fortified seaport town of France, de- 
partment of Manche, is situated at the mouth of the Bosq 
and at the foot of a steep rocky promontory projecting into 
the English Channel, 80 miles S.W. of St lA It is sur- 
rounded by strong walls, and is built principally of granite, 
and its streets are mosdy stoep and narrow. The parisli 
church dates from the 15th century. Among the other 
public buildings are the tribunal of commerce, the hospital, 
the public betths, and the naval school QranviUe occnpietf 
the seventh place in point of importance among the seaports 
of France, and the harbour is accessible to vessels of tho 
largest tonnage. There is regular steam communication 
.with Jersey and Quenisey. The principal exports are 
fruits, vegetables, oysters, fish, com, wood, and cattla A 
large number of tiie inhabitants are engaged in the cod and 
oyster fisheries, and among the other industries are the 
manufacture of brandy, chemicals, cod-liver oU, and leather. 
Shipbuilding is also carried on. QranviUe was founded 
by the English in l^e beginning of Uie 15th century, taken 
by the French in 1450, bo^>arded and bnmed by tho 
English in 1695, and partly destroyed by the Yendean 
troops in 1793. The populatlo;! in 1876 was 12,372. 

GRANVILLE, Johk Carttoiet, Earl (1690-1763), 
English statesman, son of Qeorge, Ix>rd Carteret, was bom 
22d April 1690, and in his fifth year succeeded to his 
father's title. He was'educatcd at Westminster school and 
at Christ Church, Oxford, and even early in life had 
acquired a knowledge of the classics, of philosophy, of 
general literature, and of modern languages, which rendered 
him perhaps superior to all his contemporaries in the extent 
of his intellectual accompb'shments. Soon after taking hia 
seat in the House of Lords in 1711, he began to distinguish 
himself by his Sequent advocacy of the Protestant suocea- 
sion, and his zeal was rewarded when George L came to the 
throne, by the appointment in 1715 of bailiff of the island 
of Jersey, and in 1716 of lord-lieutenant of Devon; and 
his mother was also created countess of Granville. In 1719 
ho was sent on an embassy to Sweden; and in 1720 he 
was named ambassador-extraordinary to the congress of 
Cambray. In May of the following year he was appointed 
secretary of state under Walpole's admimstration ; but 
Walpole*8 jealousy of his influence with the king led to his 
resignation on the 3d April 1724, and on the same dav he 
was appointed lord-lieutenant of Ireland, an office whicn ho 
held till 1730, when differences with the ministry led to his 
resignation. After his return he became the l^er of tho 
opposition, the duties of which office he discharged with 
great versatility of resource and with frequent efiectivenesa, 
but with a negligent rashness which rendered him almost 
as dangerous to hia friends as to his opponents. In 1742 
he was at last successful b overthrowing Sir Boberfc 
Walpole's Government, and was immediately thereafter 
appointed secretary of state. He now obtained a completo 
ascendency over Uie mind of George 11., whose Germon 
policy he carried out irrespective dt the opinions of his 
colleagues; but his imperiousness soon gained him both 
their enmity and the hatred of the people, and enabled his 
opponents, for whom he cherished unmitigated contempt^ 
to effect his political annihiktion. Pitt, afterwards earl of 
CSuttham, spoke of him as " an execrable, a sole ministerjv 
who had renounced the British nationi and aeemed to hav«v 

G R A — G B A. 


flmnk of the potion described in poetic fiction, vhidi mede 
men forget their country." In 1744 he foand it ueceeaory, 
from the resignation of his coUoagnes and his inability to 
find proper saccessors, to tender his resignation ; and, ac- 
cording to Horace Walpole, he " retired from St James's 
haghing." Shortly berore thb he had, by the death of his 
mother, become Earl GranviUc. Uls administration wns 
popolarly distinguished by the epithet *' dronken " — a title 
which had reference to his character both as n politician and 
as a private individual Notwithstanding his want of poli- 
tical success, contemporary opinion is unanimous in affirming 
that he was not only the most brilliant debater bnt the 
ablest statesman of his time. Chatham declared that he 
owed all that he was to his friendship and instruction, 
and Swift, Smollett, Chesterfield, and Horace Walpole have 
borne equally laudatory testimony to his abUitiei. He was 
besides regarded as an authority iu questions of scholarship 
Sy the most eminent classicists of his time, and Bcutley was 
greatly indebted to his assistance in preparing his edition 
of. Homer. His fatal defects appear to have been his 
careless arrogance and his deficiency in definite politi- 
cal principle and puq)08e. After the resignition of the 
Pelham ministry ho was again appointed secretary of state, 
but almost immediately resigned, holding office, according 
to a political squib, for only forty-eight hours, three quar- 
ters, seven minutes, and eleven seconds. In 1749 he was 
created knight of the garter and appointed president of the 
council; but, though he retained his inflaence with the 
king, the part he thenceforth played in English politics was 
indirect and subordinate. He died January 2, 1763. 

Yarioos iuformation resmrJing Earl Oimnville will be louiid in 
dietterfieUFs CharaeUraihatdHtxrcy** Ifemoin of the JUign ^ 
Oeorge JL; Horace AValiwlds LeUen and Ut»u>in oftht JUiym }f 
Gtorgt II. ; Mid the Autobityjraphif of Skelburu*, See alM Lecky s 
Jftsiorv of England in ifu JiiyhtectUh Centnrff. 

GRAPE. See Vine 

GRAPHITE. See CAttBosr, vol. v. p 8'' and FmxACi, 
vol ix. p. 843. 

GRAPHOTYPE is a name which his been given to an 
ingenious process of autographic engraving, by which typo- 
graphie printing blocks are produced. The general prin- 
ciples of the process are as follows. A block of chalk or 
some similar material is reduced to a level surface, and on 
this surface a design is drawn with a glutinous ink, this ink 
being sufficiently fluid to penetrate some little distance into 
the ix>rons chalk. The ink having become dry, gentle fric- 
tion is applied to the surface of the block, so as gradually to 
rub away those parts uf the chilk which are not indnrated 
by the glutinous ink. The lines of the drawing being thus 
left tn relief, a perfect model of the required printing block 
ii obtained, and this model is next hirdened by immersion 
in a bath containing a solution of an olkaUne silicate, 
after which it ^ dried and reproduced by the stereotype 
or the electrotype process. This method of tyiiographio 
eograving was brought to a practical form, and patented 
in 1860 (Ko. 2309) by an American wood engraver, Mr de 
WiU Clinton Hitchcock. The first step iii his process is 
to reduce French chalk or talc to an extremely fine state of 
division by repeated grindings, elutriations, and siftings, 
after which a layer of the material, rather over an eighth 
of on inch in thickness, is forced down upon, and mode to 
adhere to, a thick sine plate, — the necessary pressure being 
obtained by means of an hydraulic press, the platen of which 
is faced with a polished steel plate, so as to communicate 
a good surface to the kyer of compressed French chalk. 
The device is now drawn'^of oonrM, reversed) on the pre- 
pared block with on ink consisting of a weak solution of 
^OA colonred by lamp blaek or some other pi^bent In 
drawing on the prenared block care must be taken not to 
damago the somewhat tender anrface of the comprened 
chalk, and the nfest ioftnimept irtth which tQ apply the 

glatinons liiS: is a fine sable brush, but an ordinary pen Bdiy 
be employed 'if the operation of drawing is i^erformed with 
caution. A pod of silk velvet or a fitch bnisli may be used 
for rubbing the block so as to leave the lines in relief, and 
it U quite sufficient to continue the friction until a depth 
equal to tbe tl^ickneas of an ordinary playing cird is pro- 
duced, — the spaces corresponding to any extended whites of 
the engraving being then cut out by means of a tool A 
10 per cent solution of silicate of sodium may be used for 
hardening the block, and when dry nothing remains but to 
take a mould from it and to reproduce it in metal. 

QBASLITZ^ or Gbabslitz (Bohemian Krattiee), a town 
in the north-west of Bohemia, near the Saxon frontier, in 
the circle of Elbogen, 88 miles N.W. of Prague, 50* 21' 
N. lat.j 12* 27' £. long., is advantageously situated in a 
valley between high hills, at the confluence of the Silberboch 
and Zwoda. It is the hcadquortere of a military district, 
the seat of a court of justice, and has a custom-house, a 
handsome church built in 1618 and dedicated to Corpus 
Christ!, and several manufactories uf cotton and woollen 
stuffs, and of musical and mathematical instninients, look- 
ing-glasses, brass, copper, and wire goods, and |japer. 
Gradits is one of the most important industriol towns in 
Bohemia, and the centre of the lace-weaving districts of the 
Erxgebirge. In 1869 the population, inclusive of the small 
suburb of Glasberg, amounted to 6549. 

G BASSE, a town of Franco, capital of an arruudissemout 
in the department of Alpes-Maritimcs, 20 miles W. of 
Nice. It occupies a picturesque situation on the southern 
declivity of a lull facing the Mcditermnean, from which it 
is about 7 miles distant ; and it possesses a climate remark- 
ably mild and salubrious. It is well supplied with water 
from a rivulet which rises above it. The streets are narrow, 
steei>, and winding, but the houses are generally well built 
Tlie town was formerly the seat of a bishop, and possesses 
a Gothic cathedral with a beautiful tower, an old chapel 
dating from the 11th century, now used as a powder 
magazine, a hospital, a town-luil, an exchange, a theatre, 
a communal college, and a public library. The chapel of 
the hospital contains three pictures by Kubens. Next to 
Paris, Qrasse carries on the largest manufacture of perfumery 
m France. Citrons, oranges, lemons, figs, pomegranates^ 
and tbe flowers used by the perfumers, are grown in the 
gardens of the town and neighbourhood, and fine marble, 
alabaster, and jasper ire found in the vicinity. Grasse was 
founded in tbe 6th century by Jews from Sardinia. The 
population in 1876 was 9673. 

GRASSES {Graminece — (rraifitiia)are monoootyledonous 
flowering-plants, poesessing certain characters in common, 
and constituting the order Gramineig, No plant is cor- 
rectly termed a grass which b not a member of this family, 
but the word is in common language also used, generally 
in combination, for many plants of widely different affinities 
which possess some resemblance (often slight) in foliage 
to truly graminaceous species ; &y., knot-grass [Pdy^onum 
avicvlarr^^ cotton-grass (Sriopkontm\ rib-grass (Plantago), 
scorpion-grass (Myo9atU\ sea-erass {Zottera), In agriciil- 
ture the word has an extended signification to include 
the various fodder-plants, chiefly leguminoo% often called 
** artificial grasses " (see Agucultubb). Indeed, formerly 
groMt (also spelt g<gn, grn, gyrt^ in the old herbeJs) meant 
any green herbaMOUS plant of small siie. 

Yet the flrsi attempts at a classification of plants 
recognized and aeparated a group— oonsidered even of 
primary valne — of GramiHa^ and tins, though bounded by 
nothing more definite than habit and general appeannoe^ 
oontaiMd the (7reiaiiiwar of modem botanists. The older 
group, however, even wiUi snch systematista as Bay (1 703), 
Scheuchser (1719), and MlcheU (1729^ embraced in 
addition the Cpptnutm^ JmotMm^ and some otbor mooQ^ 



cotyledons with inocnepieaooB flowen Singularly enooghi 
tkhe aexnal syBtem of Ilnnniu (1730) served to mark off 
more difltinctly the tme grasses from these allies, since very 
nearly all of the former then known fell nnder his Triandria 
Dlg'/nia, whilst the latter f onnd themselYes under other 
of I'is artificial classes and orders. 

L Stbuotube. — ^The general type of tme grasses is 
familiar in the cultivated cereals of temperate dUmates — 
wheat, barley, lye, oats, and in the smaller plants which 
make up our pastures and meadows and form a principal 
factor of the turf of natural downs. Less familiar are the 
grains of warmer climes — ^rice, maize, millet, and sbigho, 
or the sugar cane. Still further removed are the bamboos 
of India and America, the columnar stems of which reach 
to the height of forest trees. All are, however, formed on 
a common type, which we proceed to examine. 

i?ooe.—- Most cereals and many other grasses are annual, 
and possess a tuft of very numerous slender root-fibres, much 
branched, and of great length. The greater part of the 
order are of longer duration, and have the roots also fibrous, 
but fewer, thicker, and less branched. In such cases tl^ey 
are veiy generally given off from just above each 'node 
(often in ai circle) of the lower part of the stem or rhisome, 
perforating the leaf-sheaths. In some bamboos they are 
▼eiy numerous from the lower nodes of the erect culms, and 
pass downwards to the soil around them, whilst those from 
the upper nodes shrivel up and form circles of spiny fibres. 

Stem, — ^The root-stock of perennial grasses is usually 
well developed, and often forms very long creepin]§,or sub- 
terranean rhizomes, with elongated Intemodes and Scathing 
scales ; it is also frequently shorty with the nodes crowded. 
The vezy large root^tock of the bamboos (fig. 1) is a strik- 

Ito.lp-B]iixomoorBamboa A, B, d D, taooanf t« wiiei of nH the lut 
iMatux Mrial eolnu. 

ing example of <* definite** growth; it is much branched, the 
short thick curved branches being given off below the apex 
of the older ones and at right angles to them, the whole 
forming a series of connected arched axes, truncate at their 
ends which were formerly continued into leafy culms. The 
root-stock is always solid, and has the usual internal struo- 
Hire of the monocotyledonous stem. 

The aerial leaf-bearing branches (culms) are a character- 
istic feature of grasses. They are generally numerous, 
erect, cylindrical (rarely flattened), and conspicuously 
jointed with evident nodes. The nodes are solid, a strong 
plate of tissue passing across the stem, but the intemodes 
are commonly hollow, although examples of completely 
solid stems are not uncommon (many Andropogons, sngar- 
cino). The general character is thus not unlike that of 
Umbelli/era, The exterior of the culms is more or less 
concealed by the leaf-sheaths ; it is usually smooth and 
often highly polished, the epidermal cells containing an 
amount of silica sufficient to leave after burning a distinct 
skeleton of their stractare. Tabasheer is a white substance 
mainlv composed of silica, found in the joints of several 
l)a|[nb^ A few of the lower intemodes may become en- 

I'ftged and sub^lobular, forming imtriment-etorea, and 
grasses soclianged are termed "biSbous" {Arrhenatherum^ 
Foa htUbofo, &c.). In internal stmcture grass-culms, save 
in being HoUow, confoim to that usual in monocotyledons ; 
the vascolar bundles run parallel in the intemodes, but a 
horizontal interlacement occurs at the partitions. Nearly 
all grasses branch to some extent, and many extensively; 
the branches are strictly distichous, and many buds are 
abortive, or the resulting branches short and stunted. In 
many bamboos they are long and spreading or drooping and 
copiously ramified, in others reduced to hooked spines. 
Dinoehloa is traly scandent, and climbs over trees 100 feet 
or more in height Olyra lati/olia is also a climber on a 
humbler scale. 

Grass-culms grow with great rapidity, as is most strik- 
ingly seen in bamboos, where a height of over 100 feet is 
attained in from two to three months, and many species grow 
two, three, or even more feet in twenty-four hours. Silicic 
hardening does not commence tiU the full height is nearly 
attained. The largest bamboo recorded is 170 feet, and the 
diameter is nsually reckoned at about 4 inches to each 50 
feet A specimen in the British Museum is over 8 inches 
in diameter. In the same collection are some remarkable 
monstrosities, in which the septa are oblique and the inter- 
nodes triangular or rhomboidfd ; Eurz has also figured one 
in the Calcutta Museum in which the cavities are confluent 
into a continuous spiral 

Leaves, — ^These present special characters usually suffi- 
cient for ordinal determination. They are always solitary 
at each node and strictly distichous, and consist ofl^o-dia- 
tinct portions, the sheath and the blade. The theath is 
often of great length, and generally completely surrounds 
the culm ; as a rule it is split down its whole length, thus 
differing from that of Cyperaceee, which is almost invariably 
{Erioepora is an exception) a complete tube. • In a few 
grasses (Melica, J^rojntMJithe edges are soldered together 
as in the latter order. The sheaths are much dilated in 
Alopecurtu vagincUiu and in a species of Foimaochloa, in 
the latter serving as floats. At the sunmiit of the sheath, 
above the origin of the blade, is the ligvle, a usually mem- 
branous process of small size (occasionally reaching an 
inch in length) erect and pressed around the culm. It 
is rarely quite absent, but may be represented by a tuft 
of hairs (very conspicuous in Pariana). Ifelica ttniflora 
possesses, in addition to the ligule^ a green erect tongue- 
like process, from the line of junction of the edges of the 

The Uade is frequently wanting or small and imperfect 
in the basal leaves, but in the rest is long and set on to the 
sheath at an angle. The usual form is familiar, — sessile, 
more or less ribbon-shaped, tapering to a point, and entire 
at the edge. The chief modifications are the articulation 
of the (deciduous) blade on to the sheatli, which occurs in all 
the Bamhtueoe (except Planotid) and in Spoa-tina ttricta, 
and the interposition of a petiole between the sheath and 
the blade, as in J^pUupu, Pharus, Pariana, Lophatherum, 
&c In the latter case the form of the leaf usually becomes 
oval,, ovate, or even cordate or sagittate, but these forma 
are found in sessile leaves also {Olyra, Panieum), The 
venation is strictly parallel, the midrib usually strong, and 
the other ribs more slender. In Anomochloa there are 
several nearly equal ribs, and in some broad-leaved grasses 
{Bambtuect, Pharut, Leptaspit) the venation becomes tesse- 
lated by transverse connecting veins. The thick prominent 
veins in Agropyrnm occupy tihe whole upper sur&ce of the 
leaf. Epidermal appendages are rare, the most frequent 
being marginal, saw-like, cartilaginous teeth, usually minute, 
but occasionally {Dawthonia erabra, Panieum terraium) so 
large as to give the margin a serrate appearance. Alope- 
cHfi^ knaiw and one or two Panicums have woolly leaves. 



Injhmtencs. — ^This poaseans an ezceptioual ur.port- 
ftnce in grosses, since, Uieir floral envelopes being much 
redaced and the sexual oigans of very great uniformity, the 
ehamcters employed for classification are Bnainly derived 
from the arrangement of the flowers and their investing 
bracts. The snbject also presents unusual difficulties from 
tlic varions interpretations which have been given to thess 
glumaceous organs and the different terms employed for 
them by various writers. It may, however, be now con- 
adered as settled that the whole of the bodies known as 
glomes and pale», and distichonsly arranged externally to 
the flower, form no part of the floral envelopes, but ore of 
the nature of bracts. These are so arranged round the 
smiU flowers as to form spiielett (locustn), and each 
spike] ct may Contain one, two, three, or a greater number 
of flowers (in some species of Etxigiy>stU nearly 60). 
The flowers are, as a rule, placed laterally on the axis 
(rachis) of the spikelet, but in nnlflorous spikelets they 
appear to be terminal, and are probably really so in 
Antkaxanihum (fig. 9, 2) and in two anonmlous genera, 
AncftnocMoa and Sireptoehcrte. 

In immediate relation with the flower itself, and often 
entirely concealing it, is the palca or pale (" upper pale " 
of most systeinatio agrostologists ; ''poleola interior,'*. 
Dumortier; ''spathella," Doll). This organ (fig. 3, 1) is 
p«:uliar to grasses among Glumiferof, and is almost always 
present, certain Oryzea and Phalaridem being the only 
ezceptiona It is of thin membranous consistence, usually 
obtuse, often bifid, and possesses no central rib or nerve, 
but is furnished with two lateral ones, one on either side ; 
&e margins are frequently folded in at the ribs, which 
thus become placed at the sharp angles. Tliis structure 
points to the fusion of two organs, and the pale was 
bj R. Brown considered to represent two portions soldered 
togetlier of a trimerous periaath-whorl, the third portion 
being the " lower pale," to be immediately mentioned. By 
Bcntham the homology of the organ is suggested to be with 
the two bracteoles found in ffypoiytrum pungem and 
PUUylepU, and with the porigyninm of the female flower 
of Carex in Cyperaeea, It is rarely {Triachyrum, Diachy- 
rlun) found split into two separate organa 

The flower with its pale is s^He, and is plaoed in the 
axil of another bract in such a way that the pale u exactly 
opposed to it, though at a slightly higher level It Is this 
:acond bract which h£3 been generally called by systemat- 
iits the " lower pale," and with the ** upper pale " con- 
sidered to form an outer floral envelope (** calyx," Jussieu ; 
** perianthinm," Brown ; ** stragulum," Palisot de Beauvois; 
' glumeUa," Dumortier). In the writings of most botanists 
e7en though this view is not held, yet, where the term 
" flower " is employed, it includes these organs. It is, how- 
ever, certain that the two bracts are on different axes, one 
secondary to the other, and cannot therefore be parts of one 
vhorl of oigans. This was made out from the study of so- 
called "▼inparons" grasses, in which the lower pales 
become transformed into ordinaiy foliage leaves, fint by 
Yon Mohl in 1845, and more clearly by Germain de St 
Pierre in 1852, who terms the lower pale the "glume 
fertile." Doll and Bentham have also independently ar- 
rived at the same result, and the latter m 1858 first 
pobliahed the terminology here adopted, and used for the 
sam3 organ the name Jtowering glume. The two bracts 
are usually quite unlike one another, but in some genera 
(e.y., most Feetueaceat) they are considerably simflar in 
ihape and appearance. 

The flowering glume has generally a more or lees boat- 
ihaped form, is of firm consistenoe, and pooBeeses a well- 
marked central midrib and freqnenUy several lateral ones. 
Hie midrib in a large proportion of genera extends into an 
appeadage termed the atpn (fig. 10, 2), aud A9 ta^Trt TWW 

more rarely extend beyond the glump as sharp points (e,ff^ 
Pappopkot'um), The form of the flowering-glume U very 
various, this organ being plastic and extensively moclifled 
in different genera. In Leptaspis it is formed into a closed 
cavity by the union of its edges, and encloses the flower, 
the styles projecting through the pervious summit Yahi- 
able characters are obtained from the awn. This presents 
itself variously developed' from a mere subulate point to an 
organ several inches in length, and when complete (as in 
Androiy>gone(9, Aveiiece, and Stipeoe) consists of two weD- 
roarked portions, a lower twisted part and a terminal 
straight portion, usually set in at an angle with the former 
sometimes trifid and occasionally beautifully feathery. The 
lower part is most often suppressed, and in the large group 
of the PanicecB awns of any sort are very rarely seen. The 
awn may be either terminal or may come off from the back 
of the flowering-glume, and Duval Jouve's observations 
have shown tliat it represents the blade of the leaf ol 
which the portion of tlie flowering-glumo below its origin 
is the sheath ; the twisted part (so often suppressed) cor- 
responds with the petiole, and Uie portion of the glume 
extending beyond the origiu of the awn (very long in 
some species, e,g,^ of Dantkonia) with the Ugule of the 
developed foliage-leal When terminal the awn has three 
fibro-vascular bundles, when dorsal only one ; it is covered 
with stomate-bearing epidermis. 

The flower with its polea is thas sessile in the axil of a 
floriferona glume, and in a few grasses {Leeraia (fig. 2), 
Coleanihut, Xardus^ the spikelet consists of notlung more, 
but usually (even m uniflorous spikelets) 
other glumes are present Of these the two 
placeddistlchoosly opposite each other at the 
base of the spikelet never bear any flower in 
their axils, and are called the haaal or empty 
glumes (fig. 10, 1). They are the "glumes" 
of most writera ("paleae" ^f Dumortier), 
and together form trhat was called the 
<<gluffla" by R. Brown (" tegmen," Palisot de 
Beauvois). They rarely diffei* m^ch from 
one another, but one may be smaller or 
quite absent (Panicum (fig. 8, 2), Vvlpia, no. t .-Sprkew or 
Patpalumt Lolium)y or both be altogether ieer$im. 
suppressed, as above noticed. They are commonly firm and 
strong, often enclose the spikelet, and are rarely provided 
with long points or imperfect awna Qenerally speaking 
they do not share in the special modifications of the flower- 
ing glumes, and but rarely themselves undeigo modiflca- 
tion, chiefly in hardening of portions (Sdeivekne, Jlcutiewie, 
Aiitephora, Peltophorum)^ so as to afford greater protection 
to the flowere or fruit But it is usual to find, besides the 
basal glumes, a few other empty ones, and these are in two- 
or more-flowered spikelets (fig. 11, 2) at the extremity 
(numerous in Zopkatherum), or in uniflorous ones (fig. 
8, 2) below, interposed between the floral glume and the 
basal pair. Descriptive writen have been accustomed to 
cdl these empty glumes " barren " or '* neutral flowers," a 
misleading use of terms. 

The axis of the spikelet, when short and rounded, has 
been termed the ealltUt when long the rachUlus, It is fre- 
quently jointed and breaks up into articulations above each 
flower. Tufts or borden of haire are frequently present 
(Calamagroeiie, Phragmites, Andropogon)^ often so long 
as to surround and conceal the flowers. The axis is often 
continued beyond the last flower or glume as a bristle or 
stalk. , 

Involueree or organs outside the spikelets are not unfre* 
quent, the morphology of which is various. Thus in Selaria, ' 
Pennieehanf &e., the one or more cireles of simple or 
feathery haira represent abortive branches of thd inflor- 
Qscenoe ; in Cenekrue these become consolidated, and Uie 



fnner ones flattened out so as to form a very hard globular 
imiDy €080 to the spikelete. Tlie cnp^haped involucre of 
Vornucopim is a dilatation of the axis into a hollow recep- 
tacle wifch a raised border. In Cynoaurut the pectinate 
involucre which conceals the spikelet is a barren or abortive 
spikelet True hraeU of a more general character subtend- 
ing branches of the inflorescence are singularly rare in 
OramiMOf, in m irked contrast with Cyperaeeoe, where they 
are so conspicuous. They however occur in a whole sec- 
tion of Andropoffon, in Anomochloa, and at the base of 
the spike in Sesiei-ia, The remarkable ovoid involucre of 
CotXt which becomes of stony hardness, white, and polished 
(then known as ** Job*s tears "), is also a modified bract 
or leaf-sheath. It is entirely closed except at the apex, 
and contains the female spikelet^ the stalks of the male 
idflorescenee and the long styles emerging through the 
smiU apical orifice. 

Any number of spikelets may compose the inflorescence, 
and their arrangement is very various. In the spicate 
forms, with sessile spikelets on the main axis, the latter is 
often dilated and flattened (PoBpalum), or ia more or lev 
thickened and hollowed out (Slenotaphrum^ Rottbofilia, 
Triptacum), when the spikelets are sunk and buried within 
the cavities. Every variety of racemose and paniculate 
inflorescence obtains, and the number of spikelets composing 
those of the hrge kinds is often immense. Rarely the 
inflorescence consists of very few flowers; thus Lygeum 
Spartum, the most anomalous of European grasses, has but 
two or thre3 large uniflorons spikelets, which are fused 
together at the base, and have no basal glumes, but ore 
enveloped in a brge hooded spathe-like bract 

Floioer, — This is characterized by remarkable uniformity. 
The penanth is represented by very rudimentary, small, 
fleshy, hypogynous scales called lodicula (*' squamuhe," 

Pm. t-nfiwm of GruM. 1, Plj^foOcnm, with the pdM; f, Aw; 8, Orguu 

Kunth; ** nectofhwDy" Schreber^; they are elongated or 
truncate, sometimes fringed with hairs, and are in contact 
.with the ovary. Their usual number is two, and they are 
placed collaterally at the anterior side of the flower, that is, 
within tlB9 flowering glume. They are generally considered 
to represent the inner whorl of the ordinary monocoty- 
ledonous (liliaceous) perianth, the outer whorl of these 
beipg' suppressed as well as the posterior member df the 
inner whorL This latter is present almost constancy in 
SUpeoB and BamhutecB^ which have three lodicules, and in 
tlie latter group they are occasionally more numerous (five, 
spreod'uig and persistent in PaevdoOachyum ; six to eight 
in Beaha), In Anomochloa they are represented by hairs. 
In Sireptoeh^st^^ according to Doll, there are six lodicules, 
alternately arranged in two whorls. They are often quite 
absent Id some cases lodicules are of the nature of stipules 
to the palea^ and appear as though split off from its sides 
at the base. Boob atipnlar lodicules often oo-exist alon^ 

with the perianthtai ones, and are then either froo from d 
Combined with the two anterior one^ 

Sexual Organs, — Grass-flowers are U3ual!y hermaphro- 
dite, but there are very many exceptions. Thus it is very 
commo:) to find one or more imperfect (usually male) flowero 
in the same spikelet with bisexual ones, and their relative 
position is important in classification. Il'Jctta and AiTftfp- 
atherum are examples in English grasses; and as a rule in 
specios of temperate regions separation of the sexes is not 
carried furtlier. In warmer countries monoecious aikl 
dicecious grasses are more frequent In such cases the 
male and female spikelets and inflorescence may be very 
dissimilar, as in the maize, Job's tears, EucMoena^ Spinifex^ 
&C.; and in some dioecious species this dissimilarity has 
led to the two sexes being referred to different genera {e.g.^ 
Antephora axilliflora^ £teud., is the female of BucJdoe 
tiactyloidet, Engelm., and Ifettrachne paradoxa^ Br., of a 
species of Spint/ex), In other grasses, however, with the 
sexes in different plants (e.g,, Biitopyrum, DUiicMia, Era- 
groitU capUata, Gynerinm)^ no such dimorphism obtains. 
Amphicarpum is remarkable in having cleistogamic flowers 
borne on long radical subterranean peduncles which are 
fertile, whilst the conspicaous upper paniculate ones, though 
apparently perfect, never produce fruit Something simflar 
occurs in Lerraia oryzoides, where the fertile spikelets are 
concealed within the leaf-sheiths. 

Andrcerium, — In the vast mnjority there are three stamens 
alternating with the lodicnies, and therefore one Anterior, 
ue,, opposite the flowering glume, the other two being poe- 
terior and in contact with the palea. They are hj/^itogynous, 
and have long and very delicate filaments, and large, linear 
or oblong twoK^lled anthers, dorsifixed and ultimately very 
versatQe, deeply indented at each end, and commonly 
ezserted and pendnlons. Suppression of the anterior 
stamen sometimes occurs {e.g., Antlioxanthitm), or the t«ro 
posterior ones may be absent (Unioia, Cinna, Pliippaia, 
Festuca hromoide$). On the otner hand there is in some 
genera (Oryia, most Bamhutea) another row of three 
stamens, making six ii^ all (fig. 3, 3); and Anomoehioa and 
Teirarrhena possess four. The stamens become numerous 
(ten to forty) in the male flowers of a few monoecious 
genera (Pari€mat Lunola), In Beeaha they vary from 
seven to thirty, and in Qigantochloa they are monodelphens. 
^ OynoeciufiL — There is but little variation here from a 
bicarpcllary pistil, with a small rounded one-celled ovary 
containing a single laterally attached or ascending ovule, 
capped by two styles quite distinct or connate at the base. 

FJo. i^rutlb of OruMi. 1, Atiipsetinu; f. Bnmmt; t, ArrH^naOtrum -, 
4, (TIlPMrto; 5, MtHea; S, MOcra; 7, JTorriM. . 

and with densely hairy or feathery stigmas (fig. 4). Ocg»- 
sionally there is but a single style (Nardua, Lygeum), and 
this may attam to a great length (6 inches in the maize); 
or three styles may be present (some Bambutece, LepUupU, 
SireptoehegU), Neee has described a ease in which thrae 
complete carpels wer« found in ScMinwrm eMi>r^ 



We thus see tliat> oomporiog the flower of Oraminea with 
the nonnal liliaceous plan (fig. 5), it differs in the complete 
lappreasion of the ooter row and the posterior member of 
the inner row of the perianth-leaves, of the whole inner row 
of stamens, and of the anterior carpel, whilst the remain- 


FM. C— Ditgnrnt of tho ordlnaiy unts-flower. 1, aetval condition ; t, theoratknl, 
wttk the ntpprMMd organs rapplled. «, axis: h, flowerlnc ulaint; r. palea: 
4. otttv itnr or porUntb locres ; «, inntr row ; /, ovtor row ofttuneni ; g^ Inner 
row; AipiitD. 

log members of the perianth are in a rodimentary condition. 
Bat each or any of the osoallj missing organs are to be 
found normally in different genera, or as occasional de- 

FntU. — The OTaiy ripens into a nsuallj small ovoid or 
rounded f mit, which is entirely occupied by the single large 
leed, from which it is not to be distinguished, tho thin 
pericarp being completely united to its surface. To this 
peculiar fruit the term caryopsis has been applied (more 
familiarly "grain"}; it is commonly farrowed longitudinally 
down one side (usually the inner, but in Co/xand its allies, 
the outer), and an additional covering is nat unfrequeutly 
provided by the adherence of the persistent palea, or oven 
also of the flo wermg glume ( ** chaff " of cereals). From this 
type are a few deviations; thus in Sporobolus, &c (fig. 
6), the pericarp ia not united with the seed but 
is quite distinct, dehisces, and allows the loose 
seed to escapei Sometimes the pericarp is mem 
bfanous, sometimes hard and brittle, whilst, on 
the other hand, in some genera of Jkimbusecp, 
it becomes thick and fleshy, forming a " berry," p^^. n^rmu 
or rather a drupe. In Jfdoeanna haecifera this otsporvMu, 
forms a fruit 3 or 4 inches long, with a pointed <bhul!^£tiwr£ 
beak of 2 inches more; it is indehiscent, and ««»•"* •••^ 
the small seed germinates whilst the fruit is still attached 
to the trae, putting out a tuft of roots and a shoot, and not 
falling till the latter is 6 inches longi A similar germina- 
tion also occurs in Pteudottachyum eomixutum^ which has 
the largest fruit of the order. 

Seed, — ^The testa is thin and membranous but occasion- 
ally coloured, and the embryo small, the great bulk of the 
teed being occupied by the hard farinaceous endosperm 
(iOmmen) on which the nutritive value of the grain depends. 

F^7.-Agrdn of wheat, l.back. and f, front 

(*) the cadflepeni, and («) emluTO; 4* 

1 (0 thwaeeondaiy 


Tiew; a.Tertl«al aedloa. ahowlBt 
loement of fonninatlon, riiowlnf 
ioxToanded ^ tliefr eoieoirhls*. 

The embryo presents many points of interest. Its position 
ii remarkable, closely af^ed to the surface of the endo- 
^wrm at the base of its outer side. This character is abso- 
hte for the whole order, and effectually separates OTawwMm 
ItQm. C}fpmM9. The port in contact with the •ndosiierm 

is flat and plate-like, and is known as the seuMum. Some 
difference of opinion is held on the nature of this ; but it 
is probably correctly regarded (as by Van Tieghem) as the 
main portion of the cotyledon, the white epigooal sheath 
(ptleoia) protecting the plumule— which is often described 
as Uie co^ledon— being the ligule only of thatorgan greatly 
developed. The radicle is inferior, broad, and blunt ; the 
primary root is very slightly developed in germination, but 
several secondary lateral ones burst through above its point, 
and thus become surrounded at their base with little sheaths 

II. Clabsiticatiok.— (7ramtfi«ar are thus sharply do- 
fined from all other plants, and there are no genera as 
to which it is possible to feel a donbt whether they 
should be referred to it or not The only order closely 
allied is Cyperaeeof, and the points of difference between 
the two have been alluded to above, but may be here 
brought together. The best distinctions are found in 
the porition of the embryo in relation to the endo- 
sperm—lateral in grasses, basal in Cyperacea—Kod in 
the possession by GraminecB of the 2-nerved polea below 
each flower. Less absolute characters, but generally trust- 
worthy and more easily observed, are the feathery stigmas^ 
the always distichous arrangement of the glumes, the 
usual absence of more general bracts in the inflorescence^ 
the split leaf;4heaths, and the hollow, cylindrical, jointed 
culms,— some or all of which are wanting in all Cypetx^ece. 
The same characters will distinguish grasses from the other 
glumiferous orders, Jiettiacea, Erxoeautoneo!^ and Detvauxi- 
aeecPf which are besides further removed by their capsnlar 
fruit and pendulous ovules. To other monocotyledonons 
families the resemblances are merely of adaptive or vege- 
tative characters. Some Commelynacea and Ifarantactm 
approach grasses in folioge; the loaves of J Ilium, Sic, 
possess a ligule ; the habit of some palms reminds one of 
the bamboos ; and Juaeaeem and a few Liliacea poesess an 
inconspicuous scarious perianth. 

The great uniformity among the veiy numerous species of 
this vast family renders its elamfieation very difficult The 
difficulty has been increased by the confusion resulting from 
the multiplication of cenera founded on slight characters, 
and from Ae description of identical plants under several 
different genera in consequence of their wide distribution. 

No characters for main divisions can be obtained from 
the flower proper or fruit ; though both Eunth and Beich- 
enbach have used them-*-especiaIly the form of the styles 
and stigmas, thelodicules and the caiyopsis — they have not 
been generally employed by botanists, who have found it 
necessary to trust to diaracters. derived from the usually less 
important inflorescence and bracts. 

The earlier authors made the general arrangement of the* 
spikelets (spicate, paniculate, Ac) the basis of their dassi- 
ficationsL Palisot de Beauvois's main divisions are founded 
on the existence in the same inflorescence of similar or 
diverse spikeleta Fries has proposed a division into Eury- 
anthecB and ClUantheoe, according to the condition of the 
flowering glume and pale, separated or close during inflor^ 
esoence. Dumortier gives a dassiflcation into Baehidecf, 
BaekUliflorcB^ and Calliflorai ; the first with the spikelets 
inserted into^excavations of the rachis, the second with the 
flowers of the free spikelet inserted on its axis (rachillus), 
and the last with the flower or flowers borne on the short 
callus of the glumes. Both these systems, and others 
which have beni suggested, possess merits of their own, 
but they have not as yet been found capable of application 
to the order as a whole, having be«i framed for the 
accommodation mainly of European genera. 

For such general treatment no better primary divisioDt 
have been found than those propoeed by Bobert Brown 
in 1810 iad further elaborated In 1814, n^loh havt 

XL — 8 


G B A S S E S 

been accepted by Monro (1868) and Bentham (1878) in 
their most recent rcTisions of tbe Cape and Aosttaliatt 
genera. The basis of Brown*8 division of the whole 
order into Pamceas and Poaeea is the position of the 
most perfect flower in the spikelet; this is the npper 
(apparently) terminal one in the first, whilst in the second 
it occupies the lower position, the more imperfect ones (if 
any) being above it Mnnro has supplemented this by 
another character easier of verification, and of even greater 
constancy, in the articulation of the pedicel in the FanicecB 
immediately below the glumes; whilst in Poacece this does 
not occur, but the aris of the spikelet frequently articulates 
dbcve the pair of empty basal glumes. Neither of these two 
great divisions will well accommodate certain genera allied 
to PKalarit, for which Brown proposed tentatively a third 
group (since named PhalaridecB); tins, or at least the greater 
part of it, is placed by Bentham under the Poaeeof, 

The following arrangement is based on the writings of 
these authors, but it cannot be considered veiy satisfactory. 
Probably no serial disposition can represent the tangled 
network of genera related in different ways and various 
degrees which make up this very natural but complicated 
family, and though some of the following tribes are fairly 
natural, the limits of others are but ill-defined, and the 
position of many genera uncertain. 

I. P<A2TICA0X&— Pedicel articnlated below the glmnet. Spikelet 
with one or two flowers, the mo] 
male or barren onc^ if present. 

with one or two flowers, the more perfect fertile one above, the 

no. S^-^Anicocecr. 

6. O^yrMSL— dpikeleti monoedoof, or some hermtptim&fo mS. 
flome nuile in the same panicle ; the flowering glome laxge^ 
■ometimes utiicolar. Stamens three, six, or more. LeaTes 
often broad and petiolate. 
Exam PLXB i—LenteupiSy Pharus, Oiyra, Pariana. 
II. PuALABiBRA — Fediccl either articnlated below the ginmee or 
not, bnt the rochis of the spikelet articnlated above the two 
lowest ones. Spikclets with (one or) three flowers, the perfect 
fertile one above, the two mole, if present, below it Two- 
nerved poloa nsoally absent. 
ZZAMPLES :—PhaIari$, AfUkoxauiktnn, EhrJkarta, UierocUoe 
Alopeeurus, PhJeum, Crypais, Lygeum (f). 

Fio. 9^nalarUUm. 1, ipflcdet of merockloe; S, iplkelet of JmtkucmtHm, 

III. PoAOES.— Pedicel not articulated below the glomes. Bachif of 
spikelet often articnlated above the two lowest glomes. 
I^Lkeleta with one, twQ, or more fertile flowers, the male or 
imperfect ones (if any) above them. Sachia of spikelet often 
continued as a point or bristle beyond the flowers. 

1. Or^^Ac-^pikclots one-flowered. Empty basal glnmea very 

small or wanting. Two-nerved palea nsoally absen:. 
Stamens osoally six. 
Examples i—Orvza, Lcenta, PotafnophUa, Zisania, Awonuh 

2. iSlfi>e«.— Spikelets one-flowered. Flowering glome witk a 

terminal twisted and bent awn. Palea small and thin. 

Lodicoles three. 
Examplks :-^»jp(i, ArididOt PipUOhtrum, 
8. .itf^ro«<i<20a.—Spikelet8 one-flowered. EloweiinggilameusaBlly 

with a terminal or dorsal bont awn. Palea small and thin^ 

Lodicoles two. 
Examples:— ^jfnM^, Deyeuxia, Oakmagrotlit, CoUaiUhm{f), 

1, a wdr of q>lkdeta of A»drepog€m\ % i 
WlUiui sbortlTe toaneh beneath it. 

of Affsrlff, 

1. 7%Mi{oMB.~Sv^letBwithanappaTentlytenninalhermaphrodite 

or female flower with or withoot a mole one beneath it 

Glomes three or f oor, the upper flowering one of a firm textnre, 

the lowest nsoally small, sometimes absent Awns rarely 

foond ; if present neither twisted nor kneed. Proit enclosed 

in the haraened flowerinff glume and palea. 

'Examples i-^Paspalvm^ Panicum, Sctarict, i^nwistfum. Aft' 

thephorOf Thouarea, Spinifex, 

S. TrM«g{n0«.~Spikelet8 as in PanieeoBf but flowering-glome 

with a twisted and bent awn. 
' Examples i—Arunditulla, Triilaehya, P6lupogon{f), 
8. Andropogonem. — Spikelets as In the last, but osoally in pairs 
(rarely three or solitary), one being sessile and fertile, the other 
stalkodandosoallymaleorneoter. Glomes foor (rsiely fewer), 
one of the outer ones the largest and enclosing the firoit tiie 
upper flowering one very thin and transparent usually bear- 
inig a twisted and bent awn or reduced to the awn. 
Examples :—iiicA4ein«m, Pottinia, Andropogon, Imptraia, 
Sorghum, AnihisUria, Briam/hua, SuUuia, Saeeharum. 
4. A)MW/<Me.~8pikelots as in the hut ; one of each pair fsrtQe. 
sessOe, and sunk in alternate notches or cavities of the jointoa 
simple rachia, the other stalked or absent ; no awns. 
Examples i—JTMnarOfia, Maniauris, JMOoeUia, Ophiwnu, 
Prilurtu, Lepturtu. 
B, Uayodttt, — Spikelets monoecious, very unlike, the male nomer- 
008 in a tenninal panicle, the female few at the base of the 
male infloresconoo or more nomeroos in a separate one. 
ftAMTTI ^*OMsb i^ OMQ>Mfhn$, Trip99cwKS Sflirwd^ 

Fm. 10.-i>MeMa l^wfOulUtotAgrotiUt^tfXIuiiiUAirm. 

4. ^MfiMS.— Spikeletsgenenlly two- rarely three- or more-flowered. 
Flowering glomes with a terminal or dorsal bent snd twisted 
awn. Puea lai^p), enclosing with the flowering £^ome the 
ExAMPLXr '."Aira, ffokua, ArrhentUhentm, Avma, Tritdmn, 
DtuUhonia, Lagurus, 
[8, Z, and 4 together form Bentham's tribe StreploAerm.'] 
6. itopopAofiNB.— Spikelets one- or several-flowered. Ploweriqg 
glomes roonded on the baek, terminating in three or moire 
teeth often carried oot into straight awnsi 
Examples i-^Pmophorum, TrirtjphiU, CoUta, THoOa, 
9. (ZUoriebcB.— Spikelets one- or seversl-flowered, seasil* en «Qe« 
aided spikes. Tloweringi^nmes nrely awaed. . 



Otmiiumf Nardut. 
T. if/2*M.— Spikelets one- or aeTenl-flovaed, MnieoUte. Flower- 
lag glnmes nnially roondad and uuwiMd. P«1m Urn. 
EZAJIPLBS '.^Milium, Cmlaehme, SIporoboius. 
8. JPfcateowr.— Spikeleta aeTeral- or many-flowered, stalked, panicn- 
late or capitate. Flowering ^ames entire, obtuse or aente, 
or with a strai^t awn ; one or more empty ones abore tlie 
fertile flowera. 
BTHfPT.TW i—Feduea, Bromui, Lamarkia, Brim, Foa, Bra- 
gntUa, Dadyhtf Oynoturut, Arundo, FhragmiUt, M$lica. 

Fn. n^FMKtm. 1, spOcelet of Bria ; % iplkdet of IHtiam. 

9, Bamhuaea. — Spikelets one-, seTeral-, or many-flowered, nsoaOy 

sessile, panicnlate or capitate. Lodicnles throe. Stamens 

generally six. Stems verv large and tall (called arbore- 

OQs or shrubby). Blade of leaf articulated with the aheatii. 

ExAMPLBS i—AruMdinaria, Chumiuca, NaahUf Bamtrnta^ MeUh 

cixniiia, Bce*ha, 

10. Hordm, — Spikelets one- or seTeral-flowoTod, sessile on the 
m>posito rides of the main axis of the spike. Otherwise asin 

KT A ifpf . M : ^Eordeum, Agropyrum, JSgikf$^ TrUieMM^ 
Zolium, Lqalurug, JSlymut, 
[5 to 10 compose Benthom's tnbe AdrqittB,'} 

HL DiBTEiBunoN. — Grasses ure the moti nniyenally 
diffiued oyer the globe of all flowering-plants. Thuere is no 
district in which they do not occur, and in nearly all they 
are a leading and dominant feature of the flora. In aotoal 
number of species OraminecB comes considerably after Com- 
potUm and Legumino9aBf the two most numerous orders of 
phanerogams^ but in number of individual plants it pro- 
bably far exceeds either; whilst from the wide extension 
of many of its species, the proportion of Qrwminem to 
other orders in the yarious floras of the world is much liigher 
than its whole number of species would lead one to expect 
This number can, however, scarcely be put mndi below 
6000, which is probably somewhat more than a fifth of all 
monocotyledons^ This b only about ^th of -the phanero- 
gams aa a whole, yet in any given locality, with a very 
few exceptions, this proportion is largely exceeded, ia, 
tropical r^ons, where LeguminoMB is the leading order, 
grassea closely f o]low as tiie second, whilst in t^ warm 
ind temperate regions of the northern hemisphere^ in which 
Compontcs takes the lead, QrarnvMa again occupies the 
second position. As the colder latitudes are entered the 
grasses become relatively more numerous, and are the lead- 
ing family in Arctic and Antarctio regions. The only 
eountries where the order plays a distinct^ subordinate part 
are some extrartropical regiona of the southern hemisphere, 
Australia, the Cape, Chili, kc The actual proportion of 
graminaceous roeciea to the whole phaneroffamio flora In 
different countries is found to vaiy from neany ^th in tlie 
Arctic regions to about ^^th at the Cape ; in the British 
IsleB it 18 about -^th. The following are proportiona per 
cent in various floras, from J)ecandolle's Qeogr, JBotani^iue, 
which must^ however^ be taken as merely approximationB 
m most casea i—^ 

In the tnmies:— Cape Yard lalands, 18; Abyssinia and Kabia, 
IS ; Xozieok 10; Hawaiian Ishmds, 10; Congo. 8; ICsorftlQS, 8; 
BsigplLboarhood of joitOj^ 10; Barbados, 6; Snrmam, 6; Tnnis, 6; 

Inea, 4: Kew Grenada, L In temperate ngioos of th\ 
heinispiiere >—Ba]ida and some other distrieta of India, 16 
17: tgnt, 12; Tsza^ 18; Asona, 12: Madeira, 11; Algeria, 
; Oaoarks, 8; V^A States, 8; Sardinia, 9; HoOand, 10; 

Sweden, 8^; Great Britain, 8|; France, 7|; Germany, 7; China, 
8 ; Altai, f^ ; Japan, 6|. In northern regions (b«nrond 60* a, bt): 
— MelTille Island, 21: Spitzbergen, 18; Iceland, 11. In extra- 
tropioal regions of the southern hemisphere:— Chili, 0; Cape 
Colony, H; Swan Riyer district, 2. In Antarctio iBhuids:--Kerb 
gaelen, 26; Tristan da Cunba, 16. 

The principal climatic cause infloeneing the number of 
graminaceous species appears to be amount of moisture ; 
it is only in very dry countries that they become distinctly 
less numerous. A remarkable feature of the distribution 
of grasses is its uniformity ; there are no great centres for 
the order, as in Compositof, where a marked prepondcnnee 
of endemic species exists; and the genera, except some of 
the smallest or monotypic ones, have usually a wide distri« 
butjon. Speaking generally, however, the Fanioaeem are 
tropical and warm temperate plants, whilst the grasses of 
temperate and cohler regions are members of the Poaeeat, 
The former are very ^aringly represented in £urope by a 
few species of the vast tropical genera Andrapogon and 
Panieum, Foacea, on the other hand^ form a fair pro- 
portion of tropical Gframinea, especially in the higlier dis- 
tricts where, aa in the mountains of Abyssinia^ are several 
endemic genera and many species. The lai^t tropical 
genns of Foocms is JSragrottit, 

The distribution of the tropical tribe Banhutect is in* 
terestlng. There are 170 or more species, which are about 
equally divided between the Indo-Malayan region and 
tropical America, only one species being common to both«| 
Apparently there is but a sm^e native species on the African 
continent, where it has a wide range, and none are recorded 
for Australia, though species may perhaps occur on the 
northern coast One species of Arundinnria reaches north-| 
wards aa far as Virginia, and the elevation attained in the 
Andes by some species of Chttaguea is very remarU>le^ — ' 
one; C. arittaic^ being abundant from 15,000 feet up to 
nearly the level of perpetual snow. 

liany grasses are ahnost cosmopolitan, such as ou 
common reed, Phragmitea communUi and many range 
throughout the warm r^ona of the globe, «.^., Cpnodon 
Dadi^on^Eleuaine indiea, Imperata arundinacea,jSi)orobolm 
induuBf &&, and such weeds of cultivation aa species <A 
SetariOf ^ohinochloa, which are found over both Old' and 
New Worids. The recent masterly revision of the whc^ 
of the Auc^ralian species by Bentham well exhibits tiia 
wide range of the ^nera of the order in a flora generally so 
peculiar and restncted aa that of Australia. ThuB of tha 
90 indigenous genera (many monotypic or very small) only 
14 are endemic, 1 extends to South Africa, S are conmw>n to 
Australia and New Zealand, IS extend also into Asia, whilst 
no less than 64 are found in both the Old and New Worldsi 
2b being chiefly tropical and 28 chiefly extra-tropicaL 

Of spedaUy remarkable species Zjfgeutn is found on 
the searsand of the eastern half of the Mediterranean 
baain, and the minute ColeaiUhv$ has only occasionally 
occurred at intervals in three or four isolated spots in Europe 
(Norway, Bohemia, Normandy), liany remarkable endemic 
genera occur in tropical America, including Atwmoeiloa of 
Braail, and most of the large aquatic speolea with separated 
sexes are found In this region. The oidy genua of flowering 
plants peculiar to the arctic regions la the beautiful and 
rare grass PUuntpogcn Sabinii, B. Br., of Melville Island. 

BOHogremk^.—K Brown, Fivd. Fhr, Kcv, HoUemd, (1810); 
Id., apnenoix to Flindertf$ Vcyag4, p. 6d0 (18U); H. and J. J. 
Bennett in FlanL Javan, Bar., p. 8 0888); Palisot de BeauYois, 
J6luds SAgrottoaraphU (1812): Jtoiortier, ObmvaHona sw Iff 
QramSniu ds BOgi^ (1828); Id , J&twU AifrottographiMM (1868); 
Trinios, Fumdamenia Agrokographim (1820); Id., Ik ehram, 
Uniflar, (1824); Knnth, BnummiHo Flantarum, I (1888): Id., 
Didrib. MOhodique des Gram. (1886); Yon Mohl, hi BoL ZHiuma, 
1846, p. 88; B. Fries, Svmma Feg. Soanditutvim (1846); Dtffi, 
Flora dst Grvtth. Badsiu, bd. L (1867); Id., in Jakretber. dm 
MamUUimtr Vwr, f. Naturkunde, 1868, p. 80; Id., JZora AwiO^ 
flM^ 0TqmiM9, *. (1871), ii (1877); iit (1878)? Bei|tiMl, 


G E A — G R A 

mrndbook qfSrU, Flora (1858); Id., in Joum. Zmm. Soe, LmUL, 
XT. P.-WO 0877); Id., FUm Audralientit, tU. (1878i; Munio, 
. Ia Hanrey, Cfmtra 8, African FUmts, ed. 2 (1862); Id., &imbu8ecBf 
In Treau. Zintk Soe, Zond,, zxtL p. 1 (1868); Duval Joure, in 
B£4vL do VAcad, du Seieneea d$ Montpellior (1871); Van Tieghem, 
in Aim. da Se. NaL^ aer. 5, zr. p. 286 (1872); Eichler. BluiluTi' 
diagramme, L (1875); Foumier, in Suu. Soe, FoL F«lg., zr. p. 
459 (1876). , (H. T.) 

I GRASSHOPPER (French SavtereUe, Italian GrUh, 
Cterman Grashiip/er, Heuichrecie, Swedish €rrd$koppa), a 
cbUectiYe term applied to certain orthopteroos insects belong- 
ing %o the famiUes Locuttidce and AaydiidcBf according to 
the flow generally received clossificatorj views. They are 
especially remarkable i or their saltatory powers^ dne to the 
great development of the hind legs, which are mnch longer 
than the others and have stout and powerful thighs, and 
also for their stridulation, which b not always an attribute 
with them of the male oncy. The distinctions between 
the two families may be briefly stated as follows : — the 
Locuatidm have very long thread-like antenne, and four- 
jointed tarsi; the AerydiidoB have short stout antennae, 
and three-jointed tarsi. As the term "grasshopper*' is 
almost synonymous with LoctrsT, the subject will be 
more extensively treated under the latter heading (q, v.). 
Under both **ffra8shopper" and '* locust" are included 
members of both famiUes above-noticed, but the m^j^ty 
belong to the Aeryditdw in both cases. * In Britain the 
term is chiefly applicable to the large green grasshopper 
{Locusla viridMmo) common in most parts of the south of 
England, and to smaller and more obscure species of the 
genera Stenobothnu, Gomphoeerus, and Te((ix, the latter 
remarkable for the great extension of the pronotum, which 
often reaches beyond the extremity of the body. All are 
vegetable feeders, and, as in all orthopterous insects, have 
an incomplete metamorphosis, so that their destructive 
powers are contintious from the moment of emergence from 
the egg till death. The notorious migratoiy locust (Paeftp- 
tylus mi^ratorius) may be considered only an exaggerated 
grasshopper, and the too-famous Rocky Mountain locust 
{CcUopienus tpretw) is still more entitled to the name. Jn 
Britain the species are not of snfScient sice, nor of suffi- 
cient numerical importance, to do any great damage, and 
their cheerful ''song** more than counteracts the idight. 
mischief they may cause in devouring grasses and other 
plants. The colours of many of them assimilato greatly tcT 
those of their habitats ; the green of the Loeuola viitJissima 
is wonderfully similar to that of the herbage amongst which 
it lives, and those species that frequent more arid spots axe 
protected in the same manner. Tet many species have 
brilliantly coloured under-wings (though scarcely so in 
English (orms),'and during flight are almost as conspicuous 
as butterflies ; but when settled it is nearly impossible to 
detect them, even although the spot where they dropped may 
have been carefully marked ; and they rise agom almost 
under the feet of the observer. Those that bdong to the 
AaydiidcB mostly lay their eggs in more or less cylindrical 
masses, surrounded by a glutinous secretion, in the ground. 
Some of the Loetutida also lay their eggs in the ground, but 
others deposit tliem in fissures in trees and low plants, in 
which the female is aided by a long flattened ovipositor, or 
process at the extrendty of the abdomen, whereas in the 
Aerydiidm there is only an apparatus of valve& The 
atriduladon or **song" is mainly produced by friction 
of the hind legs against portions of the wings or wing- 
covers ; but variation exists in the exact method. To a 
practised ear it is perhaps possible to diBtingnish the " song " 
of even dosely allied species, and some are said to produce 
a sound differing by day and night The British spedes 
are not numerous ; but in sgme parts of the world (and 
even in Europe) thdr mimban on Teiy great, both in 
n ^ ^j j CT tod individiialit 

QRATIANUS, AuGUSTTn (359-383), Roman emperor, 
son of Valentlnianus I., was bom in 359. In the ninth 
year of his age he received from lus father the title of 
Augustus, but on his father's death in 375 he was compelled 
to share the Western empire with his infant Inother, 
Yalentinianus IL, of whom he was appointed guardian, 
while his nude Valens ruled over the Eastern empire. In 
378 he gained a victory over the Alemonni near the site of 
the present town of Colmar. Through the death of Yalens 
in the same year, there devolved upon him the government 
of the Eastern empire, but feeling himself unable to resist 
unaided the incursions of the barbarians, he ceded it to 
Theodosius, Januaiy 19, 379. For some years Qrationus 
conducted the government of his empire with energy and 
success, but gradually he sank into indolence and occupied 
himself diiefly with the pleasures of the chase. By adopt- 
ing as the guards of his person a body of the Alani, and 
appearing in public in the dress of a Scythian warrior, ho 
awakened the contempt and resentment of his Roman troops. 
A Roman named Maximus took advantage of this feeling 
to raise the standard of revolt in Britain, and invaded (3aul 
with a large army, upon which Gratianns, who was then in 
Paris, being deserted by his troops, fled to Lyons, where^ 
through tho treachery of the governor, he was delivered over 
to one of the rebel generals and assassinated, August 25, 383. 

GRATIANUS, Fsakcibgus, compiler of the Concordia 
ducordaniium Catumum otDeerelum Gratiani^ and fonnditr 
of the science of canon law, was bom about the end of 
the 11th century at Chiusi in Tuscany or, according to 
another account, at Oajrraria near Orvieto. In eariy Ufa 
he appears to hav0»been received into tho Camaldulian 
monastery of Classe near Ravenna, whence he afterwards 
removed to that of San Felice in Bologna, where he 
fipent many years in the preparation of the Conoordiat, The 
precise date of this important work cannot be ascer- 
tained, but it contams references to the decisions of the 
Lateran council Of 1139, and the statement is vouched for 
by tolerably good anUiority that it was completed while 
Pupe Alexan&r IIL was still simply professor of theology 
at Bologna, — in other words, prior to 1150. The labonis 
of Gratian are said to have been rewarded with the 
bishopric of Chiusi, but if so he appears never to have been 
consecrated ; at least his name Is not to be found in any 
authentic list of those who have occupied that see. The 
year of his death is unknown. 

For tome acooout of the Dccrdum OraHani and its histoiy see 
Caxox Law. The Utost edition is that of FHedbcrg (Corput JurU 
Oanoitici, Leipric, 1876). Comiiare Scholte, Zur OttekiAU dor 
LiUmtwr HUr das DecrH Graiimu (1870), J>U Olom mm Dtetd 
OralioM (1872), and OctckiekU der QuOim und LUoralur da 
Kawmiachm FeeAU (1 875). 

GRATIUS FALISCUS, a Roman poet, contemporary 
with Yiigil and Ovid, and author of a poem on hunting 
{dynegetuxL\ of wldch somewhat more than 536 Imes have 
been preserved. Of his personal history nothing is known ; 
but it has been doubtfully conjectured from his cognomen 
that he was a native of FaleriL The only reference to hin 
to be met with in any writer of antiquity (Ovid, Pont,^ it. 
16, 33) is of the most inddental kind, and his poem seems 
very early to have fallen into comparative oblivioh. Our 
knowledge of it is derived diiefly from a manuscript of the 
10th century, preserved at Vienna, but partly also from 
one of nearly the same age at Fbris. It describes, some- 
what after the manner of Xenophon, varions^kinds of game, 
tiie means to be employed for their pursuit and capture 
the best breeds of horses and dogs ; and in doing so it 
sddom rises above the dull levd of the driest technically^ 
although occasionally there are faint reminiscences of Viigu. 

The oditHo primes of this author was puUiabed ia Tcnioa fai 
1584 ; his woric was also indoded by UUtliis (1645-55) and Hsfvr- 
camp (1788) ia tbdr editions otAmolomFH FmaUem, as-wdlaslij 

G R A — G B A 


BnmttiiB a7Sl) ud Wtnudorf (1780) ia Um Fodm latitU Mkiprm, 
•ad by Weber in th« Gmna JMorvm XoMwriMi. Hie mmt 
leeeut editions ere thoee of Stern (18SS) end Henpt (1838). ▲ 
iwdning into Englieh veree wee pabUehed bj Cbrietopber Weee in 
1«4 ; there ie eleo e Gennen treneletion bj Feilet (1826). 

GBATTAN, Henbt (1746-1820), Irish statesman and 
ontor, was bom 3d Jaly 17i6. His father, a Protestant, 
vss for many years recorder of the city of Dnblin, and from 
1761 to 17 S6 its representatiYe i^ the Irish parliament ; 
sni his mother was a daughter of Thomas Marhy, chief 
jostice of Ireland. Both at school and at Trinity College, 
Dablln, which he entered in 1763, yonng Oiattap greatly 
distingolshed himself, especially in the study of the ckssics; 
tad seTMil weU-anthenticated anecdotes indicate aho that 
the more prominent moml characteristics diBpbyed in his 
paUie career had begnn to assert their strength at a veiy 
aady period. While still attending the university he 
dieeuded the Tory principles of his Either, who, dying iu 
1766 before his irritation had time to moderate, testified 
his resentment by depriving him of the paternal mansion, 
lad of all property not seciued by settlement Having in- 
herited, however, a small inalienable patrimony he resolved 
to study for the bar, and in 1767 he entered tlte Middle 
Temple^ London. He was called to the Irish bar in 1773, 
bat never obtained a luge practice ; and indeed from the 
tioie that he left the university he seems to have concen- 
trated his attention chiefly on politios ai\d tha study of 
popular oratory. He early acquired a passionate admira- 
tion of the great orators of Greece and Borne, and while 
m London he spent the most of his evenings in the galleries 
of tha House of Commons or at the bar of the Lords, 
lozioua to profit by every opportunity of obtiining an 
insight into the art of eloquence, his enthusiasm for which 
had received additional stimulus from the genius of Lord 
Chatham. Of the eloquence ef Chatham he has given a 
detailed and graphic description in one of his letters, and 
he also wrote an admirable portraiture of hia character, 
which was inserted as a note in the political publication 
BanOaria conducted by Sir Hercules Langrishe. The 
knowledge obtained from the study of tha best specimens 
of ancient and modem oratory, and that gained from wit- 
neasing the debates in the English parliament, Orattan 
began sedulously to apply to the purposes of his own dis- 
ci^ina By the constant practice of recitation to imaginary 
audiences, and by taking part frequently in private tlieatri- 
eals, he succeeded in overcoming to a remarkable extent 
his great physical defects, so as to acquire a dear and 
rounded articulation, an emphasis iu some respects admire 
iUy consonant with his meanings and a certain ease iu a 
style of elocution which was effective partly by reason of 
its very singularity. At the sime time, by practising the 
babit of. writing out the principal passages of his speeches, 
and subjecting them to a constant mental revirion, he 
attained to the possession of a diction which for clearness, 
epigrammatic vigour, polished beauty of phrsae^ and the 
power of illuminating a whole subject by sudden flashes 
of meaning conveyed in a aingle sentence, is unsutpassed 
in modem matory. He was equally diligent also in per- 
fecting lus political knowledge by a careful study of the 
histoiy and political constitution both of ancient and 
modem nations; and the minor accomplishment of pro- 
ficient as a pistol shot» at that time essential to aveiy 
Irish politician who would be prepared for aU emergencies, 
was cultivated by him with the same dogged peneverauce 
which be display^ in other matters. 

When therefore, under the aunnces of Lord Charlemont, 
Ckattan in 1775; entered the Irish parliament^ he had 
already all his powers under full command, and had so 
trained and disciplined his^ natural genius that it was 
sble to exert its influence with untrammelled freedom. 
The period at which ho began public life was one of the 

most critical in his coontiy's histoiy ; and it is #ithin tha 
limits of strict tmth to affirm that he inaugurated a new 
era in her political condition, and that, whether for good or 
for evil, and whether by the direct success of his efforts or 
by the modifying or opposing influences they called into 
exercise, he has had a greater share than any other indi- 
vidual in determining her present relation to the United 
Kingdom. Through the writings of Molyneuz and 8wift, 
the beginnings of a true national sentiment had been pre- 
viously awakened; and the first step in the path of constitu- 
tional reform had been taken, when by the advocacy of 
Flood the Octennial Bill of 1.768 was passed, which limited 
the duration of parliaments to eight years^ instead of as 
formerly making their continuance depend upon the life 
of the sovereign; but Flood himself— trlioee friendship 
and influence were a powerful element in determining 
Orattan to adopt a political career — had, like less formid- 
able agitators, succumbed to the intrigues of the " castle,^, 
and, although possessed of a' private fortune which placed 
him beyond the suspicion uf being governed chiefly by mer- 
cenary considerations, had consented to hamper his politiosl 
action by accepting a sinecure office ; and it seemed as if 
the germs of a better future had already begun to rot in a 
soil of such political corraption. The difficulty of the taak 
which Orattan had set before him was slso increased by a 
peculiarity in the case of Ireland which requiree to be em- 
phasised. Her political constitution, and, with the excep- 
tion of the restrictions which paralysed her trade, the laws 
which were inflicting upon her such moral and physical 
misery, did not nominally differ to any great extent from 
those of the country by which she waa in reality governed. 
She possessed intact her separate nationality; she was 
blessed with tha boon of a national parliament ; ^e had a 
legal administration of her own, including the right of trid 
by jnry ; and ahe enjoyed aomething resembling the privi- 
leges of municipal government. She possessed these things, 
however, scarcely more than in form ; and she possessed them 
in such a form that^ instead of being the guarantees of her 
liberty, they increased her sense of bundsge, and directiy 
fostered discontent and chronic mutiny. Aough the Test 
Act and the penal lawa were actually enforced with less 
rigour than in England, yet from the numben who came 
within their sweep their disastrous influence was incal- 
culably increased, lliey excluded four-flfths of her other- 
wise idigible population from the jury box and from muni- 
cipal and parliamentary aniirage ; th^'had produced con- 
fiscations on almost a national aode with all the evils con- 
sequent on absenteeism ; and from their operation there had 
resulted an ignorance^ a poverty, a vioh^on of the rights 
of conscienpe, not confined to a few thousands, helplessly 
dispersed throughout the kingdom, but afflicting the great 
mass of the people, and both by their direct and their reflex 
action, poisoning the springs of the whole nationsl life. 
Her judges besides were luible to dismissal at pleasure^ 
and her parliament had no independent authority, and by 
its very constitution was subject to corrunt influences fit 
exceeding those in opention in the English parliament^ 
and such as virtually to deprive it of independence of vote^ 
almost as completely as it had been deprived of the power 
of legialation. Still that parliament constituted a kind of 
centre for political discussion and for the propagation and 
diffusion of political ideas, and it was by means of it that 
Orettan and his associates determined to work out the 
political and social regeneration of their country. Almost 
aa soon as he entered parliament, Orattan became the 
acknowledged leader of tlie opposition, not only from the 
influence exerted by his oratory within the House, but 
£rom its power to kindle the enthusiasm of the people 
and to create out of the chaos of shapeless and discordant 
elaments tha united ^mpathy and pnrpo6e of a traa 


G R A T T A N 

national life. In this he received an oasiBtance from ex- 
ternal events which was embarrassing as well as helpf nl ;-^ 
from the American rebellion, wluch was the resnlt of a 
straggle for rights similar to those he was contending for ; 
from the war mth France, which led to the creation of a 
Tolnnteer army in Ireland that became a kind of political 
conyention ; and nltlmatelj from the French Bevolntion, 
which in Ireland, more than in any other countiy of Europe, 
aroused wild desires after political freedom. 

In February 1778 Qrattan moved an address to the 
orown, to the effect that the condition of Ireland was no 
longer endurable, and although the motion was supported 
by only a small minority, the discussion bore fruit in the 
same year by the concession of free export of all produce 
except woollens, and by the modification of the penal laws 
to the extent of allowing the Catholics to hold leases for 999 
years. In the following year the volunteers by their deter- 
mined attitude crowned with success his efforts, along with 
Flood and Burgh, to effect the total repeal of the restriction 
Acts, and the same year saw also the repeal of the Test Act 
With a view to increase and take advantage of the xising 
tide of national sentiment^ Grattan on April 19th '1780 
moved his famous resolutions that the "king with the con- 
sent of the parliament of Ireland was alone competent to 
enact laws to bind Ireland, and that Qreat Britain and 
Ireland were indissolubly united, but only nnder a common 
sovereign;" but so satisfied was he with the tone of the 
debate that, unwilling needlessly to irritate or embc^rrass the 
English Qovernment, he did not press his motion to a 
division. An agitation was, however, begun in the follow- 
ing year against Poyning's Act and the Mutiny Act^ and 
Qrattan beeides supported the introduction of a bill per- 
mitting the Catholics to inherit and hold property on the 
same terms as other subjects. In order also to bring 
pressure to bear on the English Qovernment, Qrattan, Flood, 
and Charlemont met privately in the beginning of 1782, 
and drew up for the consideration of the volunteers^ dele- 
gates two resolutions in reference to independence ; and to 
ih&M Qrattan, on his own responsibility and without tiie 
knowledge of Flood and Charlemont, added a third in favour 
of the measure for the relaxation of the penal laws against 
the Catholics. AU these resolutions were adopted by the 
delegates unanimously, and Qrattan, strong in armed sup- 
port, repeated his motion for a declaration St independence, 
which, although it was lost, abused such general enthusiasm 
that, when on the 1 6th April he rose to move a Declara- 
tion of Rights, he in a brilliant oration congratulated his 
hearers and his country on the triumphant Issue of the 
struggle, his first words being — ** I am now about to address 
a free people." So completely did his eloquence rise to 
what was deemed the greatness of the oocaaion that its 
effect has seldom been equalled in the annals of oratory; 
and in the state of high-wrought excitement that prevailed, 
the Qovernment^ then doubtful as to the result of the siege 
of Qibraltar by the French and Spaniards, did not dare to 
refuse the boon which had already been in reality appro- 
priated without their permission, and on the 17th Hay 
resolutions were passed unanimously, pledging the English 
parliament to reidreas the grievances complained of. In 
recognition of Qrattan's services the Irish parliament was 
prepared to have voted him a grant of XI 00,000 ; but he 
was with difficulty persuaded to accept half that sum, and 
only agreed to do so from the consideration that^ by reliev- 
ing him from the necessity of practising at the b^, it would 
enable him to devote the whole of his 'energies to politics. 
He determined, however, that this gift should not in any way 
bias his politiosl action, and when Flood, supported by the 
volunteer convention, brought forward his motion for rqpeal, 
he at the expense of his popalarify moved its ngection — a 
procedure which also gave rise to an extraordinary scene of 

mutual recrimination between tiie two orators. For tba 
next ten years Qrattan carried on the struggle for the re- 
form of Irish abuses with almost no success; andlus Place 
and Pension Bill, and bills to make the great officers of 
government responsible for their proceedings, to prevent 
revenue officers from voting at elections, and to abolish 
ecclesiastical tithes, were all rejected. Pitt, at one time 
dispoeed to promote emancipation, became lukewarm in his 
seal after the rejection in 1785 of Mr Orders bill for the 
removal of trade restrictions, which, on account of a dauae 
binding the parliament to re-enact England's navigation 
laws, was opposed by Qrattan as involving a principle that 
implied a revocation of the constitution ; nor did the action 
of the Irish parliament in the regency dilute of 1789 tend 
to smooth the relations between the two countries. At last 
in 1793 parliamentary suffrage was conceded to the Catho- 
lics as a sop to the fury of the United Jrishmen; but the 
concession served only to whet the appetite for further 
redress, and when the hope of obtaining tnis, after reaching 
the verge of certainty by the appointment of Fitzwilliam as 
lord-lieutenant, was suddenly dashed by his recall, the 
spirit of brooding discontent mcreased until ultimately it 
resulted in the bloody rebellion of 1798. Previous to its 
occurrence Qrattan had withdrawn from parliament It 
has been surmised by Mr Fronde that In urging on the 
question of emancipation Qrattan wished to effect a complete 
separation from England, and perhaps calculated, though 
a Protestant, on obtaining as the reward of his services 
the first place in the new commonwealth ; but beeidea fhat 
the conjecture is unnecessary, since it was quite a possible 
suppoeition that emancipation might have proved the beet 
method of confirming the loyalty of the Catholics, — and it 
was most certainly a better method than union without 
emancipation, — it is without a shadow of proof to support 
it, and would aUo have implied treachery on his part of 
the blackest kind, while treachery of any kind is belied by 
the whole course of his political life. In 1800 Qrattan, 
though in feeble health, entered the Irish parliament 
as member for Wicklow, spwoBJlj to oppose the motion 
for union, a measure whose bitterness was not rendered 
less distasteful to him from the time, manner, and means 
employed for its accomplishment He regarded its suc- 
cess as almost the nullification of Ireland's partial freedom, 
and the indefinite postponement of the attempt to remedy 
her wrongs. Though knowing from the beginning that 
to contend against the infiuence of the Qovernment was 
hopeless, he exerted aU Ids eloquence in condemnation of 
the measure ; and his last words in the Irish Parliament 
were — "I will remain anchored here with fidelity to the 
fortunes of my country, faithful to her freedom, faithful 
to her 61L* In the course of these debates Qrattan was 
three times vimlentiy attacked by Mr Corry, chancellor 
of the exchequer, but at last retaliated with overwhelming 
effect In the duel which foUowed Corry was wounded. 

After the Union Qrattan withdrew for a time from 
publie life, but, in order to lend his assistance to the pass* 
ing of the Catholic Belief Bill, he in 1805 entered the 
English parliament as member for Malton; and in the 
following year he was returned by Dublin, which he had 
formerly represented in the Irish parliammt Although 
his speeches in the new arena did not detract from Us 
fame, the uu'on had effected so great a change in his 
political standpoint that the inspiration which had for- 
merly given to his eloquence such a glow of confident 
ardour, and had braced his powers to sudi supreme efforts, 
was no longer present He refused to take office in the 
Fox ministry, but he nevertheless gave the Whigs his sup- 
port on all important occasions ; and by voting with the 
Qovernment ontiie Irish Insurrection Bill ci 1807, he showed 
that his regard for the general welfare of tiie empire was 

O B A — G B A 


nnsffeeied by the great political diaappoinime&t of his life. 
After tlie rejection of the Catholic Belief Bill of 1813, which 
WIS acoompaoied hy a clause reaenring to the En^h sove- 
reign the power of veto in the election of Oathokobiahopa, 
the Catholic board repndiated the proposed compromisa and 
declined to entrost Qrattan further with their cause. HOp 
UtreTer, gave it the same energetic support as foimeriy, 
and after 1815 he never spoke in the English parliament 
on any other subject In 1819 his motion was defeated 
by the small majority of two; and on tlie reassembling 
of parliament in the following May, he undertook, con* 
tnry to the advice of his physician, a journey to London 
in order again to bring forward the subject, but died a few 
dip after hie arrival, 4th June 1820. He received the 
loaour of a public funeral and a grave in Westminster 
Abbey, where be lies near the tombs of Pitt and Fox. 

Lord Byron, who had heard Grattan only in the English 
HoDse of Commons, says that he would have come near to 
liis ideal of a perfect orator but for his harlequin manner; 
lad he also states that Curran was in the habit of taking 
him off by bowing to the very ground and thanking Qod 
that he had no peculiarities of gesture or appearance. His 
features were large and plain, and he was low in stature 
and BO awkwardly formed that probably he never oould 
kve acquired a very graceful gesture ; but the gravity and 
impressiveness of lus bearing banished all senso of the 
ndicnlous, and perhaps even the oddness and violence of 
his attitudes assisted to dissipate the feeling in his hearers 
of his personal insignificance. His voice, though not 
hnh, was deficient both in mellowness and volume, and 
vben not elevated by emotion into shrillness had a low 
drawling accent He succeeded, however, by virtue of 
appropriate emphasis and of concentrated energy, in bring- 
ing home to Ids hearers all the various shades of the 
passion and purpose of his discourse, and this perhapa 
vith greater vividness than if it had been accomplished 
\fj means of an elocution which, if less faulhr, woiud not 
hare expressed so well his own peculiar individuality. 
In private life he was simple^ genial, and courteous, and the 
^dty of his language, flavoured by an enunciation and 
laaansr that were all Us own, lent to his conversation a 
RZ8 and peculiar charm. 

His speeches suffer much from imperfec''- reporting but 
their leaiding characteristics can be determined with con- 
sderable accuracy. Great labour, direct and indirect, was 
hestowed on their preparation, and few speeches show so 
■any traces of art; but it is art transfused and palpitating 
with enthusiasm, and therefore^ though defective in ease 
isd simplicity, Uiey cannot be charged with artificiality or 
affectation. Li regard to the chief fault of his style^ — the 
excessive use of epigram, — ^it must be remembered that he 
Bade it supply the puice both of wit and of direct argument; 
and tiiat it never wearied his audisnce by a monotony of 
idlted smartness, but> by its incisive viffour and its startling 
oi^nality, rendered his speeches perhaps unequalled for 
■stained brilliancy and interest His omtorical triumphs 
lere won, not by the stately marshalling of argumenta and 
Qliistrations towards a climax, but by sodden surprises from 
n many directions^ and so closely following each other that 
Rststance to his attacks soon became impossible. In regard 
to subject-matter his speeches do not suffer from compari- 
«n even with those of Burke. His favourite metiioa of 
eaforcing his argumenta was by iUustrationa either of simi- 
larity or of contrast drawn from history or from contem- 
pocaiy events ; and while in this way he exhibited in every 
possible light the plausibility of his contentions, he gave 
dignity and elevation to his theme by removing it from the 
aairow sphere of party politics, and connecting it with 
principles of universal and permanent consequence. Much 
if the effect of his eloquenoe was due to the boldness of his 

statements and of his allosioos and imagery, a boldness 
which, though often amopnting to hardihood, never over. 
stepped the boundaries between the sublime and the ridi' 
jCuIous. In remarkable contrast to other Irish orators, and 
especially to his great contemporary Curran, he possessed 
neither wit nor humour, and this no doubt accounts for the 
sustained and pitiless vehemence of his invectives against 
opponents who had thoroughly roused his anger. These 
attacks were rendered the more formidable from his power 
of delineating character by epithets, the graphic force of 
which had an almost electrical effect This power ho ex- 
ercised, however, more frequently for purposes of laudation 
than censure, and perhaps the finest examples of it in his 
speeches are two short incidental allusions to Fox and 
Burke. A remarkable union of boldness with moderation 
and restraint characterised h*s statesmanship as it did hie 
oratory, for while he embraced within his scheme of reform 
the whole circle of Ireland's wrongs and disabilitier and 
was prepared to face the consequences of all constitutional 
changes, however great, which justice seemed to demand, 
his unswerving aim, in the face both of strong provocation 
from the Government and of the powerful assaults of 
popular clamour, was not to loosen but to cement the ties 
which bound Ireland to Great Britain. That his political 
conduct was governed too much by abstractions, and had 
too little regard to expediency, is a conclusion which has 
been both affirmed and denied, but in any case it will be 
admitted by most that his beneficial influence on Irish 
politics has been less felt by the direct accomplishment of 
his ahns than through the moral effect of his enlightened 
and incorruptible patriotism, and the gradual change which 
has taken place in the mental attitude of English statesmes 
towards his country. 

Gmtton's Speceha, wUk pr^aiory tiiterwtioM, ih» vhoU ctm^ 
prUfng a Me/ review </ iks vunt imoortani poliiical evenia in tkt 
kidorjf tif Iniand irvre pabllahed at Dublin in 1811. His Speedm 
U ihs Irith and (n th* Jwperiai ParHament, edited by his aoo, is 
4 vdlnmet, apiMared at Loudon in 1822, and hie llUetttaneoHa 
Wcrh9 alM in the nmt year. See his Jfcmoin by Us aon Heniy 
Grattan, £«!., II. P., in 5 volumei^ London, 1889-46; Lccky'a 
Leaden qfTiMk Opinion in Inland, 2d edition, 1872; and. among 
variooa notices by contemporaries, eapeciaUv that in vol. til of the 
Dubiin Vnittnitw Ifagaxine, vrlifch, notiritnstandinff political bloa^ 
gires a remarkably nnnrejndioed repreeentation of hu character and 
abilities^ and that by LonI Bronghom in the let voL of his collected 
works. The poliUcol events of the period are of coarse graphically 
narrated by Mr Fnmdo in his Engluh in Ireland, vols. ii. and iil, 
bnt his principal design is to show the pomicioos effects of Onttan*s 
effortsL Among the aUest criticisms of llr Fronde*s vrork is that 
by W. E. H. Lecky in Ifae»illa»$ Jfagasine for Jannoiy 1878 and 
Juno 1874. (T. F. H.) 

GRAT2S, or G&A2,^ the capital of the Austrian crownland 
of Styria, is situated in the broad and fertile valley of the 
Mur, and the beauty of its position has given rise to the 
punning French description, Za viUt dn Graces »ur la rivtire 
de FAwumr. From Vienna it ii distant about 90 miles a^ 
the crow flies, and about 139 miles by rail. lu latitude is 
47* 49' N., its longitude 15* 27' R, and its height above 
the sea 1499 feet The main town lies on the left bank 
of the river, at the foot of the Schlossberg or casUe-hill, 
but two of the principal suburbs, Lend and Gries, occupy 
an extensive area on the right bank, and communication is 
maintained by four bridges besides the railway bridge. 
Among the numerous churches of the city the most im- 
portant is the Gothic cathedral of St .^;idins, founded by 
the emperor Frederick IIL in 1450-1462, on the site of a 
previoua church mentioned aa early as 1157. It hss been 
several times modified and redecorated, more particularly 

' His name was freqnsntlj written Qittti, Grets, or Grec, but in 
1818 It vrss decided, throagh the influence malnlj of Hommer'Pnrg- 
«taU, that the offlciid form sbonld be Graz, in secordoiice at onoe trith 
the local pronnadaUco and the deitratlon of the word, -which was 
origlnanr, it Is believed, the SUronio for "Uttis casUe^" Gradats or 
Qfatsa in SfrTisB. pad ^ndek In Bohemian. 


G E A — G R A 

in 1718. The present oopper spire dates from 1663. 
The interior, which measures 200 feet in length by d2 
feet in breadth, is richly adorned wiUi stained glass win- 
dows of modern date, costly shrines, paintings, and tombs. 
In the immediate neighbourhood of the cathedral is the 
minsoleom church of St Catherine's, erected by Ferdinand 
IL as a burial-place for himself and his family. It has an 
imposing facade with Corinthian columns, two cupolas, and 
a tower. Worthy of mention also are the church of the 
Sacred Blood, w!iich his been tho municipal church since 
1585, and which possesses an altar-piece by Tintoretto; 
the Augustinian church, commonly called SLiegenkirche, 
appropriated to tlie eerrice of the university since 1827; 
and the church of St Anthony of Padua, connected with 
the lunatic asylum, and popularly known as tho Karren- 
thurmkirche. Besides the old imperial castle, formerly the 
residence of the Styrian princes, and now tlie seat of the 
statthalteroi, Qratz contains the palace of the prince-bishop 
of Seckau, the palace of Count Attem, with a fine picture- 
gallery, and the old palace of the orchdnke John, now in 


I. dfadel. 

S. i>1iinMn'» n«ts tad 

a Thwtra. 
4. CathednL 

Plan of Gratz. 
f lUoaoltani. 
«. Unlrenttjr. 
T. Bathhau. 
a Ijudhans. 
a JoAnncuin. 

10. M miolpal ehnreli. 

11. Plctvr* g»nerT. 
It. atythwure. 
la Bvncln. 

possession of the counts of Meran. The landhansy where 
tlie estates hold their sittings, was erected in the 16th 
century; among its curiosities are the Styrian hat and tho 
great silver cup called the Lanckehadenhvtid, The rathhans, 
built by Stadler between 1802 and 1807, is of interest 
mainly for its collection of instruments of torture. At 
the head of the educational institutions is the nniversity, 
founded in 1586 by Charles Francis, and restored in 1817 
after an interruption of forty-five years. The old buildings 
dating from between 1573 and 1609 are being replaced by 
tt fine modem erection. Of greater celebrity than the 
nniversity is the Joannenm, originally instituted in 1811 
\2^ the archduke John Baptist as a national mnsenm, but 
fiow developed into a complex organisation for the higher 
education, with a reguhir professorate, a library of 50,000 
volumes, archives peculiarly rich in Oriental MSS., a 
botanical garden, and other tnziliary departments. Mohs, 
Schrotten, and linger are among the eminent names aaso- 
tiated with its chairs. The Styrian hospitd, founded in 
1788| the town hospital, the dvio hospital, tho militaiy 

hospital, the children's hospital, and tho lunatic osylum 
are among the principal benevolent institutions. An 
official money-lending establishment has been in oxistence 
since 1755. Of the minor institutions of various kinds 
which prove the prosperity of the town the list would bo 
a long one. An active trade, fostered by abundant railway 
commnnicadon both with north and south, is combined 
with no small manufacturing industry in the departments 
of iron and steel wares, paper, chemicals, sugar, vinegar, 
liqueurs, watches, and mathematical instruments. Few 
towns are better supplied with public pleasure grounds and 
holiday resorts. The Schlossberg, which rises 380 foot 
above the valley, was laid out by General Welden shortly 
after the destruction of the castle ; and a great park of 42 
acres has been made almost to enompass the inner city. 
The Calvarieuberg lies in the north-west of the town ; and 
not far off is the castle of Eggenberg. The population of 
Gratz, in spite of a high rate of mortality which prevailed 
f.)r some time, amounted in 1869 to 81,119, exclusive of 
the garrison of 4000 men. In 1875 the total, civil and 
military, was estimated at 90,000. 

Jlistory. — Gratz mav posnibly havo been a Boman site, hnt the 
first mention of it under its preMnt name is in a docnment of 881 
A.n. Oltocar V. of Trauncaa chose it as liis residence in 1056, 
and in 1168 it is designated for Uie first time the LandsM/Hrtlliche 
Stadt, Its privileges were confirmed by King liudolf in 1281. 
Siirroonded with walls and fosses in 1485, it was able iu 1481 to de- 
fund itself against the Hongarians under Matthias Corrinos, who 
ttttumpted to get possession of his promised bride ot refage within. 
In 1529 and 1532 the Turks attacked it with as little success. As 
early as 1530 the Lutheran doctrine was preached in Qratz by 
Seilried and Jacob ron Eggenbei^, and in 1540 Eggenlierg fonndod 
the Paradies or Lutheran school in which Kepler afterwards 
taught But Charles II. burned 20,000 Protestant books in the 
sciuare of the present lunatic asylum, and succeeded by his oiipres- 
sire measures in bringing the city again under the authority of 
Rome. New fortifications were constructed in the end of the IGth 
century by Franz von Poppendorf, and in 1644 the town afforded an 
asylum to the family or Ferdinand HI. The French were in 
possession of the nlaee in 1707 and again in 1805 ; and in 1809 
Marshal Macdonald, havingin terms of the peace of Vienna entered 
the citadel which he had vainly besieged, blew it all up with the 
exception of the bell-tower and the citizens* or clock tower. 

See BendltKh, ThopoffnpkUek§ Kmndt dtr ITawptstrndt Or^t, Oilts, 1800; 
Poltterer, Or€s »M tetn* Umgtkun^tm^ Ortti, 1837 ; BiiMattt OnckUhU dtr mtrt- 
wUrdtgUtn BfOibtiihtHtn im OHUt, Orlts, 184S ; Schmlner. UUtorMtatUt.-tmpcgr. 
Otmildtdfr Stadt amt$ wnd ttine Umgthmg, Giilx, 1648; Weldmann, fllutt. 
Frtrnden/ahrtr dmnh (7r«tf, 18M ; IXtrot and retert, Grtt t Ottekkkf tmd Tofo- 
grapfHe, GriUi. 187a 

QRAUBtJNDi!^^. See GRisoNa. 

GRAUDENZ (Politth Orudziadt), a town of Fmsaia, 
chief town of a circle in the province of West Frossia, 
govommeot district of Marienwerder, is sitnatod on the 
right bank of the Yistnla, which is here crossed by a railway 
bridge, 18 miles 8.S.W. of Marienwerder and 40 milea 
N.N.£. of Tliom. It has a Protestant and a Catliolio 
chnrch, a garrison church, two synogognes, a royal gjm- 
nasicm, a Catholic normal ecliool, an Evangelicid nonnal 
school, a city school of the middle grade, a higher female 
school, three hospitals, three orphanage^ and a reformatory. 
The industries inclade ironfounding, brewings dyeings wool- 
spinning, and the manufsctnre of tapestry, cigars, ahoee, 
and bmshes. The population of the town in 1875 was 
14,522, and including the fortress, 16,615. 

Grandeni vas founded about 1260, and received town ri^ts in 
1201. At the peace of Thorn in 1466 it came under the lordship 
of Poland. From 1666 to 1760 it was held by Sweden, and ii» 
1772 it came into the poMesdon of Pruttia. The fortress of 
Qraudenx^ which since 1878 has been used merely as a barracks and 
a military depot and prison, is situated on a steep eminence abont 
14 mUet north of the town and outside its limits. It was com- 
pleted by Frederick the Great in 1776, and has been rendered 
famous tnrough its defence by Courbi^ against the French in 1807. 

QRAUK, Cabl HxiKXicH (1701-1759), a celebrated 
composer, was bom May 7, 1701, at Wahrenbriick in 
Saxony, the youngest of three brothers, all more or lesa 
musical His father held a small post under Government, 
bot he gave his children » ctieiul edocatioo. Qrann'a 

G R A — G R A 


faaaclifol soprano Toiee wu noticed at the lehool where be 
was educated, and eoon eecnred kim an appointment in the 
choir of the city of Dresden. His masters were Qrundig 
and Petzold,- and at an early age he composed a nnmber of 
sacred cantatas and other pieces for the church serrica 
Fie completed liis studies under Schmidt, and profited much 
by the Italian operas which were performed at Dresden 
under Lotti, the celebrated eompoeer. After his voice had 
changed to a tenor, he made his d^but at the opera of 
Brunswick, in a work by Schurmann, an inferior eompoeer 
of the day ; but not being satisfied with the arias assigned 
him he re-wrote them, so much to the satisfactbn of tlie 
court that he was commissioned to write an opera for the 
next season. This work, PoUidoro (1726), and five other 
operas written for Brunswick, spread his fame all over 
Germany. Other works, mostly of a sacred character, 
including two settings of the Fauion, also belopg to the 
Brunswick period It was there that Frederick the Great, 
at that time crown prince of Fruasia, heard the singer, and 
immediately engaged him for his private chapel at Gastle 
Reinsberg. There Qraun remained for five years, and wrote 
a nnmber of cantatas, mostly to words written by Frederick 
himself in French, and transited into Italian by BoltareUL 
On his accession to the throne in 1740, Frederick sent 
Qraun to Italy to engage singers for a new opera to be 
established at Berlin. Graun remained a year onhis travels, 
earning uniyersal applause as a singer in the chief cities of 
Italy. After Ids return to Berlin be was appointed royal 
chapel-master, with a salary of 2000 thalera (X300). In 
this capacity he wrote twenty-eight operas, all to Italian 
words, of which the last, Merope (1766), is perhaps the 
meet perfect But of infinitely gieaier importance than 
these is his oratorio the Decih of Jeius, which is still 
annually performed at Berlin. It is here that Graun shows 
his skill as a contrapuntist, and his originality of melodious 
invention. In the Italian operas he imitates the florid 
sfyle of his time, but there also considerable dramatic 
power is occasionally shown in the recitatives. Graun died 
tm the 8th of August 1769, at Berlih, in the same honse 
m which, thirty-two years later, Meyerbeer was born. 

GRAYELINES (Flemish GraveUnghe, German Orawe- 
Itn^em), a fortified seaport town of France, in the depart- 
n^nt of Noid and arrondissement of Dunkirk, is situated 
near the mouth of the Aa, 11 milee &W. of Dunkirk. 
The prineHMd buildings are a church of the 16th century, 
the magaiine, and the town hall. The harbour is only 
aeeessible at flood tide, but there is a considerable shipping 
tiade m fish, apples, vegetables, and eggs. Sliipbuilding is 
also carried on, and there are salt refineries, sad and linen 
manufactories, saw mills and meal mills. The fortifications 
were constmcted anew by Yauban in the reign of Lbuis 
XIV. For its defence the land, to the distance of a mile 
all round, can be laid under water at pleasure. The 
population in 1876 was 4182. 

Onvelliics was fovmed in lieo br Coant Thieny of fhrndai, 
wu oonqnered by the EngUah in 1888, and citme into the poeMMioa 
of the duke of Boi^indy in 1406. It Is celebrated for tae vietory 
gained bythe Spanish under Xgmont orer the Frenoh onder If ar- 
ahal de Thermae, 13th July 1658. It was taken by the doke of 
Orleana in 1644, retaken by Archdake Leopold in 16o9L and agdn 
ti^en by tho I'rench nndar Yanban in 1668, after wiiieh it wae 
eoofirmed to Franee by the treaty of the Pyreneee in 1669. 

GBAVESEND,. a municipal and parliamentary borough, 
river-port) and market-town in the county of Ken^ England, 
is situated on the right bank of the Thames opposite 
Tilbury Fort» SO miles below London by the river, and 24 
miles by rait It extends about 2 mQes alon^j the river 
bonk, oecnpyinff a slight acclivity which reaches its summit 
ol WtndmiU Hul, whence extensive views are obtained of 
the river, with its windinfli and shipping. The older and 
toww pcnrt of ibe town » inejpnUrljr built, with nmtfm 

and inconvenient streets, but the upper and newer portion 
contains several handsome streets, squares, and terraces. 
Gravesend is the boundary ol the port of London. It has 
three piers, the town pier, erected in 1836, and belonging 
to the corporation, the terrace pier, built about 1840, and 
a new pier and station lately erected by the London, Til- 
bury, and Southend Bailway Company. The town is a 
favourite resort of the inhabitants of London, both for 
excursions and as a summer residence. The principal 
buildings are the town-hall, a neat and conspicuons Doric 
edifice erected in 1836 ; the parish church of Gravesend, 
erected on the site of an ancient building destroyed by fire 
in 1727 ; Milton pariah church, in the Late Decorated style, 
erected in the time of Edward IL ; the county courts, the 
clubhouse of the Royal Thames Tacht Club, theenstom-house, 
the assembly-rooms, the workmen's hall, the free grammar 
school, the almshonses for aged persons, and the dispensary 
and infirmary. East of the town are the carthworkiB 
deaigned to assist Tilbury Fort in obstructing the passage 
of an enemy's f orc& They were originally constmcted on 
Yanban's system in the reign of Charles IL, and somo years 
ago they were strengthened at the cost of nearly £150,000. 
Graveeend has some import trade in coal and timber, and 
fishing especially of shrimps, is carried on jsxtensively. The 
principal other industries are boat-bnilding, ironfounding^ 
brewings and soap-boiling. Fruit and vegetables are laii^y 
grown in the neighbourhood for the London market. Bmce 
1867 Gravesend has returned a member to parliament 
The municipal borough includes the parishes of Qravessnd 
and MOton. The population of the municipal borou^ in 
1871 waa 21,265, and of the parliamentary 27,493. 

Oraveeend occnn in Domeaday Book under the name OraTeaham. 
It was burnt by the French in 1377. In 1678 it obtained a charter 
of ineorpoTation from Queen Elixabeth, irho also fcncTved the right, 
first oonfeiredby Richard 1 1., of regulating the "Long Feny" 
(or peeaage from X/ondon) and enacting a fee from the " bargee, 
tiU'Doata, Ught-horaemen (hobellen), and irherriea ** on the rirer. 

GBAYIN A, a city of Italy, in the province of Baii, is 
situated on a hill to the left of the river Gravina, 7 miles 
from Altamura, and 37 S.W. of BarL It is surrounded by 
tower-flanked walls, and has a cathedral, and a castle whidi 
belongs to the Orsini family, of which the eldest branch 
still keeps the title of duke of Gravina. A great cattle fair 
is held in the town on April 20 ; a fine breed of horses is 
raised in liie neighbourhood ; nitre is collected from the 
tufa rock of the district; and cheese, macaroni, and earthen- 
ware are mannfactnred. Population in 1871, 14,194. 

GRAVINA, GiovAKKX Vimcekzo (1664-1718), an 
Italian litterateur and jurisconsult, was bom at Roggiano^ 
a small town near Cosenza in Calabria, January 20, 1664. 
He was descended from a distinguished family, and under 
the direction of his maternal unde, Gregorio Caloprese, who 
possessed some reputation as a poet and philosopher, re* 
ceived a learned education, after which he studied at 
Naples civil and canon kw. In 1689 he came to Rome, 
where in 1695 he united with several others of literary 
tastes in forming the Academy of Arcadians. A schism 
occurred in the academy in 1711, and Gravina and his 
followers founded in opposition to it the Academy of 
Quirina. From Innocent XIL Gravina received the ofiisr 
of various ecclesiastical honours, but declined them from a 
diisindination to enter the cleriod profession. In 1699 he 
was appointed to the chair of civil law in the college of 
La Baplenza, and in 170a he was transferred to the chair 
of canon kw. He died at Rome January 6, 1718. He 
was the adoptive father of Metastasio. 

Gmrina is the author of a nnmber of works of sreat emditian, 
tlie Tirincipel being his Origitut Jwrit Civilii, completed in 8 vols, 
in 1718, and hie re Somano Imperii, 1719. A French transktioD 
of the former appeared in 1776, of which a aeeond edition was pab- 
liehed in 1823. Hie collected works were pnbUahed at Leipeio m 
1787, sad at Kanlea, with notae bv Mascsorine, fa 17W. * 
. . Alt — 9 




IT is a matter of uniTorsal experience all over the earth 
tliat a heavy body teuda to fall to the ground. Let 
us inquire into this in the first place by taking such a 
general view of the phenomenon as would be presented to 
an imaginary spectator who was sufficiently remoVed from 
the earth to be able to take a genmal view 

Fig. 1 represents a section of the earth by a plane which 
is drawn through its centre O. Then, the earth being 
sufficiently near a sphere for our purpose, we may regard 
the section PQES as a circle, where the points P, Q, R, S 
are the intersections of the lines OA, OB, OC, OD with 
the surface of the earth. If a 
stone be dropped from a point A 
above the surface of the earth, it 
will fall to the ground at P. The 
spectator would also notice that, 
if E stone were dropped from B 
or or D, it would fall upon the 
ground at the points Q, R, S ro- 
spectirely. From A the stone 
would appear to fall downwards, 
from C it appears to move up- 
wards, from B the spectator 
would see the stone moving to 
the left, while from D it appears ^ ' 

to move to the right One feature of these motions could 
not fail to be noticed: they all tend to the centre of the 
earth. The spectator might therefore sum up his experi- 
ence in the following statement : — 

A body dropped from a point above the sHr/aee of the 
earth aiwayt falle in a ttraight line vlueh u directed to- 
warde the centre of the earth. 

§' 1. Attraction, — The familiar instance of the action of 
a magnet upon a piece of iron will suffice to illustrate what 
is meant by the word attraction. In yirtue of certain 
properties possessed by the iron and the magnet, they are 
drawn together. The magnet draws the iron, and the iron 
draws the magnet This particular kind of attraction is of 
a yeiy special character. Thus, for example, the magnet 
appears to have no appreciable influence on a piece of 
wood or a sheet of paper, and has indeed no considerable 
influence on any known substance except iron. 

By the attraction of * gravitation, every body attracts 
every other body, whatever be the materials of which each is 
composed. In this we see a wide difference between the 
attractions of gravitation and that form of attraction which 
V known as magnetic attraction. Nor 'is the contrast 
between the intensities of these two different attractions 
less striking. The keeper of a magnet is drawn to the 
magnet by two different forces of attraction. The first of 
these is the gravitatiye attraction, which, so far as we know 
at present, would be equally exerted, whether the magnetism 
were present or not The second is the magnetic attraction. 
The latter is enormously greater than the former ; in fact, 
under ordinary circumstances as to intensity and dimensions, 
the intensity of the attraction of gravitation will not bo 
nearly so much as a millionth part of the magnetic attrac- 

The intensity of the attraction of gravitation is indeed 
so small that, with one conspicuous exception, we can only 
become aware of its existence by refined and elaborate in- 
quiries. That any two objects — for example, two books 
Ijring on the table—do actually attract each other, there can 
be no doubt whatever ; but the intensity of this is so small 
th»t th9 dttractiYQ f on» cannot OYoroome the friction of the 

table, and consequently we do not find that the books are 
drawn together. It has,- however, been found that the in- 
tensity of the attraction of gravitation between two massea 
is directly proportional to the product of those masses. 
Hence though the force is so small as to be almost 
inappreciable between two bodies of moderate dimensions^ 
yet when the masses of the two bodies, or of even one of 
tiiem, m enormoiisly great, the intensity of the force will 
be sufficiently large to be readily discernible. In this way it 
is that the existence of the attraction of gravitation has been 
made known to us, and is, iu fact, identified with our daily 
experience,— indcied, with ou r actual existence. The mass of 
the earth is so enormous that the attraction of gravitation 
which exists between it and an object near the surface ie 
readily appreciable. It is this attraction of gravitation 
between the earth and any object which constitutes that 
force which is referred to when we speak of the weight ol 
the body. It is the attraction of gravitation which causes 
bodies to fall to the surface of the earth ; and it is easy 
to show that the facts already presented with respect tQ 
the direction in which a falling body moves are readily 
explained by the supposition that the motions are due to an 
attractive influence exerted by the earth, or, to speak mor» 
correctly, to a mutual attraction subsisting between the 
earth and the body. i 

Let be the centre of the earth, supposed to be a sphere, 
and let A be the position of a body above its surface. 
Then, when the body is released, the attraction must evi« 
dently cause the body to move along the line OA The 
line OA, in fact, is directed along a diameter of the sphere* 
and there is really no reason why the stone should move to 
one side of the line more than to another. We thus seo 
that attraction would always tend to draw objects in a> 
direction pointing towards the centre of the earth. The 
obflorved facts are therofore explained by the supposition 
that the earth possesses a x>ower of attraction. 

§ 2. Movement of a Falling Body. — Our knowledge of the 
force of gravitation beir g ultimately founded on observation 
and expenment, it will be convenient at this point to de- 
scribe the experiments by which a knowledge of the laws of 
motion of a falling body may be ascertained. We shall 
first describe these experiments, and then we shall discuss 
the laws to which we are conducted by their aid. 

A beginner is apt to be surprised when he b told that a 
heavy body aud a light body will fall to the ground in the 
some time if let drop from the same height Yet nothing 
can be easier than to prove this important fact experiment- 
ally. Take a piece of cork in one hand and a bullet in 
the other, and drop these two objects at the same moment 
from the same height They will reach the ground 
together. Nor will the results be different if we try a 
stone and a piece of wood. If, however, one of the objects 
were a feather and the other were a stone, then no doubi 
the latter would reach the ground long before the former. 
But this arises from a cause quite different from gravity 
It is the resistance of the air which retards the motion o^ 
the feather. Even the stone is retarded to a certain extent 
by the resistance of the air; but the feather, on account of 
its greater surface in proportion to its mass, is much more 
retarded. Tf we could get rid of the influence of the air, 
the stone and the feather would be found to fall to the 
ground in the same time. This can actually be veri« 
fied by performing the experiment (or a similar one) in a 
space from which the greater portion of the air has been 
withdrawn by the aid of an air-pump. But the name 
thing can also bo shown in « much more simple manner 



iMy% small flat featbor upon tlie top of a ptany piece held 
horizontally. Then let the peony fall ; it will be followed 
witli cqoal rapidity by the featlier, Tvhlch will be found to 
remain in contact with the pennj" throughout the entire 
descent lu this com the penny piece displaces tlie air, 
and thus to a great extent shields the feather from the 
resistance to which it would be exposed without such pro- 
tection ; it is thas found that the two objects fall to the 
ground from the same hejght at the same time. 

The Tariotts experiments to whicli we have referred 
BalSce to establish the rery imporunt result that thi iimi 
oecujiied by a h^y tn failing to the iutfat€ of the eatih, 
if dropped front a point above it, is independenU of the mate 
of the bo<ly at well ae qf the matcriale qf which the body ie 

There are, no doubt, certain apparent exoeptiona to the 
generality of this statement The lawj as we hare stated 
i^ does surely not apply to the coie of a balloon or a live 
bird. In each of these cases the air is made, directly or 
indirectly, to supply a force which overcomes the force of 
gravity and neutralizes its effects; but if there were no air, 
then the balloon and the bird would fall to the ground in 
precisely the same time as a 56 lb weight would do when 
dropped from the same height It will not be necessary 
for us to introduce any further reference to the resistance 
of the air, and we shall discuss the phenomena presented 
by falling bodies as they would occur in a space from which 
the air has been removed. 

We hare by those considerations cleared the way for a 
very important quantitative determination. Taking a given 
interval of time, — ^f or example, one seoond, — we see that the 
height through which a heavy body will faU'in one second 
depends neither upon the mass of the body nor on the 
materials of which it is composed. This is therefore a 
constant at any given place on the earth's surface for every 
description of body, and it is of fundamental importance to 
determine that quanti^ accurately. By an indirect method, 
founded on pendulum observations, it is possible to deter- 
mine this quantity with far greater accuracy than would 
be attainable by actually making the experiment The 
value as thus found is slightly different at different parts 
of the earth though constant at each one. At any part of 
the United Kingdom it may be taken as 16*1 feet 

When the distance which the falling body moTes oyer in 
the first second has been ascertained, it is possible to find 
the distance which will be accomplished in two seconds, 
or indeed in any number. Tho difficulty of the question 
arises from the circumstance that» as the Telocity of the 
falling body is gradually increasing, the distance moTod 
over in the second second is greater than it was in the firsts 
and generally that the distance in any second is greater 
than the distance accomplished in any previous second. 
Imagine the 'Uiff in a hotel to be a room 161 feet high ; 
then when the lift is at rest, a stone will take onB second 
to fall from the top of the room to the floor. But now 
suppose the experiment to be repeated, when the lift is 
eiUier ascending or descending. It will be found that no 
matter what be the velocity of the lift, provided it remains 
BuifoEm for a second, and no matter whether the lift be 
ascending or descending, the stone will still take exactly 
one second to fall from the cefllng to the floor. ^ 

To iUustrate the important conclusions which can be 
drawn from this experiment, let us make some suppositions 
with reference to the Telocity of the lift Suppose that 
the lift IS descending with a velocity of 5 feet per second. 
Then ^inco it is found that the stone will reach the floor 
in one second, it is manifest that during that second the 
stone must actually haTO fallen through a distance equal to 
the height of the room augmented by the 5 feet through 
which the floor of the room has dsecended. The total dis- 

tance traTorsed by the stone is therefore 16*1 + 6-21 1 
feet It is, howcTcr, to be obserred that at starting the 
stone must necessarily Iists had the samo Tolocity as tho 
lift, i,e,, 5 feet per second. The observed facts can thcreforo 
be explained by sapposing that the stone retaiucd its 
initial velocity of 5 feet per second, and that gravity acted 
upon the stone so as to draw it 16*1 feet nearer tho earth 
than it would have been had gravity not acted. On tho 
other hand, suppose that at the time when the experiment 
was made the lift was ascendiug with an uniform velocity 
of 6 feet per second. Then the actual distance travelled 
by the stone in falling will be less than the height of tho 
ceiling by the distance through which the floor has been 
raised, ie., 16*1 - 5 « 11*1 feet Observation nevertheless 
shows that the time occupied in falling from the ceiling to 
the floor is still one second. The observed facts can bo 
explained by remembering that at the moment of starting, 
the stone must actually have had the same velocity as the 
lift, i.e,, an upward velocity of 5 feet per second. If tliero- 
fore gravity had not acte^ the stone would in one second 
have ascended through a vertical distance of 5 feet Tho 
observations are therefore explained by supposing that 
gravity in this esse also draws the body 16'1 feet nearer the 
earth in one second than the body would have been had 
gravity not acted. 

By suitable contrivances it is possible to ascertain that a 
body dropped from rest wUl in a time of two secondd move 
over a space of 64*4 feet We have. already seen that 
during the first second the body will fall 16*1 feet It 
follows that in the second second the space described by a 
body falling freely from rest is 64*4 - 16*1 - 48*3. It is 
thus obvious that the space described in the seoond second 
is three times as great as the space described in the first 
second. To what is this diiierence to be ascribed % At tho 
commencement of the first second the body was at rest; 
at the conclusion of the first second the body had attained 
a certain velocity, and with this velocity the body com- 
menced its motion during the second second. The total 
distance of 48*5 feet accomplished during the second 
second is partly due to the Telocity, possessed by the 
body at the commeneemeHt^ and partly to the action of 
gravity during that second. By the principle just ex- 
plained, we are able to discriminate the amounts due to 
each canse. It appears, from the experiments already To- 
f erred to, that during the second second as during the first 
the effect of gravity is siipply to make the body 16*1 feel 
nearer the earth than it could otherwise have been. But 
the body moves altogether 48*3 feet in the second second, 
and as tiie action of graTity during that second will only 
account for 16*1 feet, it foUovrs that the residue, amounting 
to 48*3 - 16*1 - 33*2 feet, must be attributed to t!ie Telocity 
accumulated durmg the first second. 

We are therefore led to the Tery important result that a 
body falling freely from rest in the United Kingdom will 
haTO acquired a Telocity of 32*2 feet p^r second when one 
second has elapsed. It need not be a matter for surprise 
that, tiiough at the closo of the first second the Telocity 
acquired is 82*2, the distance moTed oTer during that 
second is only 16*1. It will be remembered that the body 
trtarts from rest, aud that while in the act of falling its 
Telocity is gradually increasing. The body, therefore, moTes 
much further in the last half of the seoond than it did in 
the first half, and consequently the total distance traTelled 
must be less than the distance which would have been 
accomplished hi^d the body been moving during the whole 
second with the velocity acquired at its termination. 

It mig^t not be easy to arrange a direct experiment te 
show how far the body will fall during the third second ; 
we can, however, deduce the result by reasoning from what 
we haTO already lenmnd liCt us suppose tiiat the lift 



alnady referred to ib descending with an uniform Tolocily 
of 32*2 feet per second. A body let drop from the ceiling 
daring the motion, will, aa before, reach the floor in one 
second. The body will Uierefore have acquired, relcUiwljf 
to the mcvinff lift, a velocity of 32 '2 feet per second. But the 
lift is itself in motion with a velocity of 32*2 feet per second. 
The actual velocity of the body must be measured by its 
velocity relatively to the lift, added to the velocity of the 
lift itself. It therefore appears that the body which, when 
it commenced to fall, hod a velocity of 32*2 feet per second, 
acquires an equal amount during its fall, so that at its 
dose the body actually had a velocity of 32*2 + 32*2 -64*4 
feet per second. A body falling freely from rest acquires a 
velocity of 32*2 feet in the first second; it follows that at the 
dose of the first second the body is in the same condition 
as if it were let fall from the ceiling of the lift, under 
the drcumstances just described. The motion during the 
third second is therefore commenced with the velodty of 
64*4 feet, and in consequence of this initial velocity alone 
a distance of 64*4 feet will be accomplished in the third 
second. To this must be added 16*1 feet, being the 
additional distance due to the action of gravity, and there- 
fore we have for the dbtance through wMch a body falling 
freely from rest will move in the third second, 64*4 + 16*1 
- 80*5. Similar reasonmg will show that the velocity ao- 
quired at the close of the third second is 64*4 + 32*2 - 06*6. 
With this velocity the fourth second is commenced, and 
therefore the distance accomplished during the fourth 
second is 96*6 + 16*1 -112-7. 

The results at which we have anived maybe sammarily 
stated in the following propositions : — T. ^ ■.^•^■ 

A body falUnp freely from rest aequirte a veloeity whidi 
M equal to the product <^ 32*2 axkd the number of seeonde 
during which the motion hoe lasted, 

A body falling fredy from rest moves over spaces propor- 
tional to the eonsecutive odd numbers (1, 3, 6, 7, &c.) in 
each of the consecutive seconds during which the motion lasts. 

A body falling fredy from rest will, in a given number of 
seconds, move over a distance which is found by multiplying 
the s<iuare ofihe number of seconds by 1 61. 

§ 3. Values of ^.—The vdodty acquired by a body in 
one second is usually denoted by the symbol g. The 
following are values of g at different parts of- the earth 
I adapted from Everett On C.G.3. UniU, p. 12):— 


Lf::itade U* 



Gbttlogea ... 



)£uie)iester . 


Edinborgli .. 
Aberdeen .... 

48 9 
48 60 
01 29 

61 88 

62 80 
68 21 
68 29 

64 88 

65 67 
67 9 


Lenfth In Feet 


lnnttiig Secundii 

82 181 

8 •8619 

The valte of ^ In feet at a station of which the latitude is x, and 
which is A' feet above the level of the sea, ia in feet 
^-82178-0-0d2 coa Sx-OOOOOOSA. 
The length ofihe pendolnm in feet which vibrates in one second 

;-8'8697-0-0088 oos 2X-OOOOOO0A. 
g is really the ezoesa of gravitation over the oentriftigai force 
niaing from the earth*8 rotatton. The valneof^ravOaMdiia^oneis 
given Dy the following eipr e ss ion :— 

1 4. AlgOnUedl FormMU»,^ThB employment of the STmbols and 
cpaimlions of algebiawiU enable us to ennes venr coadsslv the 
ISBoltsatwUehwehavesrrivH ' 

Let r denote the velocity aorinirod in t secokida ^ alxkly %ldili 
has been dropped from a state of rest Lot § denote the nuiubcr off 
foot over which the body has moved. .The laws wo have arrived a« 
may be thus expressed :— « ' 

'^v^gt; i^'6gP..^ 

From thceo cfjoations we can eliminate t and obtain 

Thia expresses tho veloeity aociuired in tenna of the dlkancv 
through which the forco has acted. 

We have hitherto considered the movement of a fidliii^ boilv 
which waa aimplv dropped. It remains to determine tin elfcct on 
the movnaent of the bodv which would be produced by a certain 
initial vdodty. f Let hs for simplicity take the case of a bo<lv 
thrown vertically doiimWarda, and calculate tho distance through 
which the body wiU ftove in a certain time, aa well as the velocity 
which it will scquire. In the act of throwing tho hand moves with 
a certain velod^, and the body when released starte off with that 
velocity. It Will thus be observed that the act of throwing in 
merely to impart initial telbcity to the body. Let v' be the initial 
voloaty with which the body Isavea the hand. Then the velocity 
of the body at the moment of starting is preciaely the aame as it 
would have been had it been dropped irom rest i/-7-g seconds previa 
onsly. The velocity aoqnired at the end of t eeconda is thereforo 
the same as would have been aeqnired by a body which fall from 
rest for a^Q^oiLoC(^(|ttO seconda ; whence we have>' 

The distance muatobviously be equal to the difference betwoon tho 
distance throogh which the body would drop from rest in (i^^+t) 
seconds and the diatanee through which a body would drop frt>m 
rest in «'-^^Jeoonds ; whenee 

- •6^e^-8-S!*+ 2t»'<-5-jf + <•) - M^-^if'l 

The c«s^of a body projected vertically upwards seems at first to 
present/som'ewhat greater difficulties, but thU is not really the case. 
Such "problemii can always be readily solved by the help of the 
fbllowuig general principle : — 

A hotii moving vertCeaily for tHcandt toUl, at theendqfthiU tinu, 
fie 'Sgi^/eet nearer the earth than U would have been had gravity not 

If the body be projected vertically upwania with aa initial 
velocity < then, if the influence of gravity were snapeaded, tha 
body would in t seconds ascend to a height ^t in acoonlance with 
the first law of motion. Tha effect of gnvi^ will be to reduce the 
height actually obtained by the amount '<^. Whence we have 

TUs expression may be written In the form 

It ia theiefoce obvioos that the greatest altitado h is atts&ied when 

t^rf^g ; 
in which caae 

or ««-20A. 

As an illiAtration we may take the case of a body thrown verti- 
callyupwaida with an initial velooity of 40 feet per second, and in- 
qniro where that body will be at the end of two seoondsi Had 

qnifo wnere tnat bodv wil _ ^ 

gravity not aeted, the body womld, in two seconda, haveaaoended to 
a hei^t 8x 40-80 feet The action of gravity will reduce thia 
by '6^-80 foot, and hence the actual height of the body will be 
80 - ^ feet, - 1 6 -8 if 9 be taken at 82-8. 

f 6. Motion of a /WeofOi.— We have hitherto referred only to 
the motion of a felling oodyin a vertioal Una ; it will now be neoeo- 
saiy to examine some caaee in whioh the motion of the body la not 
so rsetricted. From a point on the meat of a steamer 0-r-2 feet abovo 
the deck a ball is dropped, which falla upon the deck at a certain 
point When the steamer la at rest the time taken by the ball to 
fell will of coarse be one second, and its path will be vertical ; bat 
when the steamer ia moving with uniform velocity it is found that 
the ball still falla preoiMly on the same spotot the deck aa when the 
steamer was at reet, andthat thetuneocenpied inthe deaoent la atill 
one aeoond. It ia obvioaa that in thia case tha ball does not mov* 
in a straight Una at all, bat in a carved path dna to the motion of 
the vesseTcompounded with the actoal felling motion. We tharo> 
fore see that the effect of the motion of the veeeel on the ball waa 
to project that ball with a certain initial horiaontal velocity, but 
that notwithatanding that initial vdodtr the ball still reaches th« 
deck In one second. We are thewfiae led to the general condnainnt 

A body prqfeeted horiaontaUii ipfll, ai theendqft seconds^ hone 
fatten tknmgh a apaee ^18-1 ^/esL 

An espeiiinont uloslmting thiaresolt maybe made in an aiesat 
inglyalmpla nuomai; Tsko a marUa in each hand, and thravr one 
Of toe IW^ hOfiimtiQy •» ^ SBOM tins as yon dlo» the QfMr 



kaa ike tame lieiglit ; yod wUl ilnti thai th* two marUes tcMh th* 
groaxkd tooether. Suppose for aimnUeitY that the lieigfat •( the 
moment wnen the inarblM are releeMd is I fMt, then the time taken 
by one of the marblea in ikUing ii half a aecond. But aa both 
marblea reach the ground together, the Mcptfiment haa reall v ]ux>red 
to ua that a body at the height of 4 feet from the ground will if mo- 
Jected koriMniaUy reach me ground in half a aeooml. Thia ia 
equally true whatever be the magnitude of the Telocity, i.9,, whether 
it be & 10, or any other number of feet per aeoond. 

We nave now studied the effect of gnvity upon a bodr which haa 
been projected either in a vertical line or in a horizontal line. ^C^ 
have found that in each oaae the effect of gravity ii to bring the 
body '60<* feet nearer the snx&oe of the eartn in t aeoondi than it 
would have been had gravity not acted. We are therefore temrrted 
to inquire whether the same statement would not be true for a body 
prc^jeeted m vuiv direction. In every wav in which this suggestion 
eanbe teated it haa been found to bft verified, and there cannot there- 
ion be the sligfateat doubt that it ia true. 

To illustrate this principle we may ftpply it to the case of a body 
orojected in any direction, and deduce tiie form of the path in which 
the body movea. Let O (fig. 8) be the point ttom which the body 
is projected, and let 

OP be the direction in 
which the body would 
move after projection 
if it were not for gravi- 
tation. Inconsequence 
of the first law of mo- 
tion, we should find 
that if it had not been 
for the action of gravity 
Iho ball would xiach r^ 
in one second, P. in 
two seconds, kc , wnere 


Gravitation will, how- 
ever, make the body 
swerve from the direc- 
tion OPjPg, *c. so -,^ ^ 
that at the end of one « ^Tg. ». 
eeeond the body is really found at the point A^, at the end of two 
seconds at A^ at the end of three seconds at A., Ac The curve 
dnwn' through the pointa Ai, A» Ag, fro., which is actually de- 
scribed br the body, can be resdily constructed. Take, for exam Die, 
t»Z, Ix gnvity had not been MtinL the bodv would in three 
seconds have reached the point P^. We can find where the body 
actually is by takine a point A«, which la vertically beneath P, at 
the distance 10 '1 x V feet. Similarly we can find where the body is 
after anv other specified number of seconds, and thus we obtain the 
points A|, Af, Itc 

The equation of the curve is thus found. Tske the line OP as 
the axis of x, and let « denote the number of seconds during which 
the motion has lasted; then, if y denote the vertical distance tofou^ 
which tbA body haa been deflected by gravity, we must have 

This earveu being of the second degree, represents a oonio section ; 
ind aa tiie highest terms fistm a peifeet square, the oonio jection mnat 

II. Ths CjGiTfix or Gbatitt. 
r I «. Ce»tr€ qf Gravity ^aPlaU.'-ln studying the effect of gravity 
ipon a body which is at rest, it will be convenient to commence 
Jiith a simple illustrative experiment which can be easily tried. 
9nt of a pieoe of cardboaxd or tin plate a figure _A 

sf any rtoM, ABODE (fig. 8), is to be cut Afbw 
holes, A, B, 0, D. £, axe to be punched quite at 
random in thia plate. In the wall is a nail, and 
the plate can be suspended by passing the nail 
through any of the holee A, B, «id C. From the ^ . 
nail is suspended, in fkont of the plate, a cord 
AH, which is kept in the vertical direction by the 
plummet attached to it at H. Aa the phite is not 
supported in any other way, it hangi quite fieely 
ttom. the nail ; and if it be displaoed and then 
released, it wilL after a few oecillations, settle 
down again in the position which it occupied at 
the first In order to mark this position, it is OH 

desirable to draw a line on the plate in the «<, • 

dirxtion AP, indicated by the plummet line "^ '* 

which ia hanging in flront If the plate be UaokAned, this can be 
neatly done bycnalking the phmmet line and then giving it a fiip 
udnst the puta. 

- When the ttM haa been diswn the plate may be removed Ihmi the 
nail, and agpin suspended by one of the other hdea in ita manin, for 
enmpls B. The pkte cgain asnmea a definite poaitioiL ana again 
the line and pbmmet is to be hong on, and a second line an wn aa be- 
kn, TlMtiroUiMidJwnioatbeptoJntenectatapointP. When 

the plate is hungfivm a third hole, C, and a third plummet line k 
drawn, a very remarkable result is perceived. It is found that the 
line dnwn on the third occaaion passes through the ijitereeeiton of th 
two/ormerhnea, — ^that is to say, all the three lines peas through the 
point P. Repeating the upention, with other holi«, D, E, &c., it 
IS found that all the lines onwu in the way we havu dcucribed poa* 
sess the nmarkable property of iieeaing through one definite point 
of the plate. It is tuenfon munifest that the poiiit P noeeoaees a 
very special property, for it is always situated vertically beneath 
the point of suspenvion when the plate is hanging at rest 

u a hole be actuallv punched at the positiou of the poiut P, and 
if tbe plate be suspenaed by paseing thia hole over the nail, we tlicu 
find that the plate tciU retnutn at rcet in any poeUtou trhnterer. Thii 
peculiarity of tbe poiut P will be mon readily perceived if we make 
a hole in thejr>late at a iioiut Q near to P. When the pbte it sua- 
pended from Q it will only be at rest in one jiosition, t.^., when P i> 
vertically beneath Q. « 

It mutt stirely bo regarded aa a matter woi tliy of can/ ul notiii 
that any plate of any figure, regular or irregular, khould coutaiu out 
specific point which enjoys the unique pro[it'rtii» wliich the ezperi* 
mcnts show to be poste«8ed by the point P. This point bat recciveti 
a name ; it ia called the centre of gravUy, 

I 7. Centre qf Gravity qf a liigid Jlody.—\fi the illuktratiun we 
have |ust given, we have spoken ueroly of a thin plate, beeauto tkq 
experiments were more easily conducted in a body of this natutr 
than in one of entiivly irregular form. It mutt not, hotiever, Lt 
auppoeed that a thin plate of unifonu thickneta is the only kind of 
boilv which posteatcs a point having the ]iroperties we have de 
scribed. No matter what be the shape or materials of uliioi a rigid 
body is composed, it possesses a centre of gravity, Iict ADBC (fig. 4^ 
be a body of any kind, and let it be suspended by a coni firom a point 
A. Then wheu tbe body is at rest it assumes a certain positioD. 
We may suppose thst a verti- 
cal hole AB IS drilled throu£^ 
the body in the direction of 
the cord by which the body is 
suspended. If we now suspend 
the body by another point on 
its surface, 0, the body will 
come to rest in the position 
whicli is represented in fig. 6. ^Al ^_ 

It will be found that these two ^_/^^__G__\ 

straight holes intenect in the C*^^- ^l 

interior of the body at O. In ^^^-^-^ 

fact if we thrust a knitting ° 

needle throush one of the .(-;.,, 4, 

holes, and tnen attempt to • e« • 

thrust a second knitting needle through the other hole, we shall 
find that the way is stopped in the interior of the body by the first 
knitting needle. If the oody be now suspended from any other 
point on ita surface, and if a similar hole be made through the point 
and in the direction of the string by which the bodv is tutpended, 
it will be found that this hole also passes through tne intersection 
of the two former holes. From each and every point of suspension 
the same reeult is obtained, and thus we are led to the conclusion 
that in a rigid body of any shape or materials whatever then is one 
point which possesses the remarkable property thus stated:— 

fFhenabodyeuapendedbyaeord/roma/xedpointie atreetf there 
ia one apeeicU point u^hieh ie cUtcaya vertically beneath the point ofaua- 

peneion, vthaUmr may be the point qfthe body to iohieh the cord ie 
attached, Thia point ia ealled the centre of gravity. 
In the case cl a homogeneous body 01 regular shape, the centra 

of gnvity is determined from the most simple considentions of 
qrmmetiy. In the case of a tphere it is obvious that the centre of 
gravity must lie at the centre, for there is no other point symmetri- 
cally niatad to the figure. In the case of a parallelepiped the 
centn of gravity is also situated at the centre of volume. Thia it 
found by joining the opposite comen of the figure, and thus 
making a diagonal ; joining another pair of opposite comen wo 
have a second diagonal ; and the inteneotion of theeo two linea 
givea the centre of gnvity of the mats. 

§ 8. Gravitation of a ^igid Body reduced to (hie Force. —A body of 
any description may be considered to be composed of an innumenble 
multitude of small particlea of matter. £ach of these particles is 
acted upon by the attraction of the earth. Each particle is there- 
fore uxged towarda the earth by a certain force which tends towards 
the earth'a centre. The centra of the earth being nearly 4000 
mJlea dirtant, the fireotiona of these forces may, for all practical pur-: 
poses, be regarded aa paralleL Even if two particles were a mile 
dktent the inclination of thu directions of the two forces is under 
a minute. We may Omrttkir% treat the forces as parallel without 
making any appreciable error. Two parellel forces may be com- 
pounded into a single force which is parallel to the two components. 
The fbroca acting on iho twopsrticles of the body may therefore be 

X* loed by a dngle force. Tnis force may be similarly compoimded 
the force aelnff on a third particle of the body, this resultant 
with tiie foise one mhrth pertiole, and ao on until all the particles 



dirtdion fjf this fore* pastes through ihs esntrs of aravUy qf tht body, 
Siupend a hodj of any shape by « eord, then when the body is at 
rest the centre of gravity must lie vertlMlly beneath the point of 
inspension. If the direction of that one force whioh constitateB the 
eSbet of gravity does not pass throogh the centre of gravity, then its 
line of action cannot coincide with the direction of the ooid of sos- 

Kndon ; bat it is impossible that two forces should equilibrate unless 
eir lines of action are coincident, whence we axe led to the import- 
ant conclusion that the effect of the attraction of the earth upon a 
rigid body is to produce a single force whioh passes througa the 
centre of gravity of the body and acts vertically downwards. 


§ 0. Law qf OravUaHon httweem Two ITomm. —Investigationa of 
the motions of the planets have conducted, us' to the conclusion that 
each planet is attracted towards the sun by a force which varies 
accoroinff to the inverse square of the distance. We likewiss see that 
each of the satellites appears to be attracted towards the correspond- 
ing primary phmet by a force which obeys the same law. We are 
theruore tempted to generalize these results into the proposition 
that any two masses m ths universe aitrad each other with a force 
which varies aecordina to the inverse square qf the distanee. Obser- 
vations of the moat widely different character have combined to show 
us that this law, which was discovered by Sir Isaae Newton, is 
true. It ia called the law of Oravitatum, 

We suppose that the distance between the two bodies is so exceed- 
ingly great compared with their di«*nsions that we may practically 
consider each or the bodies as a partiole. 

Let f», m' be the masses of the two bodies, and let r be the dis- 
tance. The force with which m attracts m' is eousl in magnitude 
though opposite in direction to the force with which m' attracts m. 
The reader may perhaps feel some difficulty at first in admittmg the 
truth of this statement We speak so often of the effects whi^ the 
attraction of the sun produces on the planets that it may seem 
strange to hear that each planet reacts on the sun with'ja force pre- 
cisely equal and opposite to the force with which the sun'acts vapaa 
the planets. We can, however, by thd aid of a simple illustrataon, 
chow that such ia reslly the case. Suppoee the sun and the esrth 
to* be placed at rest in space, and abandoned to the influence of their 
mutual gravitation. It is evident that the two bodies would begin 
moving towards each other, and would after a certain time come into 
collision. If, however, the earth and the sun had been separated 
by a rigid rod, it would then be impossible for the two bodies to 
move closer to each other, so we must consider whether any other 
motion could be produced by their mutual attraction. A» the two 
bodies were initially at rest, it is clear that there will be no tendency 
of the rod to move out of tue line in which it was originally placed, 
and consequently if the rod b^gin to move at sll it must move in 
that line, and carry with it the earth at one end, and the sun at the 
other, jks, however, the earth and the sun would remain separated 
at a constant distance, the statical onergy due to their separation 
would remain constant, and therefore ii they began to move we 
should have the kinetic energy of their motion created out of no- 
thing, which is now well known to be impossible. It therefore 
follows that, under the circumstances we have assumed, the rod 
would remain for ever at rest But what are the forces- which act 
upon the rod t At one end of the rod the earth presses upon it with 
a force which is equal to the attraction of the sun upon the earth. 
At the other end the sun presses upon the rod with a force which is 
equal to the attraction of the earth upon the sun. But since the rod 
remains at rest, these two forces must be eaual and opposite, and 
hence tiie force with which the son attracts tne earth must be equal 
and opposite to the force with which the earth attracts the sun. 

If we express tiie gravitation of two nuaases in the form 

then m and m' must enter symmetrically into the expression, 
for if the two messes were interchanged the gravitation must not 
be altered. 

We should here slso advert to a circumstance connected with 
gravitation which is of the very highest importance. Suppose we 
take two definite masses (for simplicity, two pounds) separated at a 
definite distance (for simplicity, one foot), then the gravitation of 
these two masses to esch other is a certain dejiniie force (which we 
shall subsei^uently calculate). What we want here to lay special 
stress upon is that, so far as we know at present, this force appears 
to be the same whatever be the material of which the two misses 
are composed. Thus two pounds of iron at a distance of one fodt 
attract each other with the same foroe as a pound of iron .would 
attract a pound of lead at the same distance. The sLpifl- 
cance, or perhaps it should be said the vast importance, of this 
statement is apt to be lost si^t of from a somewhat peculiar cause. 
It must never be forgotten that, when it is asserted that two 
maaes axe e^aal to each other, what is rsally meant is that, if equal 

ipon eaoh of the maates for the same time, the 
massss would rsoaive the same velocity, jks this test of the equality 
of massss is not praetioally eonvaaient the weighing scales have come 
intones for the purpose: and thoa|^ it appears to be true that when 
two masses have equal "welghta,** as tested by the scales, then 
the masses are themsslves eoual, yet this is so fsr from being an 
obvious .or neoessary truth that it really js the most remarkable 
phenomenon connected wi|h giavitation. The expression for the 
gravitation of two attracting masses must therefore depend solely 
upon their msa se s, upon th^ir distance, and upon some specific con- 
stant which is characteristic of ths intensity of gravitation. 

Sxperiment shows that the cravitation of a body towards the 
earth is directly proportional to its massiand hoioe we see that the 

must be proportionsl to m, and as/ (m, m^ must be unaltered by the 
interehanga of m and m\ it appears finalfy that the gravitation of 
the two masses is , . 


whence • is a numericsl constant which is equal to the gravitation 
of two nnits of mass placed at the unit of distance. To fonn a de- 
finite conception of the intensity of this force, we take some specific 
instances. It con be shown that two masses A and B, each contain- 
ing 416,000 tons of matter, and situated at a distance of one statute 
mue apart, wiU attract each other with a force of one pound. If the 
menses of A and B remain the same, and if the distance between 
them be increased to two miles, then the intensity of the force with 
which the two messes gravitate t(^ther is reduced to one <}uarter 
of a pound. If either of the masses were doubled, the distance 
being unaltered, then the force would be doubled. If both the 
menses were doubled, then the force would be quadrupled. 

1 10. Jfotum of a Planet round the Sun.~-tho effect of gravi- 
tation when the bodiea are in actual motion must next receive 
our attention. It may so happen that in consequence of the attrac- 
tion of gravitation one of the bodies will actually describe a circle 
around uie other, so that, notwithstanding the effect of the attrac- 
tion, the distance between the two bodies remains constant We 
ahall first explain, by elementary considerations, how it is possible 
for a planet to continue to revolve in a circular or nearly circular 
orbit about the sun in its centre ; and then we shall proceed to the 
more exact consideration of the form of the orbit, and the laws 
according to which that orbit is described. 

Let ^ rt^iirc^mt the sun (fig. 0), and let T be the initial position 
of ih^ p3 [iii4f L If the planet be simply released, it will immediatelv 
hegiu to FlII dong the line T8 into the sun. l( on the other hand, 
tha pUtiet w^re initially proiected 
along th? Ima TZ perpendicular to 
TS, the attraction of the sun at B 
will cloncct tba planet from the line 
T2 which it would otherwise have 
folloTTL'd, and compel the planet to 
move in a curved line. The parti- 
cular form of curve which the planet 
will describe depends upon the initisl 
velocity. With a small initial velo- 
<At7 the deflecting power of the sun 
wm have a more speedy effect than 
is possible when the imtial velocity 
is considerable. The rapidly curving path TX will therefore cor- 
respond to a smsll initiaf velocity, while the flatter curve TY may 
be the orbit when the initial velociW is considerable. As the move- 
ment proceeds, the Telocity of the planet will generally alter. If ths 
planet were moving along the curve TT, it is at every instant after 
leaving T going farther away from the sun. It is muiifest that the 
planet is uius going sgainst tiie sun's attraction, and therefore its 
velocity must m Him<niMhiiiy On the other hand, when the planet 
is moving along the curve TX, it ia oonstantly getting nearer the 
sun, and the effect of the sun's attraction ia to ucrease the velocity. 
It is therefore phdn that for a path somewhere between TX and 
TT the velocity of the planet must be unaltered hy the sun's at- 
traction. Wiu centre S and radius ST describe a circle, and take 
a point P on that cirde cxceedincdy near to T. With a certain 
initial velocity it is possibis to project the planet so that it shall 
describe the src TP. The attraction of the sun slways acts abng 
the radius, and hence in describing the src TP the planet has at 
every instant been moving perpeMicolsrly to the sun's attraction. 
It ia manifest that under sudi circumstances the sun's attraction 
cannot have altered the vdodty, for it would be impossible to give 
a reason for the velocity having been accelerated which could not 
be i«butted by an equally valid reason for the velocity having been 
retarded. We thus see that the planet reachea P with an unchanged 
velocity, and at that point the direction of the motion ia perpendi- 
cular to the radiusi it is thsrsfore dear that after passing P the 
planet will agsin describe a smsll portion of the circle, which will 
sgain bo followed by another, and so on, <.4l , the planet will con- 
Sue to move in a droulsr orbit We have therefore shown that, 
if a planet were originally projected with a certain spsdfio yelodtj 



In A dinetiam at ii|^t aoglot to the ndint eomiMCiag \a» ptenot 
and tho son. then tho pLinet vonld continiM for eTor to dsKribo « 
finle aioona the ton. « 

ilL On ihs SUfytie Ifotiim ^ tk» FlatuU.—Th» Uwi of the 
motions of the pleaeti were dieeovend bv Kepler by meene of eel- 
eolationa founded npon oheerrationi. lliey may be thus stated >— 

1. Each pUaut movM in an tUtMt in cnt foeui of which the tun 

2. The ruiiutttdardruton from the tun to the pkmdneeepg over 
ejual areat t« equal iima. 

3. The tquaret ff the periodic Hvut of the motiont cf ihc planete 
nund the tun are in the eame ratio at the cubee qf their mean dittancet. 

These three laws fonn the foundations of that branch of astronomy 
vhich is called Physical Astronomy, and they are generally known 
as KepUf't Lawe. 

The sun and tho planets are all veiy nearlr iiiheiieal, and for the ' 
present, vheneTer we speak of the motions of the sun or the planets, 
we are to nnderaland the motions of the centres of the corresponding 
ipheres. Indeed tho diameters of these spheres are so small in 
eomparison with the distances at which they are separated from 
each other, that we mar gemraUy rogaid them as mere physical 
points^ Thus thouffh the diameter of the sun is ten times greater 
than the diameter of the greatest planet, Jupiter, yet the sun*s dia- 
meter is only the forty-second part of its distance from the nearest 
planet, Mercury, and it is less thsn the three-thousandth part of its 
distance from the outermost planet, Neptuna 

The orbits of the planets are so littie eccentric thst at a fint slsnce 
the m^ority of them appear to be circular. JUnong the laiger 
planets the orbits of Hereuxy and of Msrs- hare the neatest eccen> 
tricity, being about 1 and ^ respeotirely. Kezt to these oomes the 
orbit of Saturn, whlon has an eccentricity of j2i^ Next in order come 
Jnpiter, Uranus, the Earth, Neptune, and \ enns. with eccentricities 
^it* ir* At Tfik tH respectirely. The orbits of some of the 
minor planets are, howerer, much mors eccentric. 

i 12. Tho ffodogmph, —In diacnasing the actual motion of a planet 
around the son, it is rery oonrenient to introduce the desant con- 
ception of the hod<^graph. The use of this curre is originafly due to 


Bradley, Imt for its pnctiesl development wsmpriadpaHy indebted 
toffirW.B.HaiiiittuL Let AB(flg. 7) be a portion of the path of a 
particle P acted upon by any 
foreea. F^m any point draw 
ndii reetores OiL, OB^ 0B„ 
OR4 (fig. 8), panllel to the tan- 

Sls to the curre A6 drawn at 
points. P„ Pt, P|, P4, and 
equal to tiie relodtiee at those 
punts. ThentheeurreBiILB,R^ 
Is the hodoAraph of the ortnt of 
P. To aaen position P of the 
paxtiele in the path there is a 
corresponding point B in the 
hodograph ; ana simultsneoosly 
vith the motion of P in its 
oriat we hare the motion of B 
in the hodqgraph. 

The ntili^ of the bpdqgraph depends upon the theoran thst the 
force which aet$ upon the paiiido it eU aimff Hmo eoual emdparaXUl 
to the 9e2oeitu of the eorremotiding point in the hodograph. This 
tiieorsm is thus ptored. Let P. and Pg, and therefinv K| and B,, 
he reiy dose tt^ther. The relodty imparted to the particle in 
paaiinff fromP. to F* in the small time K must, when compounded 
with the relodty 0B„ produce the relodty OBg^ This increment 
U rdmslty mnst therefore be eousl sod parallel to B^B,. If there- 
fore V denote the relodty of B, we hare «« fbr tne relodty ao- 
i}aired in the time ML The force acting on P musk thersfon, ^ the 
second law of motion, be equsl to v and paiallel to the line B^B^ 
which ultimately coinddes with tha tangent. The theorem is then- 
foie ptored. 

Kepler's seoond law ilatte that in the morament of a jilBnet around 
fke son the radios reetor from the son to the plsiiet dcssribee equal 
maftia eqpud times. Itcaa be diown that when thie is the cae» 



tke toroe whlen ae» npon the pknet most n eo o a nari ly be directed 
towards the son. Let the planet be suppoaed to more from P to 
F (fig. 9) in the time t with the relodty 9, Then, ainee equal areas 
aredeeenbed in equal times, we must hare the area OPr equal to 
hUt whereA is a constant which represents the srea described In the 
onitof timey Let fall OT perpendicular upon the tsngentat P, then 
V0T-2A. We therefore infer 4hat the relodty of a planet ii 

Fig. 9. 

inrendy proportionsl to the perpendicular ict fall from the oentrc 
of the eun upon the tanoent to the orbit Produce OT to <}, eo that 
OT X OQ is cottstsnt : the radiua rector OQ will therefore be pio- 
portional to the rdocity ; and aa OQ is pt rpendicular to the tangent 
at P, it follows that the locus of Q most be simply the hodc^granb 
turned roond throoah 90*. Draw two consecutire tangents to toe 
orUt, and let Q^ ana (^ be the corresponding points (fis^ 10). Then 
since OT, x OQ,-OT. x OQ,, the quadrilatersl Tj.Q|Q,Ts is inserib> 
able in a drde^ and tharefon the rngles OQiQi and OTfTj an 


Fig. 10. 

equal ; whenoe it is easily aeen that QjQ^ it perpendieolar to OP. 
It follows fipom the princinle of the hod^grapn that the foroe on P 
mnst be directed along OP. 

Let F (fig. 11) be the focus of the elUpee in which, according to 
Kepler^s first law, the planet is moring; then, from a wdl-known 
property of the eUipee, the foot of the perpendioular FT let fsll ttoa 
F on the tangent drawn to the ellipee at tne point P Uee on tiie drok 
of which the diameter is the axis migor of the eUipse. The lint FT 
cuts the drde egain at 
Q, end ss FTxFQ is 
eonstsnt, the radios 
rector FQ must be oon- 
stantir ixroportianal to 
the relodty, and there- 
fore the hodograph will 
be the droleTAQtomed 
roond throogh 00". We 
hare already ahown that 
the tangent to the hodo- 
graph n paralld to the 
foroeL Hie line CX} most 
thenfore be panlld to 
FP. Iff be the an^ 
PFC; then, in oonse- 
quenoe of the law of 
eqnsl deecription of 

areas in equal times, _, _, 

FPW+d!r most be con. "«■ ^^' 

stent, and therefore di+di most raiy inreree^ as FF*; but the 
relodty of Q will be propoftionel to di+dt ; henoe the rdooifarof 
Q, end therrae the brae, will be inrersely proportionsl to FP*. 
In this way it is shown that the planets sre attracted by the ran 
with a ferae whieh rariee inrereely as the square of the distaneei 



1 18. 2^ Problem ^ Thru bodies, —We liave pSlntcd out that the 
motion of a planet is determiaed by the mutual attraction whioh ez- 
ista between the pUnet and the ann. It foUowa, however, aa a 
necessary consequence from the latr of nniyersal gravitation, that 
each planet is attracted not only by the sun but by every other 
l>lanet, and indeed, ao far aa we Icnow, by every other body in 
the universe. The eiTect of the attraction of the sun preponder- 
ates so enormously over the other attractions that the obedience of 
the planets to Kepler's laws, which would be perfect were the 
aources of disturbance absent, is still so nearly perfect that the 
departure therefrom can only be perceived eitlier by very accurate 
or by very lon^-contiuued observations. The refinements of 
modem observations have, however, brought to light a very larae 
number of perturbaiUma, aa they are call^, in the motioua of the 
planets and their satellites, which are due to the interference of 
other bodies. The explanation of these different perturbationa by 
the law of universal gravitation lias proved in the great mi^jority of 
cases triumphantly succexsful. 

In any problem where perturbations are involved, we have at 
least throe nodies, viz., the principal body S, a body P which circu- 
lates around 8, and a disturbing body P'. If- we had only ^he two 
bodies 8 and P to consider, then P would describe around 8 a 
eonio section, of which 8 was the focus, and the radius vector SP 
would sweep over ennal areas in equal timea. By the introduction 
of the third body P^ which attracts both the former bodies S and P, 
the motion is deranged, the orbit which P describes is up longer a 
••onic section, and its radius vector baa ceased to describe equal areas 
in cquiQ times. The general case of this problem, aa we have here 
ileecribed it, is one of excessive complexity. It is, however, a fortu- 
nate circumstance that, up to the present time, astronomers have 
had but little occasion to attack the problem in its general form.^ 
In the solar system we have a great number of different problems 
of perturbations to discuss, but there is one feature common to all 
these problems. This feature is that the perturbing force ie very 
mall in comparison with the primary force, by vfhieh the motion 
nf the disturbed body is conlrclled. In consequence of this 
iiecnliarity, the problems of perturbationa in the aolar system 
beeome greatly simplified. The circumstsnccs of the orbits of the 
pisaets and their satellites are also happily such aa to fumiah 
additional facilities in the solution of the problems of perturba- 
tions. The eccentricities of the orbits are small, and in nearly every 
case the inclinationa are amall also. The problems of perturba- 
tions in the solar system are consequently adapted for the methods 
of aucceasive approximation; but we ahould perhapa wani the 
reader that, even with the assistance so fortunately rendered by 
thecircumstancea p 

of the case, the 
problems are still 
amouff the most 
difficult to which 
analysis has ever 
been applied. 

I^t 8, P, F 
(fig. 12) denote 
the three bodies 
of which the 
masses are M, m, 
m'. Let the dis- 
tances 6P, SP, «. 
PP be denoted * 

^7 *■! ^* P re- - 

siieetively; then if c denotes, as before, the gravitation between two 

nnits of mass separated by the unit of distance, we hava 

on S the forces i ^ and ^ along SP and SP respectively ; 
on P the forces «^ and «^' along PS and PP respectively ; 
on P the forces e^' and t^' along PS and PP wapectively . 

In the problem of the perturbation of a planet which is moving 
around the aun, the dbsolule motion of the planet in space is not 
what we are concerned with ; what we do require ia tne relative 
motion of the planet with respect to the sun. 

Suppose that we apply to each unit of mass of the three bodies, 
forces e^ual to emr'^ parallel to PS and «inV-" parallel to PS, 
then it is clear that, from the second law of motion, each unit of 
mass of the svstem will receive in a small time, ao far as these forces 
are concerned, equal and parallel velocities, and therefore the rele^ 
tive motions of the thrM bodies will not be altered by the introdne- 
tion of these forces. , 

Pig. 11 

' There can be little doubt that in the caae of multiple stars the 
proUsm of three or more bodies would often have to be fkced in all 
tU nggedness, but the observations which would IxLreqairsd ai* 
frtabily wanting, and probably unattainaUe. 

Bottheas forces will, so far as tke hody ft is M&otfnsd, siiioimi U 
«]Im-i>f^ and eVLm'-^f^ in the directions PS and PS remectively, 
and will tlierafore neutralize the attractions of P and P upon & 
It foUowa that, so fkr as the relative motions only are concexned, 
we may oonaidei the body S aa fixed, while the body P ia acted npon 
by the fo roes. 

•i»(M+«J-i-r» on PS 
emmf-i-f^ on PP 
cmm'-^r^ parallel to PS, 
with of oonrse aimflar expressions for the foroes on P. 

The problem of perturbation is therefore reduced to the determina- 
tion of the motion of P in obedience to these forces, while S regarded 
as fixed. 

It is plain that, in order to find the motion of P, we should 
know the motion of P, which is itself disturbed by P ; but as 
the effect of the perturbation is small, we may, without appreciable 
error, uae the place of P, derived on the supposition that the motion 
of P is undisturbed, for the purpose of calculating disturbances 
caused by P in the motion of r. We shall therefore suppose that 
the orbit of P is an ellipse which is described around the focus S 
in consequence of an attractive foroe cm'(]I+inO-r-y^ directed 
towards S. 

In computing the disturbed motion of P we transform the three 
given forces into three equivalent forces, which will be more con- 
venient for our purpose. We take first a force T directed along the 
radius vector ; secondly, a force Y perpendicular to the radius vector, 
and lying in the plane of the orbit ; and, thirdly, a' force W, which is 
normal to the plane of the orbit T is to be regarded as positive 
when it endeavoura to increase the distance between P and 8 ; Y 
is to be regarded aa positive when it tends to move P to the same 
side of the line PS aa that in which the direction of its motion tends 
to carry it; and W is to be regarded as positive when it tends to 
raise P to the north of the pUine pf its orbit; 

From P (fig. IS) let fall a perpendicalar PQ npon the plane of 
the undisturbed orbit of P, and let fall from Q a perpendicular QR 
upon the line SP. The foroe along PP can be reaolved into a com- 
ponent paraUel to QP and another paralld to QP ; and the latter 
can again be decomposed into components parallel to RQ and RP. 
Hence we have, as the eqnivalente to the force on PP, the following 
three forcea whioh form parts of T, Y, W respectively :— 



wmm ^_ mwnwn 

.-p-QR; +-^ 


In a atmilar manner we find for the components of ths force parallel 
to SP, the foUowing three fones which foim parts of T, Y, W 


-"^SR; .+^^»; -yHJP'. 

Hence ws dedaoe the following expressions :^ 

ip eiii(M+in) _ i«mp j^_e^y;^|^ 



+ !^LQP-:^l<jp. 

Let ths line SO, ftom which the longltodes sie'iwkonei', m ' 
drawn in the plane of the nndiaturbed orbit of P. Let the lon|i. 
tudea of P ana P be «, r reapectively, and let ths angls PBQ or tae 
latitude of P be denoted by V, then w« have > 

QP-i' sin y-.SQ-/ cosy. ^ ^ 

RQ-8Q sin (f-Q-i' cosy sin g-n. 

8R -SQ cos (Z - Jj-i' cos y cos (r-IX 




ITitli tbM nlwtitiiftiflBi, w» luY* for the rtljum of T, Y, W, the 

V- tmn' 



It will be notieed that the lint tenn of the 
listi of the force which comepoikde to the pnrd j eUiptio motloii. 
The two xeioeiiUBg tenne in T, es well ee the whole of Y end W, 
<iqiead upon the dietorhing force, ee ia evident fipom the circum- 
•tanee that they contain W ee a foetor, and woold raniah if m' 
•era equal to aero. Aa ^ ia amaD, we may ncgleet ita aqnaRa and 
higher poweia, aothat 


When theee aahatitntiona era made, we aee that the ezproaaiona 
for T and Y ere both independent of V; end eonaeqnently we mar, 
» Ihr aa theee foreee era concerned, confer the motione of thedie- 
tnbing and the diatnrhed body to take place in the aame plane. 

The expnaai cn for W contiana, however, the Urat power of the 
htitnde of the diatorUng body. Thia ia of eoniaa connected with 
the dreomatance that it ia onxy in oonaeqnence of the diatorUnff 
face W that the dia t n ri ied body ia induced to leaTO the plane <tf 
iti ondiatnrbed notion at all. 

il4. Oalculalio»^I)iMturitdMotia».'--Ohmrn.^n haa ahown 
that, notwithatanding the pertorbationa, the orbit of each plaaet 
difire bnt little from a drcle, of which the aon it the centra. It 
ii farther ahown by obeerration that^ thoogh the rate at which a 
planet moree in ita orbit is not quite oonatant, it ia atill Teiy 
nearly eo. We may make a aimilar atatement witii reference to the 
notion of the moon aroond the eerlh. The orbit of the moon ia 
Bierly a drde, of which the earth la the centre, and the Telocity 
of the moon in ita orbit ia nearly oonatant Theee featnrea of the 
Botiona of the nlanete and the moon enable ne to replace the more 
czaet f ononis oy anproximate ezpreealona whidi are mndi m(ne 
eoBTenient, while atui aniWdently coneot 

Let ^ # be the polar eo-ordinatee of a celeetlal body which moree 
aieilT nniformly in a nearly drooler orbit The fonn of the orbit 
■ay be ezpreeeed by an aquatiof^ of the type 

It will, howerer, be more oonrenient to employ two eqnaticna, hj 
wane of which the ooordinatee ere eech ezpveaeed directly in teima 
tf tlie time. We thnawrite two eqnationa of the fonn 

lad br elimination of i fkom theee eqnationa the ordinary eqnatlon 
a polar ooordinatee ia aeeertained. With reference to the foima 
tf tne l^etiona/| and/|, we ahaU make an aaaomption. 

Let xit x» ^> ^ arbitraiy anclee ;«.,«» fte., arbitraiy engn- 
hrreludtiee ; ag, o^ he., amaU arutraiy uneer magnitndee ; and^ 
tp Iec., 9maU nnmerical &otora. « ia an arbitrvy lineer macm- 
tadc^ and « la an arbitraiy angnlar Telodl^. We dudl atmim* uiat 

^-a+«i oca W+Xi) »-«i«M (•if+Xi)+.•*«• 
•f-•<+f^ain(•,<+Xl)+f«■in(•.^+Xe) +, *«. 
Toioatify oar employment of theee eqmatlona it would really be 
lafident for na to etate that, aa a matter of fiM^ ihe motiona of all 
tie heaTenly bodice which ere at preaent nndear ccnaideration are 
Bpable of being ezpreeeed in the forma we haTe written. It may, 
kvererj f^dUUte the reader in edmitting the legitimecy of thie 
■HDptum, if we point ont how ezceedin^y planaihle ere tlie a 
jHori nxvomente wnich can be addnced in ite faToor. 

The omta of the cdeetial bodice are approximately drooler, and 
eoaeeqnently « mnat remain approximately oonatant The Taiiie of 
f% in fact, uioeeaantly flnctoating between oertein nerrow Umita 
vhich it doea not tianacend. Thna p ia what is called a periodie 
fudicm ^au Hmt. It ia neoeeeery that the mode in which the 
tiae t entexa into tlie expteeaion for p mnat lUiil the condition of 
enfining ^within nanow limita, mohnAtUmding the imieJUUUly 
fwtf tnereeMf of which t i» $u»o$fiSU€. It ie obTiooa that thia con- 
L ie fulfilled in the finm we have aaaomed for p. Under eU 

F-<a±aj±o,±, fcc; 
ad •• Oj, 0^ kt,, ere email ^uantitiee It appeara that p ie neoee- 
■rilj r eetrie ie d to narrow limita. 

By aimilar reaeoning we can juatify the equation for #, for we cen 
ihow that the engnler relodty of the oelaetial body to wUch it 
n&rs mnst be approzimatdy uniCinm. 

By differentiation, 

Under ell cireumatancee we moat have 

ahd aa fi, H^ lea, are aU email qnantitiea, it ie obrioQa that £ |i 

ocBlbied within narrow limits notwithatanding the indafinite 
anAmentation of the time. 

In eddition to the reeaone already addnced in Juatiilca t ion of the 
expreadona of p and 9, it ie to be lemerked. that the number of die- 
poeaUe oonatanta «,, <^l,ftc, xi. Xt. *c. ^ fto *«-»^">» ••*«•• 
«, « la praoticelly mdennite, and that coneequently the equetiona 
cen be compelled to exhibit feithlhUy the pecuUeritiee of auf 
approximate^ drooler orbit deaoibed by n particle moving vitli 

approximate unifbrmity. 

/MerminaMMi ^^ JbfMi.— The orbit which ie deeeilbed 
by a planet or other odeetiel body being given hf the equationa 


it ia n detanninata problem to aeeertain the foreei Inr which the 
motion of the planet ii controlled. In mehing thia <aleula t ion w« 
ehall aaaume that the equaree and hi^^r powen, end eleo tlie pro> 
duffta of the email qnantitiea Oj, Op Itc.. «|, n^ Ito., may be die- 
carded. T ie to be computed from tne weIl«know& foimala 

when we have 







^-•^+2*i^«t»i coe W+Xi) J 

^-«ii»+a(2fi«iNi4+«i«*) «» W+xi) ; 

whenoe by aobatltutian 

To - Mafli> > :M{flxm^^^iumi'¥ay) eoa (•i<+Xi)'. 
To compute Y, the force perpendicular to the ndiua veetor, wt 
proceed ea foUowa :— 

^— a'+aSooi ooa («!<+ Xi) I 

^-•+*li.x ooa W+Xi) ; 
wbenoe we find 

^-a^t»+a(2aaii»+fia«»|) coa W+Xi). 
Diflartntiating we have 

Subatitating thia in the ordinary formula 

we hnve finelly 

Y- -a»(2«x«t»i+tia*,«) dn W+XiX 
Let ua aaaume, for the aake of brevity, 

Ai— iii<+Xi* ^""•h^'MCe* ^ « 

ka, Ac 

then the reeult to which wehave been conducted may be thna 8tated>— 

If a body be moving in a neerlydreuler orbit under thai ' 
of a radial force cquaTto 

and a force peipendicnbff to the radiua vector equal to 

- meOQi ain x^, 

then the path whidi the body deeoribee ie defined hy tiie eqnatloiii 


iie. i>iAie«oiif>tvH»a«a» A9rMt<M«.---We proceed to point ool 
a few of the more lemerkable deduotiona from thia theorem. 

If ee a flrat approximation we neglect entirely the email qnantitiea 
Oi, Oy Ac, «^ Va, Itc, we have 

r^a\ #-•<; T--ei«ii"; V-0. 
In thie ceee the orbit deacribed by the body ie a drole of which 
the ndiue ie a. The angle made by the xadiue vector to the 
pertide with a fixed axia ia proportional to the time. It foDowi 
Suit the vdooity With wUchttAperttdeBMrreeia ite ofhit It ml- 

XL — zo 



farms fiSnM tlie aiu^ nrcot <mt hj the putlola in one unit of 
time iseqml to m, it foUowi tiuit the angnlar Telodtj of the peitide 
i» equal to m ; since the ndias is a» the ectoal Telodtj vlth which 
the'partiels is moring in its print iama. In the case now nnder 
oonsideration the force Y pexpendicnlar to the radios vector is con- 
9tantiv eqnal to sero. Hence the total for6e which acts npon the 
^artioie is always directed along the radins Teetor, and is eqnal to 
-Maflp*. The «^- merely expresses that the force which acts 
vpon the particle mnst he constantly directed towardg the centre. 

Let j» denote the^periodio time of the motita of the particle in Its 
irbit Then we most find the angolar Telocity by dividing the 
■Bgle %w descrihed in the time j» by the time j», whepce 

By tabstitating this valne for « in the caq^nHioii for T, we dednoe 

T-— a^ 

This proves that the force most vazr diieotly as the ndios of the 
srUt of the particle and inversely as the sqnaie of the periodic time 
in which the orUt is described. 

Let na now consider the case in whidh o^ and ^i axe retained, 
wliile the remaining qnantltiea a^ a^ ke,, iff, 9„ to,, an all eqnal 
to MTO. The fofmoln then are 

r-ia+OxOoaXx ; T«-ma«*-fnaF|Cos\|; 

f-trf+msinxi; V--maO,8inXi; 
when a]rx-ai(ti*+t»x')+2irxa«»i; aQ|-2ia2*«^+<*Vi<»i • 

It is elear in the first place that the orbit is not a circle, for as Xi 
depends npon <, it will follow that ooa Xi may vaij between the 
limits +1 and -1, so that the radios vector r may also vary 

between the extreme valnee a+Oj and a-Oi, As o^ is extremely 
small, it appears that the orbit is still nearly cironlar with a radios 
<L bat that the particle may sometimee be found at a distance 04 on 
the inside or outside of the circle. 

We shall similarly iind that the angolar velocity with which the 
radins vector sweeps round is not quite uniform. The average 
angular velooity Ib no doubt », but the actual position of the radius 
veetor differs qr the quantity 91 sin Xx from what it would have 
been had its motion been uniform. As f . sin Xj must vary between 
the limitB •f-«i and *ih* ^ follows that uie radius vector can never 
be at an ansie sreater than if. from its mean place, <,$,, the place 
whibh it woud have occupied had it continnedT to more nnifonnly. 

The orUt is eompletely defined by the two equations— 
If from these two equations the time t oould be eliminated, the 
reaolt would be the equation in polar coordinatee of the path which 
the partiole described. Owing; however, to the faot that the 
quantity t oooors separately, and also under the form of a aine and 
eosfai^ this elimination would be teansoendental. 

U^ nowevor, we take advantags of the smallness of A and ^1, we 
oaa eliminate I with sufficient accuracy for all praoticaJ puipoaes. 

As 9 is nearly equal to ml, we may assume for I as the firrt 
. the valne f-H». If we consider the squaras or 
powers of <k and ifi negligible^ this value of tjauj be sabstl- 
for I under the sine and oosine, and we have 


TUs eonatioiL in genoal denotes a curve nndulatiag about the 
fliroomteenoe of the oirde of which the radius is a, 

We must now briefly oonalder the eaae where the motion of the 
partiele is not confined to a plane. Suppoee a third axis OC be 
drawn thiouAh tiie point perpendicular to the plane which con- 
tains the nnaleturbed orbit Let s be tbe-ooordinate of the particle 
peiallel to the line 00 which is called the axis of s, while m, y 
denote as usual the coordinates referred to two other rectangular 
snii We shall suppose that the motion of the nartiol? is snoh 
that the eoordinats s eaa be exp resse d by the equation 

»-*i sin ft+*, sin ii+, fce., 
when At, h^ 9tc, are lines of constant length ; fix, fi^ ka,, are 
angles of the twmpxi+^,p^+^ *«• ; J»i» ft, *c» lu *■• *«-i ■» 
oonstants ; and t denotes the time. 

I4t W denote the foroe which acts upon the pertide P in a 
diieotkn parallel to the axis of a. Then we have 

XMfferaatiaiing ihe equation 

»-*i sin fii+ht sin /Bi+, &a, 

J-*xOos/ix^ + *,eoeiU^+,*c; 

we have 

5 -A*i coi i^+ft», ooi /Bi+, a* 

Diflhrantiating again 

g- -A«Ax sinft-ftV sin /^-, tel 

whence, finally, 

W- -»i»i*Ai sin 0i"fnp^*ht sin iS,-, &a 
i 17. The McHon qfthe MoatL-^ChM of the most impotent no- 
blems to which we may appl^ the expressions to which we have 
bem conducted is to an examination of the disturbenoee which the 
moon experiences in ite motion round the earth. The moon would 
deecribo a purely elliptio motion around the earth in one of the foci 
were it not that the preaence of the sun dinturbs the motion end pro- 
duces certain irregularities. Notwithstanding the vast mass ot the 
son, theee disturbing causes still only slightly derange the moon'e 
motion from what it would be were theee distorbing cansee abeent 
The reaaon of this is that the sun is about 400 timee as far from the 
earth aa the moon, and consequently the difTerance of the effeels of 
the sun upon &e earth and the moon is comparatively amalL 

In applying the formu]« to the case of the moon we denote by 
8, P, P^the earth, the moon, and the sun respeetiTely; 
M, M, m' signify' the maesee of the earth, moon, and sun; 
r, f^ are the distanoee of the moon and the sun from the earth; 

p is the distance from the moon to the sun; 
l,t are the longitudee of the moon and the son measnred in 
tiie moon's orbit. 
T, Y, W are the f oroee acting upon the moon, whereof T is slong 
the radius vector, V is perpendicular to the radius 
vector, and W is peipenaionlar to the plane of the 
moon'e orbit. 
Sinoe r-fi-r' ia very nearly equal to lH-400, we may regard this fraiv 
tf on as so soiall that its squares and higher powers ars n^UgiUsk 
Henee^ sinoe ooe V^l, 

p-,Yl-J^cce(Z-r) + ^*)* 



With these nibstitntions we have, after a few simple tranif oi!iBatioii% 
j,,m(M+m)^l •^r^i+8coo2(/-n)j 


i 18. TJU FaHU^M.— The inequality in the motion of the moon 
which ia known as the variation is independent both of the eccen- 
tricity of the orbit of the moon and of that of the eerth. As we 
ahall at present onlv discuss inegularitiee in longitude and radius 
vector, and aa we aoall neglect small quantitiee of an order hu^er 
than the eeoond, we may aasume that the plane of the orbit or toe 
sun eoineides with the plane of the orbit of the moon. 

The radius vecl^ and the longitude vomj be sipt ss wd hj the 

r-ia-lr<(/x coe Xi; 

We shall asnime that 

and since 

we have 


- ew(M+m) ^l vmm'a 

bat torn S 16, » being the mean motion of the moon, 

Ti* - m%*a - maFx cos Xi ; 
whenoe, by identifying the two expressions we have from tha 
portions independent m the time, 

This is a very important formula, inasmuch as It givas the re- 
lation between the mean motion f» and the mean distanoe « in tiie 
disturbed oibit 

Suppxe that there were no disturbing inflnenoe» and that a 
satemte mored uniformly around the eaxth in a eiroQlar orUt of 
radius «• with a mean motion fu, then we have 

Aeshming also that the eerth moves uniformly round the sm In m 
oiioolar orbit of radioatf' with a meen motion »' Then 

an A— a B'A 


■• dM IC b B^^sDila It aaa^MlMa wMi t^. 

ftth Om MMUaiku^ md mtktac <t-ii«+ii*, «• km IhOt 

Bot idttiuy tfaa aerfUati «! gm At ia O* two tqittftw to T, 

vhBDOt, Ij mlMtitatloa and by nag^Mting anftU quatitit^ 
tr* hav* alao for Y fhe two ezpnHioBa 

ibenM bj idntU^ing tha oodBdnii 

ttos %y dcDotefl fli0 imta at wUch X^ aXtniL 

Bohiqg tiba tvo eqvatioii^ ve dednee fha IbiUowfiig azpmdona^- 

¥t eta BOW caloalote fhe nQae of /^ and ^^ munorioally. for 
17871 ' 

/i- -0007204 

nt renlli at wUeh wdhara anirad may be thnaaiiiamarilyitated, 
■in& bowerw, a mora acenxmta ralna of # . than that which la" 
famed by tidamathod:— * 

If we aimpoae the orbit of the moon to ooinoida with the plane of 
tks eoUirtie, and If we nwlect the elliptldty of the orbit' of the 
«ith aroimd tSie aon and that of the flywa aroond the eartii ; if •' 
teotta the mean motion of the euth azoond the eon, and n the 
■MB motioii of the moon around the earth; and, fbiaUy, if a nd • 
bioQoncctad by the eqnatioii 

te wf hn« ftr the motion of the moon the'eqnatioM 
#•-0^1-0*007204 eoo (2iil-9i»'i))f 
l-nf+SO'SO'ain (M-SnV). 

fe thiM aae tiiat the motion of the moon, on tiie hipothirii whioh 
n have aawimed, ia diibraat fkom a uniform draolar motion. 
A* diafeaboo from the moon to the earth ia aometimea l-189th 
yaX greater or leaa than ita mean tahia. And the longitiide of the 
MOB ia aomotimea tr 10* in advanoe of or behind ^^ it wonld 
bien the aajflw a iU on that the moon waa moving Qnifcnnly. 
nn the &(UM ia the greateat^ we haTt og»(2iif-9n^0--l; 
^^ M-Sn'l-worSw; 

and it fbllowa that the diataaoe of the aiMtt from the earth ia gnti- 
eit at qnadratDiva. When the diatance ia leaat^ then 



ooueqnanlily the moon is ntereat to the earth at qnygy. It thw 
appeaia tiiat the orbit of the moon aa modified by Uie diatubing 
inflnenee of the Taiiation zeaemUea aa oral of which the earth fi 
the eentre^ and of which the minor azia is oonatantly in the line of 

like mean kngitade of the moon and the tme kngitnute coincide 


Thia oonditioa ia fiiliUled both at ajiygy and qnadnture; eonee* 
qnently the mean place of the moon and ita trae plaeo cdaeide 
when the moon ia either in a^iygy or in qaadratore. The trae 
place of the moon ia at iti graatoet diitaafta in adTanoe of 

place when 



Thia condition ia fulfilled at the middle pointa of the fint and third 
qnadnnta, while at the middle pointa of the aecond end fborth 


and therefore the moon ia behind ita mean place ia the aeooad aad 
foorth qnadiaata. 

After new moon, the diatance between the moon and the euth 
grodoally ineraaaee, end the ajvpeiont velooity of llie moon alao in- 
creaaM nnti], when tlie moon la tliree or fbor daya old, it haa ad- 
Taneed W beyond its mean place ; the TeLod^ then begine to 
""-'-' V thoogh the distance gosa on increaau^ nntil at first 
tne distance haa attainea a maiiimim. Aftsr ilrst qoartcr 



diatance diminiahee, and the moon IsHe behind ita i 
the maTJmwm diatance of W behind the mean place 1 

aboct 11 daTs after new moon. At Aill moon the < 

become a minlmwm, and the meen pbce aad true place coiaddc 
At 18 days the trne place haa anin gained 89^ on the mean place, 
bat the diatance incwaae^ aad at third qnartw tiie dietaaee it 
agaia a marimnm, aad the trae aad the meaa place ooindde. After 
w third quarter the distaace diminishes aad ^ true plaoa 
behind the meea pleoe, the diifereBce attaining a i«**<mnm q^ 
the 86th day. after wmeh tlie true place gsina on the mean place^ 
with which it coinoidee at new moon, when elao the diataaoa la 
lAin 4minimnnL 

Since the amount of thia irrsgolarity in kmgitode ia eo conridar^ 
able, being in CMst laroer than the diametar of the mooa itseli; it ie 
TeryapprMiableeTeamoomptfatit«]ycoaiaedbeer?atioiML It waa 

diacorered by obeerraticn by Ihrdio firahe^ hj y 

It would laed aa too fkr to andeaTOor to trace oat aay of the 
otiiar irregolsiitiee by which the motioa of the moon ie deraaged. 
We haTO takea the Tariation BMraly as sa illoatratioa of one oftha 
aaaieroaa coneotiona which the law of graTitatioa haa azplahied. 
The acoordaace whidi eabalsfea betweea uie Talaee of theee coneo- 
tiona aa oompated bv theory aad ae determiaed by obeerratifltt 
afforda the aioat ooociiiuIto eridenoe of the trath of tne law of naic 
TenalgmTitation. (a 8. E) 

QRAYTIY, Spjmna Bee HTDBODTyA]a<& 
GRAT, the chief town of an airondiMement in the 
dapaitoBMift of Hante-SaAne, is ntoated on the dedivitj of 
thin on tlie left bank of the Sadne, 37 mika aW. of 
TcMNil by nil Ita alreeto are naxtoir and ateep, but it 
rn M D Mi i a bioad and beantifdl qnaya, and the Ail^ dee 
(hpoeina la a flne promenada The pcinctpal bmldingpi aze 
Aa old eaatlo of tne doke of Boigoiuij, the ehordi in the 
rijie ol the Renalawneeb the eommnnal ooUege (with a 
Ebnry of 15,000 Tdamea and a nntnnl blatory mnaeom), 
tb flieatw, and die barraekL The town poaaeaiea yeiy 
kige ftonrmiHa, and among the other indoatiiea are ahip- 
bSding; dyeings tannings hairolodft-wenTtng^ plaateroaat- 
fag^ and the mannfaetiire of machineiy, ofla, and ataroh. 
Ibare ia abo a oonaideiahle trade in iron, oonit proviaioni^ 
i^ptehlea, wine^ and wood. The popdatioa in 1876 waa 
IW. G»y waa fonnded In the 7th centniy. Ita former 




defentiTe woriea were daaCroTed hy Lonia XIV. in 1688. 
During the Franoo-Pmiaian war General Ton Werder con- 
centrated hia army oorpe in the town, and held it for a 
month, making it the paini ifappmi of moTementa towarda 
Dqod and Lan^pea, aa weU aa towaida Beaan^on. 

GBAT, Datd (1838-1861), Scottiah poet, wu the aon 
of a hand-loom weaver, and waa bom at MerUand, a amall 
village on thebanka of the Loggie, ahont 8 mfleafrom Glaa- 
gow, Jannaiy 29, 1838. Hia parental ohserring hia fond- 
neaa for atody and hia exeeptiooal devemees, reoolved to 
edacate liim for the ehnroh, and through their aelf-denial 
and hia own ezertiona aa a pnpil teacher and private tator, 
he wu able, after reoeiviog the mdimenta of edacation al 
the pariah achool of Kirkintilloch, to oomplete a comae d 
four aeanona al the nnivecaity of Glaagow. It aoon, how> 
ever, became evident that the viaion of poetry and woild 
fame had began to lore him away from the prai which hia 
parenta' deauea had marked ont for Um. £Ba moat inti- 
mate companion at thia time waa Bobert Boehanani tne nov 



waU-known poei ; ftud in May 1860 the two agreed to pro- 
ceed to London, with the indefinite purpose of finding eome 
kind of employment in connexion with literature. Shortly 
after hb arri^ in London Gray introdnced himself to Mr 
Monckton Milnes, now Lord Houghton, with whom he had 
preyionsly corresponded, who^ though nnsuccessfnl in his 
application for a place for Gray's poem, ** The Luggie," in 
the CamMU Magatine, gave him some light literary work. 
He also showed him great attention when a cold which 
had seized him assumed the serious form of consumption, 
and procured him the means of staying for a time in the 
south of England ; but as the disease made rapid progress, 
an irresistible longing seised Gray to return to MerUand, 
where he arrived in January 1861, and died on the 3d 
December following, haying the day before had the gratifi- 
cation of seeing a printed specimen copy of his poem The 
Luffffie, He was buried in the Anld Aisle Churchyard, 
Ki^inttlloch, where in 1866 a monument was erected by 
'* friends far and near" to his memory. 

The Luggie, the principal poem of Gray, is a kind of 
reverie in which the scenes and eyents of his childhood and 
lus early aspirations are minded with the music of the 
stream wlilch he celebrates. The series of sonnets In the 
Shadoneef composed during the latter part of his illness, 
possess, without the smallest taint of morbidness, a touching 
and solemn beauty in keeping with the drcumstanoes in 
which they were written. Most of his poems necessarily 
bear traces of immaturity, and lines may frequently be 
found in them which are mere echoes from Thomson, 
Wordsworth, or Tennyson, but they possess, neyertheless, 
the distinct indiyiduality of true genius. They nearly all 
haye a direct or indirect reference to phases of outward 
nature, and they giye evidence of an underlying wealth of 
imagination and sentiment, of a true and vigorous power 
xA conception, and of a gift of dear and strong; yet subtle 
and tender, musical utterance, which apparently only 
requured to have been mellowed by time and experience in 
order to have fashioned a poetry which would nave given 
him an enduring name in English literature. 

Tkt LuggU and Uhw Poem$^ with an introduotion by B. Monoktoii 
Milnoa, and a brief memoir by Jamea Hedderwick, vaa publiahedin 
1862, and a new and enlorsed edition of Qray*! PoeUcaL JForJn, 
edited by the late Sheriff Olanford Bell, appeared in 1874. See 
■Im the " Essay on David Gray/' cnblished originally in OomhiU 
Magaxinef and reprinted ia David Gray and other Euajft, by Bobert 
Buchanan, 1868, and the poem on David Gray, reprinted therefrom 
Xdyli and Ligrnds qf InvHrbum, 

GBAT, John Edwabd (1800-1870), a distinguished 
English naturalist, bom at Walsall, Staffordshire^ in 1800, 
was the eldest of the three sons of Mr S. F. Gray, of that 
town, druggist and writer on botany, author of the Supple- 
ment to the Pharmaeopceia, ko,, and grandson of Mr S. 
Gray, who translated for I^e the PhUoeophia Botaniea of 
Linnaaus, and assisted in the;composltion of the IrUroduetum 
to Botany. Gray studied at 8t Bartholomew's and other 
hospitals for the medical profession, but was attracted to 
the more enlivening pursuit of botany, on which he wrote 
and lectured. At an early age he assisted lus father by 
collecting notes on botany and comparative anatomy and 
aoology in Sir Joseph Banks^s librory at the BritishMuseum, 
aided by Dr W. E. Leach, assistant-keeper. The systematic 
synopsis of the Natural ArrangemevU of BriiM-Planit^ 
S vok, 1821, was prepared by him, Ms father writing the 
preface and introduction only. This work, which introduced 
the natural system of plants on Jussieu's plan to the 
student of English botany, gave offence to the Linnean 
Society, who rqected Gra^s application for a fellowship in 
1822. C!hafed at this unmerited rebuff, he turned to the 
study of loology, writing on zoophytes, shells, MoiluecOf 
and PapUionidog, still aided by Dr Leach at the British 
JCnaeum.^ In December 1824 Gray obtained the post of 

assistant in that institution; and from that date to 
December 1839, when Mr J. G. Children retired from the 
keepership, he had so sealously applied himself to tlie study, 
classification, and improvement of the national collection of 
zoology that he was selected as the fittest person to be 
entrusted with its charge. Immediately on his appoint- 
ment as keeper, Gray took in hand the revision ci the 
qrstematic arrangement of the cottecdons ; scientific cata* 
lognes followed in rapid succession; the department was 
raised in importance; its poverty as well u its wealth 
became known, and whilst incrMsed grants, donations, 
and exchanges made good many deficiencies^ great nun- 
bers of students, foreign as well as English, avuled them- 
selves of its resources to enlarge the knowledge of aoology 
in all its branches. Gray found the representatives of 
the animal kingdom confusedly huddled together in old 
Montagu House; and the science of soology was just then 
emerging from infancy, with little public support to foster 
it. But, in spite of numerous obstacles^ he worked up the 
department, within a few yean of his appointment as 
keeper, to such a state of ezcellenee as* to maie it the 
rival of the cabinets of Leyden, Paris, and Berlin; and 
later on it was raised under his management to the dignity 
of the largest and moat complete zoological collection in 
the world. The extensive acquaintance which he had 
obtained with practical aoology, his love of the subject, 
dose application, and origiuarviewii^ his skill and accu- 
racy of observation, his readiness to impart the iuformii- 
tion he had acquired to any one who sought it^ and above 
all his marvellous industry, phico Gray in the foremost 
rank of naturalists. It haus oeen said that he tried to 
accomplish too .much, that he wrote hurriedly and paid 
little attention to anatomy; but it must be remembered 
that he laboured for the past generation, not among the 
one-subject men of the present age. He did his work 
nobly, thouffh somewhat roughly; and it will ever be 
appreciated by generous men of scienca His eagerness 
for controversy, and the outspoken plainness with which he 
asserted his views, sometimes brought him into unpleasant 
relations with those he had to do with. Of this the cata- 
logne dispute with Fenizzi, and the gorilla dispute with 
Dn Chaillu, Owen, and. others, are well-known instancesL 
Although seized with paralysis in 1870, Gray continued to 
discharge the functions of keeper of zoology, and to con- 
tribute papers to the AwmU of Natural Hittory^ his 
favourite journal, and to the transactions of a few of tho 
learned societies. At Christmas 1874, having completed 
half a century of official work, he resigned office; and on 
the 7th of Much 1875 this indefatigable naturalist expired. 

Gray was elacted a fellow of the Boval Society in 1888; in 1852 tbe 
honorary degree of doctor of philoaophv of the unireni^ of Munich 
was oouenM npon him, in reooigninon of hit fonnation of tho 
laraoet soologioal ooUection in Eorope ; and in 1860 the Ung of 
Wurtamberg; detiring to mark the estimation in which he held 
Gray, who utd declined an offer of knighthood, bestowed npon him 
the fl^ld medal of merit He was a proiident of the £ntomol<^ca1 
Society, vioe-pnaident of the Zoological and ICieroacoptoal Societies, 
fellow of the Oeogtaphieal and Palaontologioal Society, in the for- 
mation of which ha took pert; he was president of the Botanical 
Society, and also a feDow cl the Linnean and Geological Societies ; 
he founded the Greenwich Society of ITseAil Knowledge ; and he was 
an hononury or coiresponding member of nnmerons forsi^ societies 
and academiea He was depnty-chainnaa of the ssotion of the 
animal and vsgetable substances of the Exhibition of 1851, and a 
Juror of the educational section of the Exhibition of 1862. He took 
an active part in questions of public importsace of Us day, such os 
sUto emancipation, prison discipline, abolition of imprisonment for 
debti sanitaxy and mvnicipal organisation^ the decimal system, imb- 
lie education, eztensioa cil the opening of public institutions, &c. 

Worht. — Dr Gray oommenoed to publish in 1820, and contlauM 
till the year of his death. "E^hegiaiwiikuiBittorkalSkHehqfthi 
ImwovefMntt in CamparatiM AnaUmy and Zoology in 1819, and 
ended with a paper *' On the Madagascar RlTer-H^ (Potmeweharue), 
and Oil the akuDs of the three species of the genusL** Ann. N. M., 
XT., 1875L Ihe titles of the books, memoinb sod nisoeUaneooe 



putn wiittaa Inr liim» aooonpiiifed I7 ft Ibirxiotei, fiU » pvifitdy 
— ^'i list of 60 octaTO pogM*, The mora imporUnt of tha boolu, 

besides those elnady msationwl, an : — Sifncpn* of the apteiet pf ths 
dan JfeMMolta. 1§27 (Oriffith'g OttvUr, toL t.); JUudraliant (f 
/erftm loohgif, 2 rob.', 1880^6; A SffnopUM 9f th» ip$cU$ ^ tk$ 
dam BgplUia, 1830 ((Tuvin-, iz.); Zcoloffical MiiaodUmy^ 1881-46; 
Symfma Rcpliiiwn, 1881 ; A JkaeripiiM Catalogua of Moemtt and 
FbotU SIurL\ 1832 ; Tnrton*8 Manual ^ the Land and FrtahwaUr 
SkeOstflho Britiah Itianda (new ad.), 1840; Lid qfihe Hmeimau 
^Metmmalia l» th* Britiok Mumtm, 1843 ; Oaiaioguo af TorMoeo, 
kc, 1844; Syetamatio CkdaUtgm ef BritUk Land and Frakwtter 
Shelle, 1844 ; CataUgm of Speeimtno pf Lisarda, 1846; Otoaninge 
from the Menagerie and Aviarjf at KnowtUff Sail (superintended at 
the lequest of the late earl of Derby), 1846-60 ; Lidqfthe genera 
^recent MoUiaea, 1847; Lid of (kteoiogioal Sjioeimmu, 1847, if 
Briiiah Spongea, Jtadiaiad Animala iOentroniea), ifBraiahJUuUata, 
Mpaxmte, 1848; CaiaJogua of Moiluaoa, 1840-60: Catalogue if Jtep- 
da iSnakea), 1840; Catoiogua </ Fiah {Chondroptarggia), 1860; 
Ctttaiogua of Mammalia {JBdaoaa, Seals, Bo^ed Quadrupedal 1860- 
1852; OataUoguaqfAynphibia, 1860; Caialogua of Bivalve Motluaea, 
1850^63; Liat of liah (OartOaginoHa), of BrUiah Fiah, sapaimte, 
IftSl; Liat qfBrUiah MoUuaea and Shalla, 1861; Catalogue ^ JSehi- 
vHn or Saa-Sgga, 1861 ; Catalogua of Pkanaraniaumona (with L. 
Pfeiffer), 1862; Oaiaicgua if FiA eolleded and daaerpted Vg L. T. 
QroMO, 1864; Catalogua of Shield RaplUea, 1866-72; Cakdogue if 
Oa raeani Behtnida, 1866 ; Catalogua of Pulmmaia (with L. 
Pfeiffer), 1865 ; 0uida to the eoOaeUon if MoUuaea, 1860 ; Catalogue 
f Apodal Fiah, 6y VrJ, /. Xdup, tranaUtcd and edited by Gray, 
1856; Catalogua ^ AuHeulidaa, 1867; Sgatomatie aarangamant if 
iptrea if Oonehifera and Braehiopoiia, 1867; Liat if Molluaea, 
1458; handbook if BritiA WaUrwaeda, or Algea (with W. Car- 
ratliers), 1861 ; Salbbury'a Oemra if Planta, edited by Gray, 1866 ; 
Catalogua if Seala and Whalea. 1866-71; Sypospoia of Spoeiea ^ 
^HarfiA, 1866 ; Sgnopaia of apedaa if Whalea and Dolphina, 1868 ; 
Catalogua if Camiooroua, AiehgiUnnatoua, and Sdintate Mam- 
malia, 1860 ; Catalogua of Monkaya, Lamura, and F^it-aating Bate, 
1870 ; TorUriaaa, Ttrrapina, and Turflaa, 1872 (recited); Memd- 
Ud ^ Seala, Maraea, Saa-Liona, and Saa-Beara, 1874. 

GBA7, Thomah (1716-1771), the antlior of the eele- 
bnted Sleffp wriitm in a Country Churehyard, wu bora in 
OornhiU, IJondox^ December 26, 1716. His father, Philip 
Gray, an exefaange broker and seriTener, wee a wealthy and 
aominally respectable citisen; but be treated his fomily 
with brutnl severity and neglect, and the poet was alto- 
gether indebted for the advantages of a learned edncation 
to the affectionate care and industry of his mother, whose 
maiden name was Antrobns, and who^ in eoigunction with 
I maiden sister, kept a millinery shop. A brother of Mrs 
v}ray was assistant to the master of Eton, and was also a 
VUow of Pembroke College, Oambridge. Under his pro- 
tection the poet was educated at Eton, atfd thence went to 
Peterhottse, Cambridge, attending college from 1734 to Sep- 
tember 173S. At Eton he had as contemporaries Richard 
West, son of the lord chaneellor of Ireland, and Horace 
Walpole, son of the triumphant Whig minister, Sir Robert 
Walpole. West died early ui Ids 26Si year, bnt his genius 
md virtues and his sorrows will for ever live in the corre- 
■pondenee of his friend. In the spring of 17d9 Gray was 
invited bj Homes Walpole to accompany him as travelling 
companion in a tour through France and Italy. They made 
the usual tour, and Cray wrote remarks on all he saw in 
Florence, Rome, iCaples, &c His observations on arts and 
iDtiqnities, and his sketches of foreign manners, evince his 
idmirable taste, learning, and discrimination. Since Milton, 
no such accomplished English traveller had visited those 
daasic shores. In their jenraey through Dauphin^ Gray's 
ittention was strongly arrested oy the wild and picturesque 
Bte of the Grande Chartreuse, surrounded by its dense 
forestikof beech ,and fir, its enormous precipices, cUfSi, and 
cascades. He visited it a second time on his return, and 
in the albnm of the mountaui convent he wrote his famous 
Alcaic Ode. At Reggio the traveUere quarrelled and parted. 
Walpole took the whole blame on himself. He was fond 
of pleasnn and amusements, ''intozieated by vani^, indnlg- 
enee^ and the iniolenoe of his situation as a prime minister's 
«»,*<— hit own confession, — while Gray was studious, of a 
Nrions disposition, and independent spirit The immediate 

canse of the rapture is said to have been Walpole's dsD- 
dtetinely opening, reading, and resealing a letter addreesed 
to Gray, in which he expected to find a confirmation of his 
suspicions that Gray had been writing unfavourably of him 
to some friends in England. A partial reconciliation was 
effected about three years afterwards by the intervention 
of a lady, and Widpole redeemed his youthful error by a 
life4ong sincere admiration and respect for hb friend. From 
Reggio Gray proceeded to Venice, and thence travelled home- 
wards, attended by a laquma dt wpage. He arrived in 
England in September 1741, having been absent about two 
yeaiB and a half. His father died in November, and it was 
found that the poet's fortune would not enable him ti» 
prosecute the study of the law. He therefore retired to 
Cambridge, and fixed his residence at the university. 
There he continued for the remainder of his life, with the 
exception of about two years spent in London, when the 
treasures of the BriUsh Museum were thrown open. At 
Cambridge he had the range of noble libraries. Uis happi- 
neas conusted in study, and he perused with critical atten 
tion the Greek and Roman poets, philosopher^ historians, 
and orators. Plato and the Antkologia he read and anno- 
tated with great care, as if for publication. He compiled 
tables of Greek chronology, added notes to Linnsus and 
other naturalists, wrote geographical disquisitions on Strabo, 
and, besides being familiar with Franch and Italian litera- 
ture, was a nalous archsologicol student, and profoundly 
versed In architecture, botsny, painting, aiwL music In 
all departments of human learning, excepting mathematice^ 
he was a master. But it follows that one so studious, so 
critical, and so fastidious could not be a volnminous writer. 
A few poems include all the original compositions of Gray — 
the quinteseence, as It were, of thirty yean of ceaseless 
study and contemplation, irradiated hj bright and fitful 
gleams of inspiration. In 1742 Gray composed his Odt to 
Spring^ his -Ods on a Diatant Protpect of JBton College, and 
his Odo to Advernip, — ^productions which mcst readera of 
poetry can rapeat from memory. He commenced a didacUc 
poem, On the Attianee of Education and Government, but 
wrote only about a hundred linea Every reader must 
regret that this phUosophical poem is but a fragment It 
is in the style and measure of Diyden, of whom Gray was 
an ardent admirer and close student His Xfegp written in 
a Countrp Churekpard wu completed and published in 
1751. In the form of a sixpenny brochure it circulated 
rapidly, four editions being exhausted the fint year, and 
witliitt the same period it also appeared in three maga- 
sines — ^the Maganne of Magatinea for February, the London 
MagwXne for March, and the Orand Magazine ef Maganme 
tot April This popularity surprised tiie poet He said 
sarcastically that It was owing entirely to the subject, and 
tiiat the public would have received it as well if it had been 
written in prose. The solemn and affecting nature of the 
poem, applicable to all ranks and classes, no doubt aided ita 
sale ; it required high poetic sensibility and a cultivated 
taste to appreciate the rapid transitions, the figurative 
language, and lyrical magnificence of the odes; but the 
elegy went home to all hearts ; while its musical hannony, 
originality, and pathetic train of sentiment and feeling 
render it one of the moat perfect of English poems. No 
vicissitudes of taste or fsshion have affected its popularity. 
When the ori^;inal manuscript of the poem was offered for 
sale in 1854, it brought the almost incredible sum of £131. 
The two great odes of Gray, the Frogreee of Poetry and Tkr 
Bard, were pnblbhed in 1757, and were but coldly received. 
His name, however, stood high, and« on the death of Gibber 
the same year, he was offered the laureateship, whidi he 
wisely dedined. He was ambitious, however, of obtaining 
the more congenial and dignified appointment of professor 
of modem lustoiy in the muTeni^ ol Cunbridg^ which 


G R A — G R A 

fell TBOiaft in 1763, and, by the adyioe of bis friends, he 
made application to Lord Bute, but was nnsacoeflifiiL Lord 
Bate 2iad designed it for the tutor of his son-in-law, &x 
James Lowther. No one had heard of the totor, but the 
Bote infloenoe'was all-prevailing. Li 1765 Qraytook a 
joomey into Scotland, penetrating as far north as Dnnkeld 
and the Baas of KilUecrankie : and his account of his tour, 
in letters to his friends, is replete with interest and with 
tonches of his peculiar humour and gn^hie description. 
One other poem proceeded from his pen. In 1768 the 
prof eworship of modern history was again vacant^ and the 
duke of Gr^ton bestowed it upon Gray. A sum of JC400 
per annum was thus added to his income .: but his health 
was precarious — ^he had lost it, he said, just when he began 
to be easy in his circumstances. The nominadoa of the 
duke cl Grafton to the office of chancellor of the nniyersity 
enabled Gray to acknowledge the favour conferred on him- 
selL He thought it better that gratitude should sing than 
expectation, and he honoured bis grace's installation with 
an ode. 8noh occasional productions ar^ seldom happy; 
but Gray preserved his poetic dignity and select beauty 
of expression. He made the founders of Cambridge, as 
Mr Hallam has remarked, ''pass before our eyes like 
shadows over a magic gUuHL" When the ceremony of the 
installation was over, the poet-profeasor went on a tour to 
the lakes of Cumberland and Westmoreland, and few of the 
beanties of the lake-country, since so famous, escaped his 
observation. This was to be his last .excursion. While at 
dinner one day in the college-hall he was seised with an 
attack of gout in lus stomach, which resisted all the powers 
of medicine^ and proved fatal in less than a week. He died 
on the 30th of July 1771, and was buried, according to his 
own desire^ beside the remains of his mother at Stoke Pogis, 
near though in Buckinghamshire, in a beautiful sequestered 
village churchyard that is supposed to have furnished the 
scene of his elegy.^ 

The literary habits and personal peculiarities of Gray 
are fiimiliar to us from the numerous representations and 
allusions of his friends. It is easy to fancy the reduse 
poet ^tting in his eoUege-chambets in the old quadrangle 
of P^broke HalL Wm windows are ornamented with 
mignonette and choice flowers in China vasee^ but outside 
may be discerned some iron-work- intended to be service- 
able as a fire«scape, for he has a horror of fire. His 
furniture ie neat and select ; his books, rather for use than 
show, are disposed around him. He has a harpsichord in 
the room. In a comer of one of the apartments is a trunk 
containing his deceased mother's dressee^ carefully folded 
up and preserved. His fastidionsneae, bordering upon 
effeminacy, is visible in his gait and manner, — ^in his himd- 
some features and small weH-dresaed person, especially when 
he waUcB abroad and sinks the author and hard student in 

1 A oUim ^M been pat np for the chorobyaxd of Onurdieeter, about 
two nflee from Cambridge, the great bell of 8t Hut*! eenring for the 
** enrfew.** Bat Stoke Poigia is more likely to have been the ipot, if 
•ay indiTldaal locality were indicated. The poet often ridted the 
▼iUage, Ua aont and mother residing fherei and hii aont was intetred 
In the ohniohyaxd of the place. Oray's epitaph on hii mother is 
diuaeterised, not only by the tenderness with which he always rsgarded 
her memory, bat by his style and east of thon^t. It rans thns :— 
*' Beside her friend and sister hers sleep the remains of Dorothy Oray» 
widow, the carefhl tender mother of many ehildrsn, one of whom 
alone had the misfortane to sorvive her. She died Ifarch ll, 1758, 
aged 72." She had lived to read the Xleg^t which was perhaps an 
ample recompense for her maternal cares and afTeotion. Mrs Oray's 
will commences in a similar tonching strain :-^** In the name of Ood, 
men. This is the last will and desire of Dorothy Gray to her eon 
Thomas Gray." They were all in aU to each other. The fkthex's croelty 
and neglect, their straitened dreomstanoes, the jaeriAces made by the 
mother to mtlntfti" her son at the anirersity, her pride in the talente 
and oondact of ihat son, and the inereasiag gratitade and aiEsetica of 
the latter, nuted in liiM aeholastio and doistered sdlitads— thMO fonn 
n ifl!»eting but ]i9bl« r^oofd fa th« hiitory of genios. 

'* the gentlemaa who MmettoiM wifles f or hbi 
He writes always with a crow quiD, speaks sbwlj and 
sen t en t i o osly, and ahnns the orew of dissonant college le- 
yellera who call him **m pri^" and seek to annoy him. 
Long mornings of study, and nights feverish from ill-bealtli, 
are spent in those chambers; he is often lisUees and in low 
spirite ; yet his natural temper ia not desponding, and ha 
delights in empbyment He has always something to learn 
or to communicate^ some sally of humour or quiet stroke 
of satire for his friends and correspondents, some note on 
natural history to enter in his journal, some passage of 
Plato to unfold and Ulustiate, some golden thought d 
classic inspiration to inlay on his page, some bold image 
to tone down, some verse to retouch and harmonise His 
life is on the whole innocent and happy, and a feeling ci 
thankfulness to the Great Oiver is breathed over alL 

Tario^ qditfont of the oolleeted works of Orav have be«i pub- 
liahed The fiist^ Iwftlndinjg meBtoiis of his uifo and hia coire- 
Bpoudanc^ edited by hia friend, the Bot. W. Haaon, appeared in 
1776. It haa been often reprinted, ana forma the groundwork of 
the ^amoTii hj Mathiaa (l^U) and lUtfoid (1816}. Mr Hitfoid, 
in 1S43» pubbUied GraVa oorreqwndenoe with toe Rev. Norton 
NicbclK aod in 1854 hie oorteepondenoe with Maaon, from which 
Maioa had made onlv a partial aelection in bis niemoira of Gray. 
A eecood cdltjan of the oone^Kmdenoe with additional notea was 
paUuhpd ID ia55.< (B. CA.) 

QEAYLING (Thymaaut) are fishes belonging to the 
fomily of Salmonida, which resemble the vendace and 
gwyniad (floregonuij in having scales of considerable size^ 
and a narrow mouth with very small toetL They are dis- 
tinguished by their large, wing-like, dorsd fin. GNily a few 
species are Imown, which inhabit dear streams of the north 
of Europe, Asia, and North America. The best known are 
the "Foisson bleu" of the Oanadian voyageurs, and the 
European species, Thymailtu vulgam (the A$ek or Ae$dke 
of Qermany, Ombre of France, and Tem^ of Upper Italy). 
This latter species is esteemed on account of its sgreeaUe 
colours (especially of the dorsal fin), its well-flavound flesh, 
and the sport it affords to angfers. It is very fastidious in 
the choice of the rivers it inhabits. In En^and it ia 
found in the Test^ the Avon, the Dove, the Lug, the Wye, 
the Irvon, the Teme, the Clun, the Hodder, the Trent, the 
Dee, the Wiske, the Wharfe, the Ure, the BXbhU, and the 
Derwent; but it is not found either in Scotland or in Ireland. 
It is more generally distributed in Scandinavia and Russia, 
and the mountain streams of central Europe southwaids to 
the Alpine waters of Upper Italy. Specimens attaining to 
a weight of four pounds are very scarce. See Ioethtoloot. 

GRAZALEMA ^the Roman LaeididermMim)^ a town of 
Spain, in the pnmnce of Oadis^ is situated on the great 
road from Cadis to Ronda, 60 miles E.N.E. of Cadis. It 
stands in a very strong position on a rocky hill, and to 
capture it WM reckoned one of the chief feats of the «fA>'^MM{i> 
Rodrigo Ponce de Leon. It possesses three hermitages, a 
parish church, and a convent The manufactures are dbiefly 
woollen, linen, leather, and soap, and there is considerable 
trade in sheep and swine from the neighbouring sierra of 
the same name. Inscriptions and other Roman antiquities 
still ezlBt in the town. The population is about 6000. 

GRAZZIKI, AiiTONr&AKCBBCo (1503-1683), an Italian 
author, was bom at Florence, Mardi 22, 1503, of good 
f unily both by his father's and mother'a side. Of his 

Cuth and education all record appeara to be lost^ but 
probably began early to practise aa an apothecary. In 
1540 he was one of the founders of the Atedemy of the 
Humid (degli Umidi), and about forty-two years afterwards 
he took a prominent part in the formial establishment of the 
more famous Accadeoiia della Crusca. In both societies he 

* A Tolnme of the original SBtograph Uttan of Gray ead r sMs d to 
Dr Thomas Wharton, fellow of Pamtaroka Ball, CaBMdfs^ Md 
Utterly of London and Old Paik, near Dtriiu^on, was added fa 1377 
to tba Bgerton lihrary of maansoripte ia tha Bnttih Vnsasai, 

G R E>-G R E 


WB8 known as 77 Za$ca or X^v^m^im, tnd ihiB pBendonym is 
Btill frequently sabetituted for his proper name. His temper 
was what the French happilj call a difficnlt one^ and his 
life was consequently enliTened or disturbed by various 
literary quarrels. Hjs Humid brethren went so far as to 
expel him for a time from the society, — the chief ground 
of offence being apparently his ruthless criticism of the 
** Arameansy" a party of the academicians who maintained 
that the Florentine or Tuscan tongue was derived from the 
Hebrew, the Chaldee, or some other branch of the Semitic. 
He was readmitted in 1066, when his friend Salmti was 
« consul" of the academy. His death took place on 
February 18, 1583. H Lasca ranks as one of Uie great 
masters of Tuscan prose. His style is copious and fle^e : 
abundantly idiomatic^ but without any affectation of being 
to, it carries with it the force and f'^slinoss of popular 
q>eech, while it lacks not at the same time a flayour of 
scodemie culture. His priDcipal works are Le CeM, a col- 
lection of stories in the manner of Boccaccio, and a number 
of prose ccmiedies, La Gelotia^ La Spiritata, I Paretitadi, 
La Arenga^ La SibiUa, La Fimoehera, L*Artiffogolo, The 
itoriee^ l&ough of no special merit as far u the plots are 
ooQcerned, are told with Terre and interest A number 
of miscellaneous poems, a few letters, and JToiir Orations 
to tk$ Cross complete the list of Granini's extant worka 

He abo edited the vorics of Ber&i, and eollectad TutU i TrionJl, 
Larri, MatAeraU, s Canii Canuueiakuekit andaHper Fimm dal 
ItM^ del mamiifiM Lcrtiao i/i Msdiei JIno alV muM 1559. In 
1M8 Adamo Boi^ paUiahcd in hit Riccnhs v€r U HbiiUteh* di 
Arnfia three '* noTelle " Ij Granini, from a 1I& of the 16th cen- 
tuy in tha " Comunale " of Pern^a ; and in 1870 a small eoUeo- 
tion of thoae poems which hare Men left unpobliahed by prerioos 
•diton appeand at Pcggibonsi, Aleunt poetu inedite. See Pietro 
Fui&ai*8^'Yits ddLaae%''pidixed to his edition of the C^wv«U 
A, Oramni, flonnoe, 1857. 

EnroDOX or, has been since January 1, 1801, the oflkial 
title of the poUtical unity composed of England, Scotland, 
and Ireland. Great Britain was employed as a formal 
designation from the time of the. union of the kingdoms of 
England and Scotland in 1707. Although the name 
(which apparently had its origin in Britannia Migor, the 
name giyen to the island to. &tinguiBh it from ^ritumia 
Minor or Brittany) had, in earlier times, been often used 
both by English and by foreign writers, especially for 
dstorical and poetical purposes, it was not tUl after the 
secession of James L that it became a recognized part 
of the royal s^le. Its adoption was due to the king him- 
self, who was anxious to give egression to the fact that 
he was sovereign of the undiyided island, and not only 
of England or Scotland. As early as 1609 the Scottish 
Congregation had formally proposed through MaiUand the 
union of the two crowns, and Uie adoption of the name of 
Great Britain for the common country (Tenlet, i, ''M^m. 
Cailld ULMothe," Dec. 20). But in En^d the 
innovation at first met with great opposition. Various 
objections, sentimental and practical, were nrged against it 
in parliament ; and the judges, when appealed to by the 
king, declared that the adoption of the title would inyali- 
date all legal processes. At length, on the 20th October 
1604, the king, weaxr of the discussion, cut the knot by 
sssuming the title by royal proclamation, and in dua 
course the inscription **J. D. G. Hag Brit F. et H. Rex'' 
appeared on lus coins. The proclamation declared that 
Great Britain was ** the true and ancient name which God 
and time have imposed upon this He, e^^nt and received 
in hirtoriee^ in all mappes and cartes wherein this tie is 
described, and in ordinary letters to ourselfe frotn divers 
foreign princes, warranted also by authentical charters, 
•lemplifications under seals, and other records of great 
aatiquikiei'' In November 1604 we find the king in- 
stmoting the Lords Oommissionen of the Gunpowder Plot 

to try and discover if the prisoner was the author of a most 
"cruel pasquil" against him for assuming the name of 
Britain. For further details see Calendar oj Stats Papers^ 
Domestic Series, and Spedding, Letters and L\fe of Lord 
Bacofi, vol ill 

GREAVES, Jomr (1602-1602), a mathematician and 
antiquary, was the eldest son of John Greaves, rector cf 
Cdemore, near ' Alresford in Hampshire, and was bom in 
1602. He was educated at Balliol College, Oxford, and in 
1630 was chosen professor of geometry in Gresham OoUese^ 
London. After traveUing in Europe, he in 1 637 visited Uie 
East, where he collected a considerable number of Arabic, 
Persic, and Greek manuscripts, and m&de a more accurate 
survey of the pyramids of Egypt than any travdler who had 
preceded him. On his return to Europe he visited a second 
time several parts of Italv, and during hb stay at Rome 
instituted inquiries into the ancient weights and measureiL 
Soon after his arrival in England, he was appointed to the 
SavOian profesMnship of astronomy at Oxford, but he was 
deprived of his Gresham professondiip for having neglected 
its duties. In 1648 he lost both his fellowship and his 
Savilian chair on account of hiB adherence to the royalist 
party. But his private fortune more than sufficed for all 
his wants till his death in 1652. 

Beddes his paper* in the FkUosofkieaX TnmsBdiomM, the prin- 
cipal works of Oreavea are Pyramidogn^a^ or a DmtrifUen ^ (hs 
Piframids in Egjfpt, 1946 ; A Diseowrm on the Jtowum Foot mtd 

Zknarius, 1649; and JSlementa Ungum Persiees, 1649. HIa mla- 

cellaneooa worka were pnbliahed in 1787 by Dr 

biographical notice of tbe »itbor. See alao Smith'a FUd ptonm" 

Birch, with a 

• r 

dam srudiL winnm, and Ward'a Grsskam Pr^mon, 

GREBE (French Chribe), the generallv accepted name 
for all the birds of the Family Podieipeduks,^ belonging to 
the group J^gopodes of Hliger, members of which inhabit 
almost all ptrtB of the worid. Some syitomatio writers have 

Great Created Grabei 

distributed them Into several so-called genera, but, wiih ont 
exoeption, these seem to be insufficiently defined, and here 
it will be enough to allow but two— Latham'a Podieeps and 
the Centropdfma of Messrs Sclater and Salvia Grebes are 
at once distinguiahable from all other Water-birds by their 

* Often, bat -ezToaeoiuIf, written PodidpidtB, Tbe word Podietps 
being a oontracted fonn of Podieipts (^. Glogar, Jcmnudfia' On^ 
tMoffis, 1854, p.'4S0, note), a comUnatian oipodix, podidt, and jmi^ 
psdis, iti fartblr compoonda moat be in aocordaoei with tta dariTatMy 



Teiy short body, and the pecnliar BferiieKire of thoir feet^ 
wbioh are not only placed far behind, bat have the tarsi flat- 
tened and elongated toes famished with bitnid lobes of skin. 
In Earope we hare flre well-maiked species of Podieepi, 
the commonest and smallest of which is tlie very well-known 
Dabchick of oar ponds, P.fluviaHliiOfminor, the Little 
Qrebe of omithologistB, foimd throoghoat the British 
Islands, and with a wide range in the Old World. Next 
la size are two species known as the Eared and Homed 
Grebes, the former of which, P. nxgricoUia^ is a visitor from 
the sonth, only oocasionaUy showing itself in Britain, while 
the latter, P. auritut, has a more northern range, breeding 
plentifnlly in Iceland, and is a not nncommon winter- 
visitant Then there is the larger Bed-necked Qrebe, P, 
ffritei^ena, also a northern bird, and a native of the snbarctic 
parts of both Europe and America, while lastly the Qreat 
Crested Qrebe, P, erisUUus, or Qannt — known as the Loon 
on the meres and broads of East Anglia, and some other 
parts of England, is also widely spread over both Worlds, 
and thongh apparently not found within the tropics, is 
known in the eitreme soath as a native of Anstralla and 
New Zealand. North America is credited with seven 
species of Qrebes, of wliich three (P. €rutatu$, P, griaeigena^ 
and P. aurUm) tat admitted to be specifically inseparable 
from those already named, and two (P, occidental^ and P. 
eodi/ornieui^ appear to be but local forms ; the remaining 
two (P. dominiem and P. ludoviciannt) may, however, 1m 
accounted good species, and the last differs so much from 
other Qrebes that many systematists make it the type of a 
distinct genns, Podilymbui. South America seems to 
possess four or five more species, one of which, the P. 
mieropUnu of Mr Qould (Proo, ZooL Society, 1858, ^ 
.220), has been deservedly separated from the genus 
Podicepe by Messis Sclater and Salvin (ExoL OmitKology, 
pi 189, pL zcv.), owmg to the form of its bill, and the 
aborted condition of its wings, which seem to render it 
absolutely fiightless. Lake Titicaca in Bolivia is, so far as 
is known at present, its only habitat Qrebes in general, 
though averse from taking wing, have much greater power 
of flight than would seem possible on examination of their 
alar organs^ and are capable of prolonged aerial journeys. 
Their plumsge is short and dose. Above it is commonly 
of some shade of brown, but beneath it is invariably white, 
and so glossy as to be in much request for muffii and the 
trimming of ladies' dressesi Some species are remarkable for 
the crests or tippets, generally of a golden-chestnut colour, 
they assume in the breeding season. P. auritue is particu- 
larly remarkable in this respect, and when in its full nuptial 
attire presents an eztraordinary aspect, the head (being 

surrounded, as it were, by a nxaJlnu or anreole, such u tbaft 
with which painters adom saintly characters), reflectmg tlie 
rays of light, glitters with a glory that peases description. 
All the species seem to have similar habits of nidificatioiL 
Water-weeds are pulled from the bottom of the pool, and 
piled on a convenient f oundatbn, often a seminatant growtli 
of bog-bean {Me»yanthe9\ till Uiey form a large mass^ in 
the centre of whidi a shallow cup is formed, and the eggs, 
with a chalky white shell almost equally pointed at each 
end, are laid — the parent covering them, whenever she baa 
time to do so^ before leaving the nest Toung Qrebes are 
beautiful objects, clothed wi&i blade, white, and brown hair, 
disposed in streaks, and their bill often brillianUy tinted 
with orange or yellow. When taken from the nest and 
placed on dry ground, it b curious to observe the way in 
which they progress—using the wings almost as fore-feet, 
and suggesting the notion that they must be quadrapeds 
instead of birds. In water, however, they equal if not 
surpass their parents in the power of divings which is a 
special accomplishment of all Qrebca. (jl k.) 

QBECO, El. Domenico Theotocopuli, commonly caued 
El Qreco^ was a native of Qreece, where he was bom about 
the year 1545. He appears to have studied art at Venice, 
where it is alleged that Titian was liis master. The 
date of his remo^ to Spain is unknown; but in 1577 we 
find him at Toledo, engaged on one of his most admired 
paintings, that on the parting cf the raiment of Jesna. 
Until now he had been content to follow closely in the 
footsteps of the Venetian school, and he is generally ad- 
mitted in his earlier works frequently to have approached 
the style of some of its best representatives ; but in 1579, 
having been summoned, along with other artists of repute^ 
by Philip n. to contribute to the decoration of the Esooria^ 
he began to aim at greater originality of style with veiy 
unfortunate results. The first work in his new manner, 
having for its subject the martyrdom of St Maurice^ was 
executed in 1579 ; in this, u in all his subsequent produo- 
tions, a dull ashen monot(niy of colour combines with stiif 
and unnatural drawing to produce an effect which is at no 
time very pleasant, and is sometimes absolntely repukivei 
El Qreco, however, continued to be held in considerable 
repute in the peninsula ; sonnets in his honour are to be 
found in the writmgs botii of Qongora and Fsllavidno; and 
he became the founder of a school in which msny ii the 
disciples excelled their master. He practised sculpture and 
architecture as well m paintings and is said by Fbcheco (o 
have written with great learning and ability upon all these 
arts ; none of his books, however, have eome down to oar 
Ho died at Toledo in 1625. 



GREECE is aEaropean kingdom, occupying the southern 
portion of the most easterly of the ^ree peninsulas 
which Europe projects into the Mediterranean. By its own 
inhabitants it is called Hellas, as it was also m antiquity, 
and the name Qreece, by which in one form or other it ii 
known in most European languages, was given to it by the 
Bomans, snd was not used by any Qreek writer, so far as 
we know, before Aristotle. Why the Bcnnans called it so 
is an obscure point, but the most probable and osually 
accepted explanation is that they gained their first knowledge 
of this country from a tribe in the north-west of Qreece who 
were called Qneci (TDoutoQ, and that th^ accordingly gave 
the nams of that trioe to the whole country. The name 
Qreece or Hellas has been aj^ed at diffinent times to 
territory of widely different extent At first HeDas denoted 

nothmg but the spot in Thessaly where the tribe of 
Hellenes dwelt^ and in kter times, after Philip <tf Maoedon 
obtained a seat at the Amphictyonio council, it meant the 
whole peninsula south of the Balkan mountains ^ssmus) 
including Macedonia and Thrace ; bat at the period of ita 
greatest distinction it exdnded these two regions, and was 
restricted to the part of the peninsula to the south of the 
Cambunian range and the islands of the surrounding seas; 
Its ancient limits, however, cannot be rigidly defined, for 
(1) iti northem fimntier seems never to have been precisely 
settled, soxne writers exduding Thessaly which was genersllly 
taken in, and others indudbg part of E^plma which was 
generally left out ; and (2) the name HelliM expressed not 
so much a ge<^graphical as an ethnological tmity. Jt was 
the oonntiy of the HeUenss. Wherever Gredoi aeltled, 

vol v/. 









/^ Longitiuie,^ h 



fsnrciL WEAmxH 

G R E E E 


then was Hellas, and a Greek eolot/ in Sicily or Africa 
was thought to participate as essentially in aU that con- 
skitated HeUaa as either Attica or Laoed«inon. 8tiU the 
oaxDe was nsnally implied to the land which formed the 
geographical centre of the race, of which the greateet length 
was 250 miles and the greatest breadth 180, and which 
had an area, ezdnsive of £pims (4690 square miles) bat 
iodading Enbosa (1410 aqnare miles), of Sl,121 square 
miles. This territory comprised (1) 'Northern Greece, all 
north of the Maliac (Zeitoum) and Ambradan (Aria) Gulfs ; 
(2) Central Greece, extending from these gulfs to the 
isUunns of Oorinth ; (S) the peninsula of the Pel<nK>nnesus 
(Mores) to the soutli of the isthmus ; (4) the following 
iilonds, — ^Euboea (Negropont) in the eas^ the Ionian lalandbi 
in the Ionian Sea on the west| Crete and Qyprus in the 
Boutli, and the Cydades and Sporades across the month 
of the .£gean from the south-east headlands of Attica and 
Enhoeo. Continental Greece — 1.<:, all the country now 
specified, ezdusiTe of the islands — conrists of a series of 
natural cantons^ hedged from one another and from the 
eater world by mountain ranges from 0000 to 8000 feet 
high, and so was almost by a phTsieal necessity occupied 
ia the times of its ancient political independence by seven- 
teea separate states, none of which was larger than an 
ordinaiy Engliah county. The whole eight states of the 
Peloponnesus covered lees area than York and Lancaster 
together; and Attica, the most celebrated state of antiquity, 
waa less than Cornwall. These states^ which are noticed 
separately under the special headings, were— Theesaly in 
North Greece ; Acamania, JStolia, Locris, Doris, Fhocia, 
Megaris, Boeotia, and Attica in Centnd Greece; and 
Oorinthia, Sicyonia, Achaia, Elis, Messenia, Laconia, 
Aigolis, and Arcadia in the Pdoponnesns. / 

Modem Greece is of smaller extent, and its limits are 
strictly determined by the arrangement between Great 
Britain, France, Russia, and Turkey, concluded at Con- 
stantinople on the Slst [9th] July 1832, which finally 
settled the question of frontier between Greece and Turkey. 
It left to Turkey the fertile Greek-speaking prorinoe of 
Thesaaly and part of Acarnanio, and fixed the northern 
boundary of Greece at a line running from the Gulf of Arta 
(Sinus Anbracius) to the Gulf of Yolo (S. Pagasiaus), keep- 
ing along the crest of the Othrys mountain raiige. The pass 
of Khlomo was to belong entirely to Greece, and the fort 
of Punta (Actium) at the southern head of the Gulf of Arta 
was to continue to belong to Turkey, though Greek Tessels 
were required to have free entry into the gdf.' The 
Ionian islands, consuting of Corfu (Coroyra), Paio (Ffeucoe), 
SanU Maura (Leucas), Cephalonia, Thiake (Ithaca^ and 
Zante (Zacynthus) on the west coast of Greece, and 
Cerigo (Cythera) on the south, which had remained under 
British protectorate for 50 yeara» were Toluntarily ceded 
by Britain to Greece in 1864, after tlie accession of king 
George. Modem Greece ia not man than two-thirds the 
aise of Sootlaud; it is 200 miles long from north to 
south, and 180 broad from east to west, and has an entire 
area of 19,853 square miles, of which 8288 square miles 
are in the Morea, 7558 in the northern part of continental 
Greece, 2500 in the ialanda of the uEgean, and 1007 in 
the Ionian Islands. 

Its most obvious geographical peculiarity is its remark- 
able richness in mountuns, baysy and islands^ which give 
it unexampled natural defences, unusual maritime ffidli- 
ties, and quite a peeuUar Tariety of dimate^ Tegetationi and 
scenery. In this respect it but gathers into asmaller page 
and expresses in diatincter type the stroetnral pecuUaritiee 
of the continent to which it belongs. In the complexity 
of its make and the variety of its natural features Greece 
exeals every country of Europe, as Europe exceb every 
«finti«ffft of the world. No part of Greece is 40 miles 

from the sea or 10 from the hills. Though not inudi more 
than half the sixe of Portugal, it has a coast-line greater 
than that of Spain and Portugal together, and that coast- 
line is broken everywhere into all manner of gulfs, and bays,' 
and inlets, affordmg a rich supply of good natural liarbours. 
The country ia divided by its mountain chains into a num] 
ber of independent parts, the capture of one of which 
by an enemy ia but a single step towards possession of 
the whole. The small basins of arable land Mtween these' 
hills maintained comparatively isolated populations, on ao-' 
count of the difficulty of inland intercommunication, and 
natnraUy developed that individuality of character, that local 
patriotism, and that political independence, which marked 
the ancient Greek communities. And the great variety of 
pursuit^ interest, and stimulus which the geographical fea- 
tures of the country created could not fail to conduce to the 
uncommon mental vigour, quickness, and versatility wbicli 
the people exhibited. The Greeks therefore owed their great- 
ness Urgely to the country it was their fortune to dwell in. 
The ruling feature in the mountain system of ancient 
Greece — and, to a certain extent, in modem Greece also— ia 
the great chain of Pindns, which takes its rise in the Balkans 
(HaamusX *i>d<mns like a backbone through the entire 
length of the norther^ half of the peninsula, throwing out 
various branches to the east and the west on its way. At 
about 40* N. lat the Cambunians leave it and go east, 
forming the boundaiy between Macedonia (Roumelia) and 
Thessaly, and as they approach die coast they turn in 
a Boutherly direction at the lofty and famous Mount 
Olympus, the highest mountain in ancient Greece, and are 
continued at intervals, on the other side of the vale of 
Tempo, by Ossa (Kissovo), Pdion (Zagora^ and the hills of 
Eaboea. At 39* the Othrys chain (Uelloro), whose chief 
elevation is the conical Mount Yeluchi (Tymphrestus), is 
sent out also to the east, and forms the northern bulwark 
of the present kingdom. A little further south the (Eta 
range (Katavothra) goes in the same direction, and reaches 
the Gulf of Zeitoum (Maliao Gulf) at the celebrated pass 
of Thermopyln. The Cambunian chain intersects Hndus 
at Mount Lacmon (Zygo), and thence westward the chain 
passes under the name of Tasnarus and the Ceraunian Hills 
(Montes Acroceraunii) till it enters the sea at the Acro- 
cerannian promontory (Cape Linguetta). From the point 
of junction with the Otliiya, the Undue chain ia con- 
tinued southwards in a series of separate peaks — ^Pamaasua 
(Liakura)^ Helioon, Cithcron, Pames, and Hymettus, on 
to the promontory of Sunium (Cape Colonna) in the south- 
east of Attica. Paraee dividee Attica from Boeotia. The 
mountains of the Morea have no connexion with the 
mountain qrstem of Northern Greece ; they do not mn in 
d^ins, but rather cluster in knots. The most important 
of these are Ziria (Qyllene), Ehelmoe, Olonoa, and the 
range of Pentedaktylon (Taygetus), which stretches from 
the centre of Arcadia through the length of Laconia to 
Cape Matapan (Taenarum), and ia the most imposing of 
all the mountains of Greeca The hegemony of Sparta in 
the Peloponnesus is attributed by some to ito possessing 
both sides of this chain. Its highest point ia Mount 
St Elias^ called, like several other Greek mountains^ 
after the prophet Elijah. None of the mountains of 
Greece is within the line of -perpetual snow, though the 
tope of several are white for some months in the year. 
VfiuX is peculiar to Greece is not the presence of any 
one hill of pre-eminent height, but the great number it pos^ 
seeees of considerable and nearly eaual elevation. Modem 
Greece has no summit so high as Olympus (9754 feet), but 
within its narrow area it has twenty-six hills above 8000 
feet, of which eight are above 7000 feet, vi&, Ffeumassua 
(8068), Taygetus (7904), T^phrestus (7610), (Eta (7071), 
the thne sommits of C^Ilene in Arcadia (7788), and Oonx 

XL —.XI, 



[PBniOAL flATUm. 

In iStoluu The noted fortified hflle of Greece were 
Acrocorinthas (1686 feet) which gaardi tiie isthmiu, 
Ithome (2631 feet) at Messena, Laxiasa (900 feet) at 
Argoa, and the Acropolis (1*50) at Athene. 

Greece has few rivers, and these snuUl, rapid, and, as a 
rale^ tnrbid, as they ooald not help being in a oonntiy 
where they rise in high mountains and haye no space to 
grow in before they reach the sea. They are either peren- 
nial rivers or torrents, the white beds of the latter being 
dry in sommer, and only filled with wtiter after the autumn 
rains. The cldef rivers (none of which are navigable) are 
the Hellada (Sperchins) in PhthiotiB, the Aspro Potamo 
(Achelous) in ^tolia, and the Boufia (Alpheus) and 
Yasiliko ^urotas) in the Morea. . Of -the famous rivers 
of Athens, the one, the Ilissus, is only a diain of pools 
all summer, and the other, the Cephissns, though never 
absolutely diy, doss not reach the sea, but is drawn off in 
numerous artificial channels to irrigate the neighbouring 
olive groves. The waters of both are dear and delicious to 
the taste. A frequent peculiarity of the Greek rivers is their 
sudden disappearance in subterranean chasms and reappear- 
ance on the surface again, such as gave rise to the fabled 
course of the Alpheus under the sea, and its emergence 
again in, the fountain of Arethnsa in Syracuse. Some of 
these chasms — *' Eatavothras " — are merely sieves with 
herbage and gravel in the bottom, but others are large 
caverns through which the course of the river may be easily 
followed. Floods are frequent, especially in autumn, and 
natural fountains abound and gush out even from the tops 
of the hilla Aganippe rises high up among the peaks of 
Helicon, and Peirene flows from Uie summit of Acro- 
oorinthns. It is surprising that there are no waterfalls in 
Greece, the only one worth mentioning being the famous 
Styx in Arcadia, which has a fall of 500 feet During 
part of the 7ear it is lost in the snow, and it is at aU 
times almost inaccessible. Lakes are numen)us, but few 
are of any use, and many merely marshes in summer. 
The largest are Trichoma in i£tolia, Copais in Boeotia, and 
Stymphalus in Arcadia. 

The valleys are generally narrow, and the plains small 
in extent, deep basins walled in among the hiUs or more 
free at the mouths of the rivers. The principal plains are 
those of Thessaly (which is not in modem Greece), 
Boeotia, Messenia, Ajgos, and Marathon. 'The bottom of 
these plains eonsiBts of an alluvial soil* the most fertile in 
Greece. In some of the mountainous regions, espeMsially 
in the liorea, are extensive table-lands. The plain of 
Bfantinea is 2000 feet high, and the upland district of 
Sdritifl^ between Sparta and Tegea, is in some parts 3000 

Strabo said that the guiding thing in the geography of 
Greece was the sea, which presses in upon it at all parts 
with a thousand arms. From the Gulf of Arta on the one 
aide to the Gulf of JYdo on the other the coast is indented 
with a succession of natural bays and gulfs. The most 
important are the Gulfs of ^gina (Saronicus) and Lepanto 
(Corinthiacus), which come in between the Morea and the 
northern mainland of Greece, — the first from the ^gean, 
the second from the Ionian Sea,— and are only prevented 
from joining their waters by the high land of the narrow 
isthmus of Corinth (3} miles wide). The outer portion 
of the Gulf of Lepanto is called the Gulf of Patias, and 
the inner part the Bay of Corinth, and a narrow bay on the 
north side of the same gulf, called the Bay of Salona, 
penetrates northwards into Phods so far that it is within 
24 geographical miles of the Gulf of Zeitoum on the north- 
east coast of Greece. The width of the entrance to the 
gulf of Lepanto is subject to singular dianges, which are 
ascribed to the formation of alluvial deposits by certain 
marine currents^ and their removal again by others. At 

the time of the Feloponneiian war this diannel was 1200 
yards broad ; in the time of Strabo it was only 850 ; and 
in our own day it has again increased to 2200. Chi the 
coast of the Morea there are several large gnlfi^ that of 
Arcadia (Qyparissus) on the weet^ Ealamatia (Messeniaeus) 
and Kdol^thia (Laconicus) on the south, and Kauplia 
(Aigolicus) on the east ' Then between Enbcea and the 
mainland lie the diannd of Talanti (Euboicum Mare) and 
the channd of Itgripo, which are connected by the strait 
of !E!gripo (Euripus). This strait^ which is spanned by a 
bridge, ii 120 feet wide, and is remarkable for the unex- 
plained eccentridty of its tide, which has puzzled ancients 
and modems alike. The current runs at the rate of 8 
miles an hour, but continues only for a short time in one 
direction, changing its course^ it is said, ten or twdve 
times in «4|gi^ 

There are no volcanoes on the mainland of Greece, but 
everywhere traces of volcanic action and frequently vtsita- 
tioDs of earthquakes, for it lies near a centre of volcanio 
agency, the island of Santorin, which has been within 
recent years in a state of eraption. There is an extinct 
crater at Mount Laphystium in Bceotia. The mountain of 
Methane^ on the coast of Argolis, was produced by a 
volcanic eraption in 282 B.c. An earthquake laid Thebes 
in ruins in 1858, another destroyed every house in Corinth 
in 1858, and. a third filled up the C^talian spring in 
1870. There are hot springs at Thermopyln and other 
places, which are used for sanitary purposes. Varioua 
parts of the coast exhibit indications of upheaval within 
historical times. On the coast of Elis four rocky inlets ate 
new joined to the land, which were separate from it in the 
days of ancient Greece. There are traces of earlier sea- 
beadies at Corinth, and on the coast of the Morea, and at 
the mouth of the Hellada. The land has gained so much 
that the pass of Thermoi^hs, which was extremdy narrow 
in the time of Leonldas and his three hundred, is now wide 
enough for the motions of a whole amiy. 

The whole chain of the Pindus and some of the moun* 
tains of the Morea are composed of Primitive rocks,-* 
granite^ serpentine, porphyry, mica, and other schists, — but 
greater part of the country con8i:)ts of Secondary former 
tions, especially of a compact grey limestone, which hardens 
often into the purest marble. JUl Parnassus and Helicon 
consiBt of this rock. In the vicinity of Athens the lime- 
stone rests on mica schist, which prevails also in other 
parts of Attica, and in Eubaa, Laconia, and the Cycladea. 
Clay slate ia*iound in some districts, and coal, equal to 
two-thirds of an- equal weight of Newcastle cool, is found 
at Kumi in Euboea, and of an inferior quality at Maroo- 
poneo in Bceotia. Greece is not rich in minerals. Gold 
exists, but not in sufficient quantity to cover the expense 
of working. Copper is abundant, and sQver, lead, iron, 
emery, antimony, cobalt, manganese, sulphur, and salt 
are found. Gypsum and porphyry are quarried. Marble 
is abundant, the chief kinds being the white marble of 
Pentelicus, of which the Parthenon was made, the blue 
marble of Hymettus, the green and red marble of the 
Morea, and the green and white of Caryste. In Moxmt 
Taygetus are beds of verd-antique jasper. 

The scenery of Greece exdtes the warmest admiration 
of all travellers, mainly from three causes: — (1) its un- 
usually rich variety ; (2) its exquisite sensibility to every 
modification of the light of the sky; and (3) the graceful 
and almoet severdy classical outiine of its hills. 

The vegetation of Greece may be deeetfbed ea bdoDglng to 
four diftinct sonee. (1) l^P to 600 feet above the sea is a ngion 
growing oom, vinea, olivea, oranges, melons, pomeaanates, and 
other froita ; (2) from 1500 feet to 8600 feet ia the region of 
the oak; (8) from S600 feet to 6000 feet ia the region uf the beech 
and pine, i n teraperaed still with a ftw oom fields ; (4) above 
60e0 fnt Is a aab-dpine r^g^ yielding only a few wild lifanita 


G B E £ E 


Koat tmraUoi 00 itnidk vith ih« oompantiTtt leanitT of woodia 
GnMb Bat tlioat^ aoit of th« aaebnt foniti lure dimppMnd, 
nan cf tlie mrCM$ itfll Nmuiiui iroodUnd tliaa tnT*Uen mlin. 
C3oM OB 15 par oent of ft wm imdar fonot In 1860, vlueh k only 
1 per eent laoi tliaa in Spain, and ii la par oant mora than in 
Bntain. Thr moat oommon traa ia iha pina, bat tha oak, planiL 
vtlnot^ ohartnat^ and olira an alao alnrndant Tha baach ia aaid 
to be a modam inTidar f^om tha north, whara it oovata tha whola 
of the ffndiia ranga, and in aoma pkeaa, aa on Hoant Palion, which 
ven eorared vith othar kinda of troaa in hiatorioal timaa, thabaaeh 
leeiBi Bov to hara drlTon tham antirelr oat Tha palm thiivaa in 
Mtwimie, and iinda a homa aTon in Attaoa, Ifjrtlaa flooziah in tha 
veit, and oleandora hdc^tan tho lirer bada. 

Tho wild animala «tiu to ba f oond oooaaionallj in Qraaaa ara tha 
boar, woli; baar, ^jnz, wild oal^ Jaokal, and fox. Tha wild goat^ 
vUek baa diaapjMarad f^m tiia laat of Xonma^ flnda a laat a^x^vm 
ia eome of tha laUnda of tha Oraak aiQhipauga Oama ia aband^ 
aat,-nd daar, fidlow dear, loa, haras, rabbita. It \f^ aaid that 
bam and xabbita noTvr ooonpj tiaa aama island, etaapt in tha oaaa 
of Aaiiroa, whatv tha hana ara foond in tha north and tha rabbita 
ia tbs iOBth. The birds ara tha aag k, Toltorr, hawk, owL hoqpoa, 
cgrot. pelican, phaasant, boatard, partiidgp, woodoodk, nlgatingala^ 
U. Quails ooma in April Tha dmneatlc animala ara tha horaa, 
ox, e«^ iflok, aheep, goat, pig; dog, and poultry. Foiaraooa anakaa 
sivonlv foontl in some f»w plaoaa^ bat moatinitoa and gnats ara 
fmrvbere a«ai<r«fa uf aunojanca. 

Titf climata of Qreeo^, which anoiant writara waiaad ftir iti 
aqnabldUvN, praaenta to mod<*rii obaerrara two paomiarltiaa whioh 
do Bot poMvae that eharaeur. Ona ia a ipaaUir intenaity of haat 
in laiamar and of cold in winter than obtaina in Bpain, Italj, and 
other eoantnra which lia within tha aama latitadaa, and are tron 
Im op«n to the tempenng mflnonoea of tha aaa. Ihia pecnliazity 
kAiie to the azpoaore of tha ronntry to the eold winda bom tha 
aoovbiUsin oloae proximitT to it on the north, and to the azhaost- 
iag aroeoo from tho aanua of Africa on the. aonth. Tha other 
pe^oliaritT U the ramarkable local routraata and rapid tranaitlons 
vhieb the climate nianifcata, and ikhieh are a nataral eifaot of ih» 
diTrnity of tha gaographical eonfigoratUm. Tha remark of Gall ii 
often qoutnl, that in trarelling throngh the llorea in Uareh ha foond 
sBBunerin Mt^sseido, sprins in Laoonia, and winter in Arcadia, 
witfaont moTinff beyond a radloa of 50 milea. There ia great direr* 
eitj ia the raixuall in diJbreut parte of Oraeoa. Aa a role, lain k 
aioiv loeTalant in the weet then in the eaat, whleh aoconnta for the 
fertile look of the hilk of EUa and the barren aapect of thoee of 
A2»olia. Attica k tho drieat part of Oraeee, end JBoeotk hae atUl 
tbe euao heayy moist atmoaphere it had of old ; and, what k re- 
B#rkableb tha old oontraat between tho peopk of thoee two 
proriaoee, which wee proTerUal when both were Oreek b^ blood, 
■till hokk good whan thoT are both certainly Albanian, tho 
Atticana of tiie preaent day being etill qoick and lively, and the 
BcNthns dull and phlegmatic According to atatiatica kept by 
Jnlias Schmidt, director of the obeerratory of Athena, and pnb- 
Inhed k hk BeiifH^ wr pkymhdliaA** Otographis «of» CJ'/if^n- 
Itatd (1854-70), there were in 1859 only twenty-STO days on whioh 
eaoo^ rain fell at Athena to ba measared by the rain gange. 
Ibe Been annnal tamperatare of Oreeee k 84* Tahr. The coldeat 
noatha of the year are Jennary and Febrnary. Snow aeldom 
bfle m AthenoL The com k a conaiderabk height in Ifaroh, 
it eat in liay. Yinee and olirea bad in Uvoh, and akn^ 
an then in bloaaonL inntore are, howerer, eoTore on the table- 
hadi, and in eome of the nUina of the interior whkh are ahaded 
boB nm and aea by high hilla. Dr Clarke waa informed that tho 
peessato at the foot of Cithmon, in Boiotia, were coniined to their 
LoBecs somatimea for eeTeral weaka br mow. Kroaa aays the north 
vind blowa ten montha of the yaer, Vot Sohmidt'e etatktioe ahow 
this to be an error ; there are really both northerly end eontherly 
vkdi ereiy month, thoogh now the one k more proTslent and now 
thsother. Tho bird winda (so ealled baoanaa they bring the birde 
of pesMge) are a periodical Tarkty of the eoBth>weal^ and blow 
thirtj daya from the end of ApriL Tha Bteaian winda ura pefiodl- 
od vinda from the north-oaat, which blow reenlarly about the time 
of the dog daya, and temper the heat of that eeaeon in the whoU 
fB|ioB of the Arehipekffo. CblomeUa aays they begin on tho lal 
iagoatandoontinaatiSthaSOth; and Kmaa. on the oOarhand, 
i^s they begin in July and blow for iUty-llTa daya {HUtat, i 965) i 
bat neithar of thoee atatemenk k borne oat by d<mmidt'a flgoieiL 
k 188S the oidy winda which blew at Athera daring July end 
Ai^aet were north-eeat and aoath-weat, and oot of the aix^-two 
di|a tha north-eaat bktr for thirty-foar, end the aonth-weot for 
traty-s^t^— the north-eaat blowing twenty-taro daya in Jnly 
sad tvalva in AngoaL and the eonth-weet nine in Joly and nin#» 
net Italark preraik largely from the naipeot of 

tMa k Angoat 

diaiaaM and the eonaeqaont ereation of marahea In many part^ 
and the malaria eanaas ferer, which k toiy fatal among chil* 
dna, and kaToa dabilitBting effeota in the adalta. and altogether 
inpoaea a raiy leriooa ehaok oa tha growth of tha popolatoon of 
ttaeoontiy. '".*'^^ 

TIm modom OimIqi in of vwy oompodteoiigiiiyyft an 
aa •zfenmoly oompaot nad homogottaoiit people. Ool of 
the nulUoii and a half which oonatitate the present popala> 
tion of the comitiy, only 67,941 apeak any other luigoaga 
than Oreek, and cmlj 16,084 prof eas any other religion thtti 
the Orthodox ; and all draw well together, i^orying withoiM 
another in the aame memoriee of a oommon ddiTeraaee^ 
and sharing in the eame ambition of a great fntore. There 
are in the narrow bounds of Greece three dutinct laces^ 
speaking different langnages, wearing different ocatnmei^ 
obeenring different customs, and holding little social inter* 
oonrse with one another. Tfaeee raoee are the Qreek, tho 
Albanian, and the Wallanhian. All three are proliably 
much mixed in blood, and, in fu/t, the deeoent of each A 
them has been a Teiy rexed problem in ethnology. Bnf» 
on the wholes the suggestion of Freeman seems the most 
likely acoonal of the matter, — ^that, taking them all in all, 
these three noes are the direct representatiTes of the three 
raoea which occupied Qreek teiritoij at the time of its 
oonquast bj the Bomans. Since that time dieirUood has 
oertainly been mingled with other elements, but still sub- 
stantially the base of the modem Oreek ia the ancient 
Oreek, the base of the modem Albanian k the aneieni 
niyiian, and the base of the mc^em Wallachian k thf 
ancient niraeiatt. 

Of theee races the least numerous in Greece is the Wal* 
laohian or Bonmanian. TlIuj are f oimd chiefly in the 
mountainous rteions in the northern parts of Greece^ on 
the dopee of OtLTB, in the neighbourhood of Zeitoum, on 
the hnis of Acamania and ^tolia, and OTen so far south 
as the banks of the Boootian Cephissus. They pursue n 
nomadic shepherd life, wear black shaggy eapoiet made to 
imitate sheep^in, and speakBoumanian, — a modified Latin, 
—the language of their race, and also Greek, the language 
of the count^. They belong to the Greek Church, and 
sometimes marry QnSk giils, but almost nerer give their 
own daughters in marriage to Greeks. In 1851 Unlaj 
says there were 50,000 Wallachians in the modem kingdom 
of Greece; but they are rapidly becoming completely Het- 
leniied, and in 1870 there weio only 1217 Wallachians in 
Greece who did not speak Greek. Host of the brigands 
that used to bf est Greece were Wallachians. 

The Albanians, Skipetars (tie., Highlanders), or Amaouta^ 
occupy at present mere than a fouxtii of mod^ Greece, — 
all Attica and Megaris (except the capitak), moat part of 
BcBotia and part ol Locns, the touthem half of EuboBa, part 
of iBgina and Andros^ the whole of the isknds of ffalamis^ 
Poros, Hydra, and Spezsia, and considerable districts ia 
Aigolis, Sicyonia, Arcadia, Laconisi Messenia, and EUa. 
They speak a language of their own, which certainly 
belongs to the Aryan funily, but philologkts are at a losa 
whether to count it an independent member of the family^ 
or merely a conniption of one of the better known branchea. 
In dktricts where they exist in small bodies they are losing 
their own tongue and adoptmg Oreek ; but in places like 
Attica and Hydra, where they exkt in laiger number^ 
they still keep it up, and if the men understand Greek tha 
women do not. In 1851 Finlay states there were 200,000 
Albanians in Greece^ and in 1870 there were only 37,598 
left who did not speak Gre^ The Albanians who dwell 
in Greece all belong to the Greek ChurcL They are 
mostly aj^culturists, and seem to care little for political or 
professional life. They wear a peculiar dress, which was 
adopted bT them mostly from the BlAys, and was re^^arded 
as tae national costume of Greece after the Beyolution,^ 
a red fes, a Bilk jacket embroidered with gold, a white 
fustanelk or petticoat^ and gaitdia. 

The rest of the population, eomprisiog the great bulk 
of it^ are Greeks,— « people speaking the Oreek language 
practising the Greek rite^ and claiming descent irom tho 


G B E E E 


•Boimt Greek nee^ This ekdm, wMoh'seems to net 
naturally on the obyions eridenoe of langaage and feature, 
was warmly oontested on hiatorical grounds by Fallmerayer, 
who held that during the Slavonie occupation of the 
oonntiy the ancient Greeka were completely extirpated, 
and that the preaent iuhaMtanti are merely Slavonians 
Qyaantinised. But hie argumenti have been conclnsiTely 
confuted by Hopf, Finlay, and others, tod it may be said 
to be now unlTersally admitted that» while the blood of 
the population contains a considerable Slav admixture, its 
base is still that of the ancient race of Hellas. 

It is cnrions that the two sections of the population of 
Greece whom Fallmerayer credited with the purest Greek 
descent— the Mainotes and the Tshakones, who inhabit the 
two mountain rangee of Laconia — ore thought by Hopf to be 
the only two remnants of .the Slavs that still exist. The 
T^Mtkones, whose name is commonly supposed, contrary 
to all etymological analogy, to be a cotmption of Laoonee, 
apeak a peculiar dialect of Greek, and still live yery much 
by themselves. They now occupy only seven TiUa^ee, and 
number 1 600 families. The Mainotes, celebrated by Byron, 
live in Mainsy on the western mountain chain of Laconia. 
They also speak a particular dialect, and are remarkable 
for theur personal beauty and independent spirit. Their 
hooses are fortified keeps, and they were never sabdued 
by the Turkk. They practise the vendetta, but are simple 
and truthful above their neighbours. 

Other nationalities are represented in Greece^ but so 
slightly as hardly to be worth mentioning. They num- 
bered only 29,126 in all in 1870. The Jews, who were 
never favoured by the Greeks, are found only in the Ionian 
Islands, where they obtained a footing during the British 
protectorate, and numbered, in 1870, 2528. Important 
remains of the old Yenetiau colonists still oxist in the 
Ionian and some of the other islands. 

In physique, the Greeks are generally tall and well made, 
if perhaps rather meagre, with oval face, long and arched 
nose, fine teeth, and eyes full of animation. Obesity is 
unknown, and their form is supple, graceful in its move- 
ments, and remains erect and elastic till past the age of 
70. The best physical types are to be found in the islands 
and in some parts of the Morea, and there, many travellers 
remark, you may meet every day in the streets or highways 
women and boys who might have formed the models of 

The national character of the Greeks is a matter upcm 
which authorities take very contrary vieFs* some idealising 
them foolishly, and others depreciating them most uignstly. 
They seem to have the faalts and the excellences of their 
famous ancestors. They have their quickness of parts and 
their moderation of character. They are inquisitive, full 
of mental activity, fond of excitement, as keen for ducue- 
rion as in the days of Plato, and as eager after novelty as 
in those of PauL Their thirst for knowledge is indeed 
qidte remarkable, as well as their aptness to learn. Boys 
will put themselvee to any discomfort in order to get to 
school ; students at the university never missed a day 
from their classes during the Revolution of 1863, but 
regularly attended the lectures with the arms of the 
national guard in their hands ; and domestic servants are 
often found in spare hours learning their letters or doing 
their sums. They excel in tact, in astuteness, in — what 
Tuckerman calls the most distinctive thing about them 
-—finesse, which degenerates often into cunning, that 
weapon of the weak which could not fail to be forged 
nnder their long Turkish oppression. They are cour- 
teous and very sunny in disposition, and entirely strangers 
to melancholy, so that both snicide and insanity are 
unknown among them. They are the most temperate of 
Christian netbna, and the chastest Though they make 

a good deal of strong wine, they drink little, and they eat 
as sparingly as they drink. The common people live on 
one meal a day, and the richer on two, and an Eogliah 
labourer will consume at one meal what would serve a 
Greek family of six for the day. A little maize and 
vegetables steeped in oil make the staple fara Their rate 
of illegitimacy is lower than that of any other European 
countiy, which may perhaps be ascribed to the fact that 
Greece is the only country in Europe where the maloa 
outnumber the females, and that this circumstance com- 
bines with the frugal habits of living of the people to on- 
oourage early marriages. In other countries from 3 to 22 
per cent of the births are illegitimate, in Greece only 1*40 
per cent are sa Two striking characteristics of the Greeks 
are their patriotism, — their local attachment to their 
country, which stands out in the stronger relief because H 
is a quality in which their neighbours the Turks are 
entirely wanting, — and their love not only of liberty but 
specially of equab'ty* They are in spirit the moet demo- 
cratic European nation. They have no nobility— es of old, 
to be a Greek is itself to be noble ; and Mahaffy says that 
** every common mule-boy is a genUeman (icvpto«) and fully 
your equal, sitting in the room at meals, and joining in 
tlie conversation at dinner ; " and such is their jealousy 
of social superiorities that ho was often told by Greeka 
that the only reason why they tolereted a foreign king 
was that they could not endure to be under one of them- 
selves. It is the same temper as ostracized Aristides, and 
doubtless it springs largely from their vanity and egotism, 
which even the most favourable witnessee own to be among 
their prominent faulta. They have a deep belief, which they 
take no pains no concer\ in their own superiority over 
other nations ; and the point in which they conceive their 
superiority more especially to dwell is in their intellectua] 
gifts. There are two other qualitiee in which the Greeka 
are strong, and which, though they are often abused, are 
yet main agents in human advancement, — ambition and 
the love of money. Theee have given a stimulus to their 
commerce, and made them thrifty and saving. The faulta 
of which the Greeks are oftenest accused are cowardice and 
dishonesty, and both charges are equally unwarranted. 
Their bravery was proved on many a field during the War 
of Independence. Dishonesty is not a national vice^ though 
it seems certainly to be characteristic of the classes of GrecS» 
who more than the rest are thrown under the observation 
of foreigners, particularly the low mongrel Greeks of the 
Levant porta and the venal public officiala of Greece, who 
have consequently helped to blacken the reputation of their 
countrymeu in generaL 

The Greeks have few peculiar customa worth noting. 
Their national costume is now giving place almost univer- 
sally to the leas picturenque drees of the Frenks. They 
still adhere to the unreformed calendar, and their dates 
are accordingly calculated according to old style. They 
marry early, — ^young women from thirteen years of age to 
fifteen, and young men from sixteen to twenty. T^e 
nmrriage is arranged by the parents of the parties, is in 
all cases a jreligious ceremony, and may be severed by 
legal divorce. One is allowed to marry three times, but 
a fourth marriage is forbidden. The bride brings a dowry 
—houses, furniture^ or money — and many unmarried girls 
wear their whole dowry in pieces of money as a head- 
dress. The prohibited degrees are those of canon law. 

The population of Greece in 1879, when the la^t census 
was token, was 1,679,776, or an average of 84 persons to 
the square mile. The islands are the moet densely peopled 
portions of the kingdom, especially the Ionian IslandB^ 
whi<^ have a population of 231,174, or 229 to the square 
mile. In continental Greece the rate is only 09 per square 
mile, and in the Horea 89. Greece is more thinly peopled 




thao in J eoonby of Europe, ozeept Riusia and Sweden. 
The popnlaiUm has doubled itnoe 1832. It was tlien 
(eidafliye of thp Ionian IslandB^ only 613,608, and it 
is nov (alio exdndJng tbe Ionian JibndB) 1,448,601. 
The nules ontnnmber the females in Oreeoe bj 82,385. 
The onlj reason we hays seen assigned for this Is tliat 
luge nnmbers of the women go oat of the conntrj as 
domestio sorrants^ and are not coanted in the eensni^ 
while iu]or% who are also at woik out of the country, are 
counted. But this seems an inadequate explanation, for 
ia 1S70 the number of sailors not present in the country 
▼•9 only 5180. The disproportion between men and 
iromen appea^^ too, to oe increising; for there were 
50,468 more men than women in Greece in 1870, when 
the whole population was 220,000 less than it wns in 1879. 
The ftTerage birth-rate for the foor yean 1870-73 was 1 
ia 34 ; the arerage death-rate for tlie same period was 1 
m 45. The largest towns in Greece are — Athens, with a 
popaktion in 1870 of 59,000 ; Patras, with 26,000 ; Corfu, 
with 24,000; Hermopolis or Syra, 21,000; Zante^ with 
20,500 ; Chalcis, 11,000 ; Sparta, with 10,700 ; and Argosy 
with 10,600. 

Hie kingdom of Greece is an hereditary constitutional 
moBsrehy, descending by primogeniture from malo to male^ 
female succession being only iSowed in the event of the 
abaolate failure of legitimate heirs male. The title of the 
■oTereign at first (according to the conrention of London, 
Mft7 1832) was lung of Greece, but it was altered by the 
conference of London, August 1863, to king of the 
Helleaes. The king attains his majority at eighteen years 
of age. Both he and the heir-i^parent are required to 
bebog to the Greek orthodox church, but a special excep- 
tion is made for the present king^ who is a Lutheran. The 
king receives an annual income of £52,179, of which 
£40,179 comes from the civil list, and £12,000 from 
penoQsl donations of £4,000 from each of the three pro- 
kscting powers. He has a palace in Athens — built by 
Otho at a cost of £500,000 — and a summer residence 
at Corfu. The legislative power is shared by the king 
with a single chamber called the boule, — a house of repre- 
sentatives which is elected for four years by the people ; 
its numbers cannot fall below 150, and amounted in 
1872 to 188. The election is by universal (manhood) 
BO&age, protected by the ballot The boule elects its own 
president^ and its members are paid £9 a month during 
the seasion. The executive is vested in the king, who, 
howeyer, is personally irresponsible, and rules by ministers 
choeen by himself and responsible to the legislature, in 
vhoee deUberations they also take part They are seven 
in nomber, and their several departments of o^inistation 
are— foreign affaira, home affairs, justice, finance, education 
and worship, army, and navy. A minister's salary is 
X428 a year. The king appoints all public officials, — 
etTO, nava^ and miUta^,-^sanctbns and proclaims bws^ 
calls and prorogues parliament^ grants pardon or amnee^, 
eoios money, and confers decorations. There are 18,860 
pohlio offices in the patronage of the ministry, and, as in 
AmsncB, i large number of them change hands with every 
change of ilnunistration. The effect of this in a oountiy 
where politics is an open profession, and where there is a 
plethora of well-educated men who can find nothing to 
dp, has been to poison political life to an unusual degree 
with tha vice of place-hunting, — ^to create several active 
pollticai parties in the state, which, instead of being the 
repreeentativee of any policy^ cause, tend too much to 
d^nerate into mere rings of -post-mongers, and conduce^ 
hj their constant strife^ to an excessive frequency of minis- 
terial crises which greatty checks the national progress of 
the country, 
t. For purposes of local |povemment Greece is divided into 

IS nomarehifl^^ under oiloeft oallad Bomticha, whos* 
duties correspond with ihoee of the F^eh prefects ; tht 
nomarehies are subdivided into 69 eparchiee under eparchs^ 
corresponding to French sub-prefects ; and the eparchies 
are further subdivided into 861 demarchies, uider4iemarcha 
or mayoia. The following is a list of the nomarohiee, with 
Uielr areas, popnktions, and capitals : — 




A. In Korthon Oweee 

1. AttioasadBaotfa.... 

• S. laboM. 

a. FhthiotiseadFhocU 
i. AeunaaiaaadiBtolU 

& laMom^ 

5. AohdaaadEls 

ffb AreidU.x..... . ..... 





. 808 















7. Laconis 

8. HcMeaia 

9. AraoIU and Corinthla 
C. lathfllalaiida- 

10. CvoUdct*. 

11. Corfu 

12. Cephalonia 

IflL 7.«nt« 

The demarche are elected by the people for four years ; the 
nomarclis and eparchs are elected by the Government 
without fixed terms. The nomarchs are assisted in tho 
administration of the province by a council elected by 
universal secret suffhige for four years, which manoges the 
police, roads, and other local business, and imposes the 
assessments. The local accounts must be sent once a year 
to Athens to be audited by a court of Government officials. 
The demarchies vary in sise, but» m 1861, out of 280 that 
then existed, only 67 were imder 2000 in populationi and 
only 7 above 10,00a 

Greece lias an admirable legal system, which is the one 
good thing it has got from the BavoriansL It ii based on 
the old Roman law, with modifications drawn from the 
Bavarian and French. Liberty of person and domicile is 
inviolate; no one can be apprehended, no house can he 
entered, and no letter can be opened without a Judicial 
warrant Criminal and political offences and delinquencies 
of the press are tried by jury. The commercial code ia 
identicia with that of France. The civil law is administered 
by a supreme court of cassation (the Areopagus) ; 4 courts 
of appeal ; 17 courta of first instance^ with jurisdiction up 
to 600 drachmas; 191 judgee of the peace, with jurisdie* 
tion up to 30 drachmas, or, with an appeal, to 300 drach- 
mas ; and 4 commercial courts (st Byra, Nauplia, Patras^ 
and Corfu), with jurisdiction up to 800 drachmas, v To be 
a judge, it is necessary to have graduated o^ doctor of lows 
at Athens or some other European university; a judge 
cannot hold any othe|r salaried appointment at the same 
time exoept that of professor in the university. Judges 
are appointed by the crown, and are as yet removaUe. 
Crimmal courts are held in connexion witii thoee of the 
peaee^ of first instance, and of appeal ; in the lest the 
judicial authority is vested in a jury of twelve^ with three 
accessory judges selected from those of the inferior courts, 
who apply the law in accordance with the jury's verdict 
The crown is prosecutor in all criminal casee, and punish* 
ments are by fines, imprisonment, and, in the case of 
capital offences, death by guillotine. The prisons are 
extremely defective in consbmction and administration, 
except that of Corfu; improvements are often projected 
but constantlv put off from want of funds to carry them 
out There is no. Habeas Corpus Act, and an accused 
person may bo detained indefimtely before being brought 
to trial Judicial commissions aaid extraordinary conrta 
of judicature cannot be established under any pretest 


G B E E E 


The eoorto of law an opea U> ih» public^ eccapfc whuk 
the interests of good morals or pnbbc order demand tha 
contrary. Naval and military offences are tried by naval 
and military courts, and offences of ministers of the crown 
by special courts, in accordance with the constitution of 

Crime is proportionately less conmion in Greece than 
elsewhere, for the people are more temperate, and, on the 
whole, more contented. The peculiar Greek crime is— or, 
as we may happily now say, was— brigandage, the form 
of robbeiy which is natural to a mountainous 'and thinly- 
peopled country without roads. According to tiie latest 
consular reports, the country is at present completely free 
from brigands. But it will never be saeure against their 
reappearance until it obtains good roads, which will operate 
against the brigands both by tending to increase the rural 
population and by affording better facilities for the capture 
of criminals. 

The strength of the Greek army'on a peace footing 
was, at the census in 1870, 12,400, including upwards of 
2000 gendarmes; but since the Servian war with the 
Turks in 1876 the Government has resolved to raise it to 
24,376, exclusive of 2508 mounted gendarmes. This, with 
tlie national guard and the reserves and volunteers, would 
ma)Le their total strength on a war footing over 150,000. 
The national guard is composed of all citizens capable 
of serving and under the age of 50; if* is designed for 
purposes of defence only. The reserves consist of those 
nho have served out their time in the regular army. The 
army is recruited by lot from all capable of serving, with 
the alternative, which is largely used, of providing a sub- 
stitute; and the period of service is three years in tlie line, 
three years in the first reserve, and six in the second. 
The navy consists of two small ironclads and a few wooden 
gunboats and vessels for coast-guard purposes, which ore 
manned by 2500 men, raised, as a rule, by conscription 
from the inhabitants of the coast, though volunteering is 
encouraged. The Greek flag is a white cross on blue 
ground — the Bavarian colours and the Greek cross. 

The religion of the people and of the state is that of the 
Orthodox Greek ChurcL In fact, the Greek rite is not 
only the national religion, but perhaps the deepest and 
most creative factor m the nationality of Greece itself. 
Men of Greek blood who do not belong to the Greek Church 
do not identify themselves with the Greek people. The 
Moslems of Crete were the sternest oppressors the Greeks 
knew, and the Latins of Syros sided at the revolution 
with the Turks, yet both were of the purest Greek descent 
And what makes the Greek and Skipetar and Wallach of 
the modem kingdom all equally Greek in their sympathies 
to-day is their common profession of the Greek rit& But 
all other religions are tolerated in Greece. There is a 
Moslem mosque at Chalcis ; there is a Jewish synagogue 
at Corfu ; and, whatever a man's religion may be, it entails 
on him in Greece no civil disabilities of any kind. A 
Catholic or a Mahometan may rise to the highest offices 
of state; both Turks and Jews are at present members of 
municiiMil councils ; and Jews and Catholics are buried in 
the some cemetery with the Orthodox at Athens. The 
Church of Greece, which became virtually independent at 
the time of the revolution, was organized upon the model 
of the Rnssiao Church. Its supreme power is vested 
in a synod consisting of five members, who are appointed 
annually by the king, and the majority of whom must 
be prelates. The metropolitan (archbishop of Athens) is 
ear oficio president ; two royal conunissioners attend and 
deliberate without votings and the synod's resolutions 
require to be confirmed by them in the king's name. In 
an purely spiritual matters the synod has entire independ- 
) ; but on questions having a civil side, — as marriage. 

divdrce, excommnnicatlon of laymen, the appointusnt o£ 
feasts and fasts, and the religious censorship of the press 
and of religious pictures, — it can only act in concert with 
the Government Excluding the Ionian Islands, whidi 
have five archbishops, there are eleven archbishops and 
thirteen bishops in Greece, who are chosen by the king oat 
of a list of three candidates presented by the qrnod, and 
can only be deposed by common consent of king and 
synod, and in conformity with canon law. The clergy 
numbered 5102 in 18G1. The immense majority of the 
population belongs to the Greek Church. In 1870 the 
numbor of other Christians in Greece was 12,585, moat 
of whom were Boman Catholics ; of Jews, 2582 ; and of 
all other religions, 917. There are two Boman Catholic 
archbishops and four bishops. Tha revenue from the 
property of the Greek Church in 1877 was £10,671. The 
prelates receive a salary from the state,— the bishops £145, 
and the archbishops £180. The inferior clergy receive 
none, but are entirely dependent on the fees they earn for 
various spiritual services and superstitious observances,— 
praying for the sick, exorcising the evil eye, consectating ^ 
new hense or fishing boat, or purifying one bought from^ 
Turk: There are 1600 monks and 1500 nuns in Graeceu 

Popular edacation is widely diffused in Greece. It waa 
tha first care of the newly-liberated people, and has been 
joslonsly fostered ever since, till they have now an exceed- 
ingly complete national system of education, which ia 
perhaps the most striking product of the now kingdom. 
The latest statistics we have on the subject are those of 
the year 1872, stven in Watson's report of that year 
(Bfporta of Hm, Secrrtariea of EvtJbojuy and LetjatioH^ 
Ko. i. 1872). From these figures we learn that there 
were then 1141 primary or demotic schools, 136 grammar 
or Hellenic schools, 7 gymnasia, and finally, the crown 
of the whole, the university of Athens ; besides 6 nautical 
schools, a polytechnic school, 4 theological seminaries of 
tho Greek Church, and various private institutions main- 
tained by Catholic or Protestant societies. At the primary 
schools, the usual elementary branches only are taught,— 
readings writing, arithmetic, the catechism, grammar, 
hbtory, geography, natural history, agriculture^ and draw- 
ing. In tho Hellenic schools instruction is given besides 
in the least difficult of the ancient Greek auUiors; and in 
the gymnasia, a more thorough acquaintance is made with 
ancient Greek, and with Latin and French, mathematics^ 
logic, anatomy, physics, and natural histoiy. The teachen 
of the primary schools are educated at a training instita- 
tion in Athens; those of the Hellenic schools must be 
licentiates of a university ; and those of the gymnasia must 
have the degree of FLD. The primary schools ore main- 
tained at the expense of the communes, with a subsidy, in 
certain particular cases, from the state. The total amount 
spent by the communes for this object comes to about one- 
sixth part of their income, or over £40,000 in all, and the 
whole Government grant for primary education in 1872 
was £4171. At these schools a small fee is charged, 
running from Id. to 5d. a month, from all who are able to 
pay it Tlio grammar schools, the gymnasia, and tha 
uuiversity are maintained entirely by the state, the ex- 
pense in 1877 exceeding £35,000 for the two cUsses of 
secondary schools, and £18,000 for the university; at these 
schools and the university edacation is entirely gratuitous, 
and is furthermore encouraged by the existence of varioua 
exhibitions for meritorious pupils, won by competition. 
The university was erected at a cost of £10,000, raised 
by private subscription from Greeks all over the world, 
and is fumibhed with excellent laboratories and ttuseuma, 
a library of 150,000 volumes, medical hospitals, an 
astronomical observatory, and a botanical garden. It has 
4 faculties— arts, medicine, law, and theology— 52 pie- 




fenooi 12 feOom, and, after a canioiiliim''bf 4 year^ 
Mofen the degrees of licentiate and doctor, wbidi are 
indispensable for ihoee who contemplate becoming lawyen^ 
medical men, or teachers in the higher schools. It was 
opened in 1835 with 52 students ; in 1854 it had 643 ; it 
now hu 140a In 1872 it had 1244,— of whom 26 were 
students of theology, 622 of hiw, 423 of medicine, 120 of 
arts, and 53 of phannacj. The small number of Uieologi- 
cal students is partly accounted for by the existence of 
four other theological seminazies in Greece, supported by 
priTste funds, — one at Athens and three in the proyinoes, 
—and partly by the scandalous neglect of clerical educa- 
tion that obtains in Greeca In 1867 there were only 115 
stodento at these four theological seminaries. A large pro- 
portion of the students at the university have always been 
foreign Greeks, for professional men are trained there not 
only for Greece itself but for the whole region of the 
LsTsnt Out of the 1244 students who attended in 1872, 
249 were Greeks from foreign parts, — 124 of these being 
stndenls o£ medicine^ 66 of law, and 6 of theology. No 
one is admitted as a student who has not completed his 
edncatioii at a gymnasium. The salary of a professor 
hardly amounts to X200 a-year. There is no school 
iDspectioii beyond that of the demarcfa. 

Education is by law compulsory for children from seven 
to twelve yoars of age, bnt this hiw is not enforced, for it 
does not require to be ; and the results of educatbn in 
Greece are the more remarkable as being the fmits of 
what is practically purely voluntary attendance Every 
ei^teenth person in Greece is at school; in Russia only 
every serenty-seventh is sa In 1872 the total number 
of pupils was 81,197,— of whom 65,111 were males and 
only 16,086 females. Boys and girls are taught at sepa- 
rite schools ; of the primary schools, 942 are for boys, 
with 1009 male teachers and 52,943 pupils, and only 199 
for girls, with 221 female teachers and 11,035 pupiU 
The Hellenic schools and gymnasia are for boys only, and 
in 1872 lisd 6055 and 1942 pupils respectively. There 
are, however, various private schools for girls, with an 
Aggregate attendance of 5000. These figures show that 
there is a serious defect in female education, for which 
Dsither the (Jovemment of Greece nor the pepple hare due 
Bolicitude. It ought to be mentioned, however, that there 
is one phase of female education in which Greece is in 
sdvanoe of many other European countries, for the medical 
ediod of Athens is open to female students, who num- 
bered 42 in 1879. 

Wehaye no exact statisdcs as to the numbers engaged 
IB each branch of industry severally, but Bikelas gives 
m the Jottmal of the Statistical Society of London for 
1868 an esUmate for the year 1861, aooording to which 
nearly half the population (49*37 per cent) were agricul- 
turists and shepherds, and more than a third of the 
reaiainder (or 18*66 per cent of the whole population) in 
the liberal professions. 13'87 per cent were engaged in 
indostrial pursuits^ 8*43 per cent in trade, 5'40 per cent 
were domestie servants, and only 4'27 per cent were 
peraoDs of independent means. Government officials and 
their families comprise a twelfth part of the population. 
There is great want of employers with considerable capital, 
and the amount of labour done and wages earned by the 
workmen is much diminished by the extraordinary nnmber 
oC ecclesiastical holidaya they are re<inired to obeervei 
There are 195 fast d^ in Greece, and the nnmbw of 
working days in the year neyer exceeds 265. There are no 
ptapen in Greece^ no poor-law or poor-rate^ and^no veligbns 
sttodatioDB for diaritable puipoeesL Bcg^^ are very rare^ 
sod absblote destitution may be said not to exist - - 

Agiienltore b still in its inf^m^. A larger propoit&oii 
el iti^tna is imoiiUhBted than obtaibs.iii^any eonntiy 

in Europe except Bnsna; bat that k exphiined by the 
unusually large part of it which is occupied by mountains. 
We have no exact atatistics since 1860, but then onlyone- 
seventh was under cultivation. Its entire area (exclusive of 
the Ionian Islands, not then part of it), was 45,699,248 
stremmas, — a stremma being a little over a quarter of an 
acre. Of these only 17,824,000 were capable of cultiva- 
tion, and only 6,076,000 actually under it, and half of this 
amount is always f^ow from Uioir system of working it 
By universal testimony the county- mi^^t grow food for 
three times its present population, yet it has to import 
cereals eyery year to an amount exceeding a third of its 
own produce^ and over X1,000,000 in valua But agricul- 
ture contends with many difficultias in Greece, most of 
them, Uke the vicious land-tax^ the want of roads, and the 
imperfect agricultural methods, being happily remediable. 

The soil ii, aa a rule, light and thin. In many placea 
there is great lack of rain and running water, but the 
people are expert in irrigation. The chief producta are 
com, wine, fruit, and oil Six different kinda of wheat 
are grown, producing, in a favourable season, as much as 
10 or 13 returns, and after a dry spring from 3 to 5. Good 
crops axe got of rye^ barley, and maize ; oats do not grow 
80 weO, and potatoes not at all Pulse thiivee everywhere^ 
and rice is produced in the plaina of Marathon and Argos, 
and in marshy land elsewhere. Cotton and tobacco have 
been introduced in our own day, and giye good returns. 

Greece b still in want of one of the first requbites 
to agricultural prosperi^, — a resident proprietary. The 
modem kingdom began with almost no proprietors. Under 
the Turks two-thirds of the land belonged to the sultan, 
and became at the revolution simply national property, 
which the Government has been eelling ever since to pri* 
Tate owners on more or less reasonable terma. The 
peasants are showing a passion for land, and save np to 
buy their crofts, and in thb way a large class of small 
freeholders b bdng created, with what effect upon agricul- 
ture we have no means as yet of determining. There were 
16,122 proprietors in 1861. The relation between bnd- 
loxd and tenant b the metayer aystem of taking as rent or 
usufruct a shsre of the net produce, usually a third, but in 
the case of Goyemment land 15 per cent Great part of 
the agricultural labourers are not Greek subjects, but are 
Mahometan Albauans from Thessaly and Epirus, who come 
into Greece mimually in harveat>time^ in bands of 30 or 40 
under a captain, who work at lower rates than Greeks and 
work longer, for they have no feasts to observe^ and who 
contrive by frugal living to carry back three-fourths of 
. their earnings to their familiee at homa 

The methods of cultivation in use are still primitive. 
Modem implements ars not employed to any great extent, 
though their manufacture b carried on at Syra and the 
Firaus, and though even the steam plough haa been 
actually introduced in Elie. The Greek plough b still 
that of Homer, which the husbandman carries about hb 
croft on hb shoulder, and which hardly does more than 
scrape the aurfaoe of Uie ground. It b wrought by oxen, 
Greek horsee — the old ThessaUan breed — being small and 
unfit for hxttk work. There b no system of rotation of 
crops. Fields are cropped till they are exhausted, and 
then left fallow for a year or twa The farmers have no 
idea of manure or drainage^ There are few endosnres^ 
and eyen the laying out of the fields b slovenly, — a p^tch 
of thb crop here^ and a patch of that thine. The houses 
of the peasantry ars sheds of wood or huts of mud, without 
either chimney or window, bnt always with a picture of 
the "^igiu insidei 

With an the defects in the Greek system of cultivation, 
agricultural returns show gndual HiofoA alow progress. 
In 1846 theyieM for the year of wheat bariex, and naiM. 




^as'es^nated at 6,000,000 kilots, a kilot being nearly 
7*3 gallons ; in 1876, 14,000,000. In 1860 then wen 
3,287,645 stnmmas — if., 565,048 acres — under cereal 
crops, which yielded 9,512,993 kilots of grain — %.e., 
1,165,807 quarters, or 2 quarten an acre. 

/ VixMyanls tre nomerou, but the wine is poor, with little bodj, 
and ii mined for European use by the reein put in to proeerre it 
All proTlnces prodnee wine, bat the best is that of Santorin, which 
is shipped lai^oly to Rossia. There is stiU a Kalmsie wine, thcngh 
It is no longer that which was onoe so celebrated under the name of 
JMUJmsey ; and the Kephiasia wine of Attica and the red wine of 
2aate are in good repute. There has been a large increase in the 
number of yinejards, and a marked improvement in the manufac- 
ture of wine since the kingdom besan, and Greek wines hsTe been 
of «ome commercial importance since 1868. In 1880 there were 
oiUt 26,000 stremmss under vines ; there are now 700,000. 
ff' A grape poculiar to Greece is that of Coxinth, which, from the 
place wnere it grows, is called the currant It constitutes the 
lariiest export of Greece, and goes almost exdnsiTelT to England to 
maKe the national plum-pud^ng. Its cultivation has been lamly 
increased of late. In 1820 only 10,000,00aib were raised, and in 
1831, after the destruction of the vinos by Ibrahim Pasha, only 
5,000,000 lb, but in 1851 there were 67,000,000 lb, and in 1876 
106,000,000 lb,— valued at iCl, 400,000. There are now 40,000 
acres of ground under currants alone, and this jirobably cannot be 
much increased, for the Corinthian vine is fastidious, and grows 
only on the northern and western shores of the Morea, on some of 
the Ionian Islands, and at Mesolonghi, and nowhere else in Greece or 
in the world. The vines bear in their sixth yedr, but do not attain 
full pwfection till their twelfth. The grapea ai« gathered in 
August, dried in the sun, and packed. 

Hie olive and the mulberry are verv important products of culti- 
vation. The oil of Attica has still its ancient reputation. It is 
calculated that in Greece in 1876 there were 12,000,000 olive trees, 
which yielded 19,000,000 okea of oil. In 1834 there wore only 
2,800,000 trees, yielding 1,000,000 okes. The mulberry grows best 
in the south of the Morea, and there the house of almost every 
peasant is given up in part to rearing the silk-worm, the eggs being 
nestled in the bosoms of the women. There were in 1838 only 
800,000 mulberry trees in Greece ; in 1876 there were 2,000,000. 

A natural proUnctiou of Greece of oieat importance is valonia, 
the husk of tne acorn of the Qucreiu jSgilopi, an oak of which con* 
aiderable foreets exist in Arcadia, Attica, the island Zca, and other 
places. Valonia is valuable on account of the amount of tannin it 
pontains, and is much exported to England and luly for use in 

dyeing and tannine. Another •ppcies of oak, the Qucreuicoeei/tra^ 
wnich grows loraely on Mount Ta^getus, breeds the insect called 
kormo% which, when dried, looks like a beny, and is used in dyeing 

the rod fez of the country. Turpentine is obtained in large quanti- 
ties from the pines of Cithcron and elsewhere. 

Cotton and tobacco are the only j^rodncts whose cultivation is 
free from taxation, the exemption bemff made with a view to the 
encouragement of their cultivation. Cotton is now grown to a 
eonsiderable extent, its culture having received a great impetus 
during the American civil war. It is produced particularly on the 
marshv lands of Levadia, and Phthiotis in northern Greece. In 
1862 the produce was 28,637 quintals; in 1864, 103.616 quintals. 
The annual yield of tobacco is 4,000,000 okes. Opium, madder, 
and flax arc grown in the northern parts of Greece. 

Greece is rich in fmita. The fig» of Attica have not degenerated, 
and thev are produced to a considenible extent in other parts also, 
ispecially Messenia. In 1834 there were but 60,000 fig-trees ; in 
1861, 800,000. Apricots, oranges, lemons, pomegranates, and 
citrons grow well in the islands, and the firuit trade might be 
larnely increased. 

Though there is much exeaUent timber in the Greek forests, it is 
practically useless from want of roads, so that it is cheaper to import 
wood from abroad. In 1860 there were 7,000,000 stremmss of land 
nnder forest, and it is estimated that now only 6,600,000 are ao. 

The herds are chiefly bred on the mountain pastures, and are 
mainly aheep and goata. ^fust of the cattle are need in agrienltUFsl 
labour. In 1865 the total number of sheep in the country subject 
to taxation was 1,778,729 ; of goats, 2,289,128 ; of cattle, 226,787— 
of which 168,927 were work oxen ; of horses, 69,787 *, of mulea, 
29,637 ; of asses, 64,051 ; of swine, 65,776 ; and of camels, 72. 
Cows* milk and butter are considered unwholesome in Greece 
(Kruse, fftlku^ i. p. 868), and the butter and cheese in use are 
from eweiT and goats' milk. The honey of Greece is not equal to 
that of other countriea ; even that of HTmettns,^-so ISunoua in 
ancient days when honey was exceptionaUy prised, boouiae men 
were ignorant of sugar, and which ia still one of tiie best kinds in 
Greeoe,*-oonld not compete with French in the English market 
But over £86,000 worth of honey is produced in Greece eveiy year, 
and goes chiefly to Turkey. There are extensive fisheries on sonM 
psrts of ths oossts. . 

The land tax is still the TniklBh system of exacting a percentage— 
flenerally a tenth— of the mas produce of the land ; and Uioogh, 
in the case ot the vineyards, a money commutation, based on the 
planter^s declaration, is coming into use, the tax is, as a rule, paid 
m kind. This system is rendered more objectionable hj tiio tax 
being farmed out to private contractors. The cultivator cannot 
reap bis crop, though it be rine, till the day appointed I7 tho tax 
oollector, and he must cut it then, thooffh it be sreen. whsn cut, 
he must oarry the whole crop on pack animals (there being no 
roads for waggons), sometimes for miles, to the particular public 
throahing'floor which the collector fllxes upon, and he muat wait 
with it there till the collector can find time to see it threshed nnd 
take his tithe, which is often weeks, sometimes, it is said, even as 
as long ss three months. Proposals for the abolition of this method 
of taxation have often been introduosd into the chamber of deputies, 
but the matter has always been detered till they should have 
a rsgister of landsi which', however, fhsy seem to take no steps to 

When Capodistria assumed the government of Creece fifty years 
ago. he said there were two things he meant to give the nation,— 
roads and education. The system of education has been very satis* 
factorily built up since that time, but its roads are still to make. 
We have no recent statistics on the subject, but Bangabo says thai 
in 1867 nineteen roads had been made since the kinsdom ^ps ostab- 
lished, with a total length of 380 Idlometm ; and Watson, writing 
in 1872. comphdns that, from want of roads at that time, it cost 
more to cany crain from Marathon to Athens (25 milea) than to 
biinff it from tne Black Sea, while highlv fertile tracta of country, 
not far from seaport towns, were left entirely uncultiratcd because 
of the expense 01 the transit of their produce. Eveiy man in Greece 
is by law obliged to give at least three days' labour in Uie }-ear, (ir 
its equivalont in money, for road-making ; and a law was passed in 
1876 to spply one-fifth of the proceeds from ths sale of state lands 
to making roads. 

Manufacturing industries are steadily advancing. According to a 
reiwrt i&sued in 1876 by Mansolas, director of the statistical bur«an 
at Athena, there are in Greece 95 steam- mills and factories, with 
a total of 1967 horse-power; the most important of these have 
been establiabeil since 1869. They include 35 flour-milla, 12 for 
cotton-weaving;, 2 for rotton-ftpinning, 4 for winning, 6 for aillk. 
weaving, 10 oU-milla, 9 for constructinff machinery, 4 for making 
winea and s|drits, 8 tsnneries, 2 metal-fuundries, 1 powder-mill, 
and 7 others of varioua kinds. Shipbuilding ia carried on at 
the seaportiL The Greeks excel in tailoring, confectioner}*, and 
cmliroiaery. As an index to the industrial procrrss of the nation 
it may be noted that in the International Exnibitiou of 1851 there 
were only 35 Greek exhibitors; in 1862, 295 ; and in 1878, 1000. 
Greece has cstabliahed a series of industrial c xiiibttions of ita own, 
--the new Olympic gamei^ aa they are termed, which a wealthy 
Greek left £3000 a year to found,— which combine literary, acien* 
tiflc, and athletic competitions with those of industry, and which 
oocur, like the old Olymnic ganiea, every four yoara. The cotton 
industij la making dedaed progresa. The annual export of raw 
ootton la diminishing^ and ita importation is increasing ; and, to 
encourage the trade, there ia no duty on native cotton, nnleas 
exported, while the import duty on raw cotton waa reduced m 187& 
Leather ia made chiefly at Svra. 

The marble quarriea of Pentelicusb Ooiyate, and Faros are im» 
portent worka. The coals of Eubow are not much used, ss their 
neat-giving capacity is small. The only mining operations in the 
country are those of the Laurium Company, which, by help of 
improved modem appliancea, extracts treasure nom the waste wnich 
the ancient workers of the mines threw away, and which haa been 
roughly guessed to contain still 120,000 tons of lead. The acoria 
or refuse neaps of Laurium are dug up and carried on trucka, by • 
short line of rail belonging to the company, to the town of 
ISrgaateria, near Caps Colonna, built by tnemaelvea to be their 
workahop and port ; there theee aoorisB are re-smelted, and Tisld 

maritime oommeree, tor which the situation and configuration 
of the country affcsd unusual iadlitiea. In 1821 Greece had only 
440 vessels, with a total tonnage of 61,450 tons, whereaa in 1875 
ahe had 5440 vessels, 27 of them steamers, with a tonnage in all of 
262,082 tons, and employing 20,760 men. In 1830 there was 
hardly a harbour in all Greeoe worth ths name, the Pineua being 
then barely accessible to fishing boats ; there are now 65 good ports. 
It had only one lighthouse in 1847 ; it hss now 46, but mora are 
still urgently needed. 

The atndta of Euripushavs been dssrsd, deepened, and widened, 
and an iron bridge thrown scro«. Thm ars five chambers of 
oommcit^ The chief porU are Hermopolis (Syra), Hvdra, Spema, 
Corfu, Zante, Pinsus, Fstrsa^ Mesolonghi, Nauplia, Santorin, 
Naxos, Corinth. 

Ths QOBBmsiQS of Chseos is vsoslly dividsd into gsnersl sad 




tpKulf—fgDenl Inoliidiiig all txporti aiid fmporti irbstarer, md 
flpecul tajong in only imports meant for home ooBiumption end 
exports of oomnkodities modooed in tbe oonntiy. The snMwd oom- 
neroe amoonts nsoaUy to SOper cent of the gensnL The general 
eommereo of Qreooe in 1878 amounted to £8,S74,108, of which 
£8,198,629 vara imports and £8,177,669 oxports. An Idas of the 
madnble p a rog rais of iti oommene maybe obtained by oomparing 
theie figaieB Vith the foOowing :-.In 1888 the total Gnek eom- 
metoe amonnted to £671,490, and in 1840 to £1,086,874 ; in 1860 it 
ms £3»147,000, and in 1870 £5,864,000. England oconpiea the 
fist place among eonntriaa trading with G^eeo^ ita tnnaaotiona 
baiog mora than double thoae of any other ooontiy, and amoonting 
in 1878 to 41 joer cent, and in 1876 to 88 per oent, of the whole 
jeommercc of Greece. Taking the sTerage of the aix yeais ending 
1874, Wyndham ealcolatea uiat 60-76 per cent of the ezporta of 
Qneee go to Englanil, and that 88*86 per cent of Ita imports come 
from England. Torker and Austria, ita nearest neighbobis, stand 
Bext 26 per cent of its importa are oereals and floor,— the oereals 
from BasBU^ Turkey, and Boomanta, the flour tnm Trance : and 
20 per eent are tissaea, mainly from England. Thoo^ timoer is 
90 abondant, it still is one of the largest imports, amounting to 
£187,778 in 187& The other chief imparts an cattle, salt meal^ 
lioe, coals, batter, iron, and papar. The principal ttam of ex- 
pat, amounting to half the whole, is oorrants; this in 1876 waa 
21.860,467, of which £1,088,482 went to England ; then come oU, 
WM, iMd, fig^ Talonia, wines and spirits, tobacco^ cotton yam, Jcc 

Ihe Greek coasting trade is not open toforeignerB. Thesteamers 
flf the Hallenio Company poaseas a monopoly of tifts ooastsge of 
those waters, the oh|ect being to enooozags the daralapmsnt of 
fistiTe steam nayigation. 

There is only one railway in Grseoe, if we except the priyate one 
afacady menUoned belonginff to the Laurium Company. It is from 
fiuBUM to Athens^ is 7| mues long, belongs to Gorenunent^ end 
carries paaaengeis only. Another railway is projected l^m the 
Pizcns to Lamm (Zeitonm) in the north (140 mnes), with the yiew 
of eonneoting Greece with the general nilway system of Europe. 
There ware 1286 miles of telegraph in Greece in 1876, the piD p e rty 
of GoremmeEti and worked at a considerable loss. The postal 
^^ftem isa Gorenmient undertakings and haa been a source of wofit 
€Dly rince 1861, when postage stampa were introduced. In 1876 
tine wera 181 post-ofllces in Greece. There are two banka,^the 
Hationsl, -with its hesd oiBos st Athens, and the Ionian, with ita 
heui office at OocfiL The Kational had in 1868 a paid-up capital 
of £540,000, with a TCserye fund of £216,000. 

The currency of Greece ia that of the Latin monetaxy league, 
which it Joined in 1868. 'and which aUowa it to strike 
98,000,000 sClTer francs and aa much gold aa it thinks proper. 
Under Otho, Greeoe had a coinage of ita own, on the basis of a 
doaUe standard and the decimal qrstem, the unit beim^ the drachma 
(Miial to 8|d.X irhichjras divided into 100 equal parta called leptaa. 
Oouis of Tanoua Tames were struck, but onl^ £4000 in gold 

Seoes, and only £36,000 in ailTer, an amount quite inadequate for 
e trade of the country, and quickly diiappearlng alto^ther, so 
tliat there is probably not a single com of tnem now left m Greece. 
It became necessary therefore to declare the cold and silver coins of 
oQier eonntries a legal tender in Greece ; and theee^ with the notes 
of the ITstioiial and Ionian Banks, became, and stOl remain, the 
pnctieal onzrency of the countrr, so that the simplest payment may 
nquize a pmsding arithmetical calculation, for people haTC to pay 
fai BOTsieigns andT thalers pricea stated in dracnmaa and l^ptas. 
Thooj^ ueunit of the Latin euireney is the franc, the official 
ioooants of Greece sre stillreckoned in old drachmi^ in distinction 
ftom which the franc is termed the new drachma. Thefeate28oUl 
sad 26 new drachmas in the pound sterling^ 

The system of weighto and measurea ia the Turidah. Their 
BMisnresof length sre— the pique, which iseqnsl to 27 indies ; the 
njal ut, equal to 1 metre, or 8*2808 feet; the stadion, equal to 
10<62 English milea. Their measures of superficial extent are— the 
strammay equal to one-fburth of an Engliui aae, and the hectare 
aqual to 10 stremmss. Their stsndsrd of wri^t is the osntar or 
Qdntd, ecnial to 128 lb sroirdupoia It is divided Into 44 okes, 
M oksbAg equal to 2 -84 1^ and subdivided into 400 old snd 1 280 
njaldiams. A kilo, used for weighing com, is half a o«iitir» or 22 
am, 816 kiloa are equal to 100 quarters. ^ 

Ths flnsnfllal oooaditioii of Qrseoe is naMtiaCMtofy. lis i 
espenditore usually esBseds ite ineome^ and it ia deeply in debt 
The new Idngdom waa bom in debt^ and coninoted to p^ the 
sj^wnaee of the revolution that gave it being; and to that original 
burden it haa from time to time added fteih UaUliti^ till it hae 
now no longer any credit in the money markets of Europe, and 
is deepsr in debt in proportion to ite revenue than any European 
oonniiT exospt Spain. The total debt of Greece waa £16,860,108, 
accordmg to Mr Malet's report ia 1876, and, what with the aooumn- 
lation of interest snd the contraction d a ft«sh debt for snay 
extension during the Servian insunection of 1876, it must now be 
over £16,000,000. TUs debt oonsistB of two kinds— foreign and 
intnnuiL The fineign debt is of two pertL Tlisre are first the 
original two loans, amounting betwen them to £2,800,000, whidi 
were negotiated hy the revolutionists in 1824 and 1825 wtth two 
SnffUsh nouses st 69 snd 66 per eent, sad whose coupons sre now 
held msinly hf Dutch SMenlatoaL On this Greece haa never paid 
aiisrthingofinter«t The Greek b eas uij i , slthouA it socepts the 
obligation, jaots it off from year to year under the heediiu| 
"Debired Debt" With aocumnktlng interest st 6 per cent, fi 
hsd increased to £8,084/K)0 in 1874. Tie second part cil the fonign 
debt iaa loan of £2,400,000 jraaienteed by the three protec* 
powers en the aeeearion of Otho in 1882, and ncgotiatod 
Bothaohild at 94 On this Grseoe paid interest for a lew yeara,b«t 
ita payment has so frllen into szresr that in 1874 thia debt had 
grown to £8,870,000. fniere la also a smsll debt due to the 
fiavaxian Government amountiug now to £260,000, and there are 
some stiU nuller debts to other foreign creditors. The intemsl 
debt of the country consists psrtly of indemnity due to saflbnn in 
the War of Independence, partly of loans contrscted utth capitalists 
within the kingdom sftsr its credit abroad was gone ; it now 
amounti in all to £6,270^889. 

The revenue for 1877, according to the eatlmate in tiie budget. 
waa £1,401,687, and the expenditure £1,466,708. The actual 
— * " usually Ihll short of the budget estimate, for Greece par- 
subjects to fall much into arrear with the payment of their 
and in 1867 itw* calculated there was an agf^r^gate ef 
arreara of taxea amounting to £2,226,000. This revenue is received 

ins, muiea 

vuces ; psrtly tnm. the public services, the poet^ffioe, 
and printing ; partly from the rent of the pubUc doniains, 
<iuarriea, hot springa, salt, fiaheriea. Ihiits, olive oardens, vinevaras, 
sad eurrsnt plsntations ; and paxtirfrom the sue of nstioniilsuds 
snd the encleaiaetical rsvenues. The laigest sourees of revenue srs 
the land tax, which brought in 8,600,000 draohmaa in 1877 ; the 
customs, 18,400,000 ; snd the stampa, 4,200,000. The cost of 
collecting the land tax ia very extravagant It takee £26 to collect 
£100, or ten timea more than it doee m France. The Greeka are 
not Borely taxed. Bangabe eetimatea that they pay 28'48 drachmae 
(about 17a) each in the year as taxea. 

Of the expenditure of Greece^ nearly one-fourth part goea to pay 
interest on fis debt, snotherfonrth to maintain iti anny and navy, 
and a large sum (£186,886) to pay pensions to persons who sufTersd 
in the revolution, or who posse ss e d interests in the lonisn Msnds 
at the time of their cearion. The education and worship of the 
country cost £76,427, and the foreign office and diplomatic aervloe 
only £40,267. The administration of Justice tskes £107,716, snd 
the depertment of the interior, induduw the pcet-cfflce snd many 
other outlayi, £171,626. The salariea of members of the chamber 
of deputies come to £16,071. 

Xtteraliifv.— Buraian, Otogrxgihtt von CfrUehtnUmd (Leipaie, 
1862) ; Tdaer, Ztetum e» ths Chogmvky nf Chme$ (London, 1878) ; 
BOku (Leipste, 1826-47); Jidius Sohmidt^ B^IMlgo tmr 
Uaehm Chogn^ eon QriecUnimd (Lsiuio, 1864-70); 
j,xiiii», Bidorfi^GrtM (Oxford, 1877) ; Mauier, Jku OrikMaAt 
VoOt if» ^fmUiduT und pritai-fyidUikhtr Btaidwmg (Heidelbexg^ 
1886) ; About, La Or^ Oni n^ por aii u (Paris, 1864) ; Bsngabs^ 
Qrm^ htttbriMrmidliwmUPogUimiSBwYittli, 1867); fitriok- 
land, Grttc$, iU OmiUkm and Bmoarm Oimdon, 1861) ; Wyss^ 
ImvnmUmt tf Cfmoi (London, 1871) ; Tnckermsn, n§ €frta» ^ 
To-dag (London, 1878) ; Moraitinia, Za OrktNmmpP Oh ml 
(Paris. 1877); flei«eat^ Jfow Grmt (London. 1878)| and the 
annuid nporta of the British' secwtwisi of embMij and kseatioB 
andoftheBritiahoonaola -' if.lBL) 


Sioxioir L — Qbxik Hxbtost to the Diaxk ot 


The wily history of Greece k the fint chapter in the 
politicel and inteUeetaftl life of Europe. In contrast with 
natioiis still in the tribal stage the Greeks hare already 
the life of cities ; in contrast with the despotie monaxchies 
of the East they recognin the principle thtl no penonal 

nde should bo tmliinited. Fiomtheiintthqri^pearasa 
people obedient to reason and to a natiTe instmct of 
msasQie. In the political sphere this leads them to aim 
at a dne balance of powers and tendencies in the states at 
the defim'tion of dntiea and the proteetioa of ri^ta In 
the inteQeetnal sphere it leads them to explore caasesy to 
intaipret thought in dear fonns, to^ndnawftil exprarioa 


O B E E E 


for ihe iocIbI tMnffi and mrmpathies. Tbe hUtorical 
interest of Greece does not begin therefore only at the 
point where details and dates become approzimatelj certun, 
bat with the first glimpees of that ordered life out of 
which the ciTilisation of Europe arose. At a later stage 
the Greek commonwealths offer the most instmctiTe stndj 
which the ancient world affords in the working of oligarchic 
and democratic institntions. Then, as the Boman power 
xises^ culminates, and declines, Greek history assumes a new 
character and a new interest From Alexander the Great 
dates the beginning df a modem Greek nation, one, not in 
blood, bat in speech and manners. Two main threads link 
together the earlier and later history of dyilized man. 
One passes throngh Bome^ and is Latm ; the other passes 
throngh the new Borne in the east, and is Greek. 

In a sketch Uke the present it woold be impossible to 
attempt a deUtiled narr&tive of facts, which, besides, fcU to 
be considered under paTticnlar headings. The aim here 
will be lather to trace in oatline the generr' coarse of the 
development, and to indicate^ so for as a rapid sarrey 
permits, the leading caoses and tendencias which were at 
work in its saccessive sta^ 

Six periods may be distingnished. L The prehistorio 
period, down to the close of the great migrations. IL The 
early history of the leading states down to abont 500 B.a 
nL The Ionic roYolt and the Persian wars/502 -479. IV. 
The period of Atiienian snpremaey, 478^431. Y. The 
Peloponnesian War, 431-404, followed by the period of 
Spartan and then of Theban ascendency, 404-362. YI 
ThB reigns of Philip and Alexander, 359-323 B.a 

L The Prekittorio Periodj down to the dote ofihegretd 

• ** Ancient Hellas," says Aristotle, " is the oonntiy about 
Dodona and the Adielons, .... for the Belloi lived there^ 
and the people then called the Graikoi, bnt now the 
Hellenes " (Meteor., i. 14). The name GraHeoi probably 
meant the **old" or *< honourable " folk (Cor^^ius, Etywt,, 
130). The Italians may have enlarged the application of 
thu name, which they found on the eastern side of the 
Ionian Gait The modems have followed the Bomans in 
riving it to the whole people who, from very early times^ 
have always called themselves HeUenee, 

The evidence of language tells something as to the point 
of civilization which had been reached by the ancestors of 
the Indo-Eoropean nations before the HelleneA parted from 
the common stock in Central Asia. They had words for 
••father," "mother," "brother," "sister,* "son," "daugh- 
ter," and also for certain affinities by marriage, as " father- 
in-law," " brother-in4aw," " daughter-in-law." They lived 
in houses ; they wore clothes niade of wool or skins ; as 
arms they had the sword and the bow; they had f ocks 
and herds, goats and dogs ; they drove, if they did not 
ride^ horses. They were a pastoral rather than an agri- 
cultoral people. They knew how to work gold, silver, 
and copper ; they conld count up to a hnndred ; they 
reckoned time by the lunar month ; they spoke of the sky 
as the Heaveti-father. The first great migration from the 
commflon home was that which carried the ancestors of the 
Teutonic, Slavonic, and Lithaanian tribes mto north-western 
Europe. The next was that which carried the ancestors of 
Greeks, Italians, and Celts into southem and south-western 

Langaage indicates that there must have been a period 
daring which the forefathers of Greeks and Italians, after 
the Oslts had parted from them, lived together as one 
peoplcL Again, the Greek langaage, uniqueui its character- 
istic development, tells that the Hellenes, after the Italians 
had left them, inust have long remained an undivided 
peopler But to us this primitive Hellenic uni^ is prehia- 

torio. We finfc know the HeDoiet aa a laoe divided into 

two great branches, each with well-marked charaoteristiei 
of its own, — Doriane and loniane ; while those who hava 
been less affected by the special caoses which produced these 
divergences from an earner common type are regarded aa 
forming a third branch, and are called collectively JBoliemM, 
Farther, we hear of a people distingnished indeed from 
the Hellenes, yet apparently felt (as by Thucydides) to be 
not wholly alien from them, — a people represented as 
having been before them in Greece proper, on the ooasti^ 
and in the islands of the .£)gean, — ^the Pdaegiane, In 
some Homeric passages, and those among the oldest, the 
name Pdaegoi denotes a tribe of Aehioan or ^olian 
Greeks living in Thesssly {Jliad, ii 681 ; xvi 233). In 
other poetical texts of later date^ aul repeatedly in Hero- 
dotas, PeUugoi is a general designation for pcjple of whom 
the Greeks knew Uttle definitely, except that they had 
preceded the Hellenic dwellers in the land. In this second 
and vagae use^ "Pelaegian" is virtoally equivalent to 
" prehistoric." 

The highlands of Phrygia have the best daim to be 
regarded as the point of departore for the diHtindardy 
HeUenio migrations. In these fertile regions of north- 
western Asia Ifinor, the Hellenes, after the Italians had 
left them, may have lived, first as a part of the Phrygian 
nation, and afterwards as a separate people. From these 
seats a great wave of migration seems to have carried over 
the Helleepont into Europe a population which diffused 
itself throngh Greece and the Pelopounesas, as well as ovef 
the coasts and islands of the archipelaga In after ages, 
when the kinship, thon^ perhaps diimly suspected, was no 
longer recognized, the Hellenes called these earlier occu- 
pants of the land Pdaeffiam. It has been coigectared that 
in Pdaegoe we have combined the roots of iripay and ttfu 
(17a). The name would then mean "the furthergoer," 
" the e ligrant" It would thus be appropriate as the name 
given, by the Hellenes, who had remained behind in Phzy- 
gia» to the kinsmen who had passed over into Eorope 
before them. 

The second epoch of migration ficom the Phrygian high- 
lands appears to have been one by which sb^e Hellenic 
tribes, with special gifts and qualities^ were carried fortli to 
become the quickeners of historic life among inert masses 
of population, among those " Pelaagians " who had long 
been content to follow the calm routine of husbandmen or 
herdsmen. The ancestors of the lonians went down to the 
coasts of Asia Minor, and became the founders of a race 
whose distinctive powers found scope in maritime enter- 
prise and in commerce. The ancestors of the Dorians 
passed into the highlands of Norriiem Greece, and there 
developed the type of hardy mountaineer which muted the 
robust vigour of hunter and warrior with a firm loyalty to 
ancestral traditions in religion and in civil government { 

Of these two branches, — the Ionian and the Dorian, — 
the Ionian was that which most actively influenced the 
early development of Greece. But the lonians themselves 
derived the first impulses of their progress from a foreign 
source. Those Canaaniteo or "lowlanders" of Byriay whom 
we call by the Greek name of Phoenicians, inhabited the 
long narrow strip of territory between Lebanon and the 
sea. Phceniciay called "Eeft" l^ the Egyptians, had at a 
remote period contributed Semitic settlers to the Delta or 
" Isle of Caphtor ; " and it would appear from the evidence 
of the Egyptian monuments that the Eefa, or Phoenicians, 
were a great commercial people as early as tiie 1 6th century 
B.G. (^rus, visible from the heights of Lebanon, waa 
the first stage of the Phoenician advance into th» Western 
waters ; and to the last there was in Cyprus a Semitio 
element side by side with the Indo-European. Front' 
Pypms the Phflinician navigators prooeededto the soutfa9m 


Q R E E E 


eotits of Asia U inor, when PhcBnfcian odknuflts gndnally 
blended with the natiTeay nntil the entire ieeboaid had 
become ih a great meanire subject to Phoenician inflnencea. 
'Ibofl the Soljrmi, settled in Lyda, were akin to the Caaaan- 
ites ; and tiie Gariana, origtnaUj kinsmen of the Qreeka, 
wereetrengiy affected^by Phoenician contact It was at 
Ubetna especiallj that the Ionian Greeks came into com- 
mercial intercourse with the Phoenicians. Unlike the 
dwelleis on the southern seaboard of Asia Minor, they 
showed no tendency to merge their nationality in that of 
the Syrian strangers. But they learned from them much 
that concerned the art of navigation, as, for instance^ the 
use of the round-built merchant Tessela called ywAoi, and 
probably also a system of weights and measures, as weU as 
the rudiments of some useful arts. The Phoenicians had 
been first drawn to the coasts of Greece in quest of the 
pniple-fiah whi<^ was found in abundance off ue coasts of 
the Peloponnesus and of BoBotia; other attractions were 
fnmnhed by the plentiful timber for shipbuilding which 
the Greek forests supplied, and by veins of silver, iron, 
end copper orei 

Two periods of f^cenicisa influence on early Greece 
nay be distinguished : ^£st^ a period during which they 
were brought into intercourse with the Greeks merely bv 
tisifBc in occasional voyagea ; secondly, a period of Phoeni- 
cian trading settlements in the.islanda or on the coasts of 
the Greek seas, when their influianoe became more penetra- 
ting and thorough. It was probably early in thia second 
penod, — ^perhaps about the end of the 9(h century &a, — 
that tiie Phoenician alphabet became diffused through 
Greece. This alphabet was itself derived from the alpha- 
bet of the Egyptian hieroglyphics, which was brought into 
Phoenicia by the Phoenician settlers in the Delta. It was 
imported into Greece, probably, by the Aranueo-Phoenidans 
of the Gulf of Antiodi, — not by tiw Phoenicians of 1^ and 
Sidoo, — and seems to have superseded, in Asia Minor and 
the islands, a syllabary of some seventy characters, which 
continued to be used in Qyprus down to a late time. The 
direct Phoenician influence on Greece lasted to about 600 
blc. Commerce and navigation were the provinces in 
which the Phoenician influence, strictly so called, was most 
felt by the Greeks. In art and science^ in everything 
that concerned the higher culture^ the Phoenicians seem to 
have been little more than carriers from East to West of 
ligyptian, Asqrriao, or Babylonian ideas. 

The legends of European Greece speak oleariy of foreign 
elements iu civilization and in religious wonhip which cnme 
m from the East But thov do not constrain us to suppose 
that those who brought in these new elements were always,' 
or aa a rule, atrangers to the people among whom they 
brooght tliCBL On the contrary the myths constantly say, 
or imply, that the new comers were akin to the people 
among whom they came ; as the sons of iEgyptus are first 
cousins to the daughters of Daiiaos ; as Cadmus and Pelops, 
thoogh nominally of foreign origin, are thoroughly national 
heroes and founders. Hence it appears reasonable to con- 
dode that the East by which European Hellas was most 
directly and vitally influenced was not the Semitic but the 
Hellenic East; that the Ionian Greeka of Asia Minor, 
after liaving themaelvee been in iotercouree with Phoenicia 
and Egypt, were the chief agents in diffusing the new 
ideas among their kinsmen on the western side of the 
iCgean. Asiatic Greel^s, who had settled among Egyptians 
in the Delta, or who had lived amid Phoenician colonies in 
Ana Minor, would easily be confounded, in popplar rumour, 
with Egyptians or Phoenicians. The Asiatic Greeks, as 
pioneers of civilization in European Greece, i^pear some- 
times under the name of Oarians, — when they are little more 
than teachers of certain improvements in the aii of war, 
•ad have a decidedly foreign charactery-^Hiometimet^M 

Leleges, iriio aie awociated mg^ouJtj with Lyda, Miletoi, 
and the Troad, and who^ as compared with the ^ Oarians," 
are the representativee of a more advanced civiliation. in 
the east the — *^«""g lonians gave their name to the whole 
Greek people, as in the Hebrew Scriptures the Greeks are 
" the sons of Javan," — the UuUm of the I^jptians, the 
launa of the Persians. It does not appear that the 
European Greeks of early days used "Ionian" in thia 
way as a collective name for the Asiatic Greeks. But such 
namee as latim^ loion, lanan Argoi point to a sense fliat 
the civilization which came from Asia Minor was connected 
with Ionia. At a later time the Greeks forgot the loniana 
and Phoenicians who had brought an Eastern civilization to 
the western side of the iEgean. Vividly impressed by the 
great antiquity of this civilization itself, enecially in Egypt^ 
tiiey prof erred to suppose that they had derived it directly 
from the aouroe. 

The appearance of new elements in religioua worship is 
one great mark of the period during whidi Greece in 
Europe was still being changed by influence^ Greek or 
foreign, from the East The wonhip which the fathus of 
the Hellenee had bron^t with than from the common 
home in Asia was the wonhip of the *' Heaven-father,* the 
unseen father who dwells in ether, whose temple is the sky, 
and whose altar is moat fitly raised on the mountain top^ 
aa the ancient shrine of the Arcadian Zeus was the grove 
on the summit of Mount Lyceeua. This is tlie " Pdasgian 
Zens, dwelling afar," to whom the Homeric AchOles praya. 
But as the united Hellenic race parted into tribes, so to 
the fint simple worship of the Heaven-father was added 
a variety of local culta And as mariners from other lands 
began to visit the coasts, t£ey brought in their own goda 
with theoDU Thus Melcartli, the city-god of Tyre, is re- 
cognized in Melicertes as worshipped at the istlimus of 
Corinth. In one Greek form of tlie worship of Herades^ 
Astarte — ^tlie goddess of the Phoenician sauprs— becomes 
Aphrodite, who springs from the sea. The mvth of Adonisy 
the worship of the Aduean Demeter, are other ezamplea 
Thero are^ again, other divinities *vho came to European 
Greece, not directlv from the non-Hellenic East, but as 
deities ahready at home among the loniansi Such waa 
Poseidon, and, above all, Apollo^ whose coming ii every- 
whero a promiM of light and joy. 

little prodse knowledge of the earliest kingdoms and 
states can be extia^ed from the legenda as they have come 
down to us, but some general infereneea aro wairanted. 
The tradition that Minos deared the archipelago of pirates 
and eatablished a wide maritime dominion, that he was 
the fint to sacrifice to the Charites, and that D«dalua 
wrought for him, may be taken at least as indicating that 
Crote played a prominent part in the early history of 
Greek culture, and that thwe was a time when Cretan 
kings were strong enough to protect oonunerce in the 
.£gean waters. Again, though Gordius and Midaa have 
passed into the region of fable, thero aro reasonable grounds 
for the belief that the ancient kings of Phrygia once 
ezerdsed dominion over Asia Minor. The Lydians, in 
whoae origin Semitic and Aryan elements appear to have 
.been mingled, have a twofold interest in this dawn of 
Hellenic history. Fint, they ropresent the earliest kingdom 
in Asia Minor of which anything is certainly known. 
Secondly, they aro on land what the Phoenicians an on the 
sea,— cairien or mediaton between the Greeka and the 
East In the north-west comer of Asia Minor, a branch of 
the Dardani — whose ancestor is describeSl as wonhipping 
the Pelasgian Zeus-— founded the kingdom of the Troas, 
the land of Troy. It has been remarked that the double 
names of the T^jan heroes, — ^Alezander, Paris,— Hector, 
Darius, — ^point to the twofold rebtionship of the Trojans, 
on the one side to Hellas, on the ether to Asia. Jo 




European Greece we find the race known as the MinysEs 
whose early glories are linked with the stoiy of ** Jason and 
the Argonauts " moving southward from the shores of the 
Gulf of Fagase into (he valley of Lake Copais, and found- 
ing the BoBotian Orchomenus. The early greatness of 
Thebes is associated with the name of Cadmus, the king- 
priest who introduces the art of writing, who builds the 
citadel, who founds a system of artificial irrigation. The 
Achnan princes, whoee chivalrous spirit is expressed in the 
Homeric Achilles, rule in the fertile valley of the Thessalian 
Fhthiotis. In the Peloponnesus the Pelopidao at Mycenao 
reign over Aclusans ; and Agamemnon is said to rule^ not 
only "all Argos," but " many islands." The principle on 
which such legends as that of Agamemnon's sovereignty 
may beet be estimated has been well stated by Mr 
Freeman : — ^ 

"The le^nd of Caiatlemagno, amidst infinite perrtnions, ore- 
serves a certain groundwork of real history ; I shoold expect to nnd 
in the legend of Agamemnon a similar gronudirork of real history. 
There is, of coarse, the all-important difference that nt can test the 
one etorj, and that \n cannot test the other, by the certain evidence 
of oontomporarj documenta. This gires vm certainty in one case, 
whUe we cannot get beyond high probability in the other. . . . 
Later Grecian histoiy woold nerer lead us to believe that there had 
been once a single oynasty reigninff, if not as sovereigns, at least 
M suzerains, orer a large portion of insnlar and peninsular Greece. 
80 later mediieTsl historv wonld never lead ns to beliere that there 
had once been a Latin orTentonie emperor, whoee dominionsstretehed 
from the Eider to the Ebra Bat we know that the Carolingian 
legend is thns far confirmed by histoiy ; there is, therefore, no a 
priori objection to the analogous features of the Pelopid legend. 
The trath is that the idea of such an eztensire dominion would not 
have occnired to a later romancer, unless some real history or tradi- 
tion had suggested it to him. 80, again, without some such ground- 
work of history or tradition, no one would have fixed upon liyk^n^ 
a place utterly insignificant in later histoiy, as the capital of this 
•ztensLTa empire. The romancea hare transferred the capital of 
Karl from Aachen to Paris : had it reallybeen Paris, no one would 
have transferred it to Aachen. . . . Vfhether Agamemnon be a 
real man or no^ the combination of intomal and external evidence 
leads us to set down the Pelopid dynasty at Mykdnd as an estab- 
lished fact** 

We now come to a phase in the development of early 
Greece which tradition represents as following, but at no 
great interval, the age in which a Pelopid dynasty ruled at 
Mycena and fought against Troy. This is the period of 
great displacements of population within the mainland of 
European Greece. The first of these migrations is that 
of the people afterwards known as Thessalians. A fierce 
tribe of mounted warriors, they passed from Thesprotia in 
Epirus over the range of PinduS) and subdued or d[rove out 
an >Eolio population who dwelt about Arn^, in the fertile 
lowlands of southern Thessaly. Those of the .^Bolians who 
had not submitted to the conquerors passed southward 
into the land thenceforth called Bcsotia, where, between 
Orchomenus and Thebes, they founded a new home. 
Their conquest of Boeotia appears to have been diflScultand 
gradual; and even after the tall of Orchomenus and 
Thebes, Platasa is said to have maintained its independ- 
enee. The legend placed these events about 1124 B.O., or 
sixty years after the fall of Troy. About twenty years 
later in the mythical chronology occurs the third and more 
famous migration, known as the return of the Heradidas. 
We need not enter here into the details of the myth. It 
will be enough to indicate the results to which an examina- 
tion of tile legend leads. The Dorians, migrating south- 
ward frcMn the highlands of Ifacedonia, hi^ established 
themselves at the northern foot of Parnassus, in the fertile 
district between that range and (Eta, which was thenceforth 
called Doris. In setting out from theee seats to conquer 
the Peloponnesus the Dorians were associated with other 
tribes. Among theee were the Hylleans, who were believed 
to be of Achaean origin, and who traced their descent from 

* <* The ICythical and Bomantic EleQents in Barly Snglish History," 
Awy#, Istscrles, p. 29. ,.-1--- - - v .^^^ . ... * . *. 

the hero Hyllus, son of the Tiiyuthiau Heracles. TI10 
Hyllean chiefs of the expedition represented themselvea, 
accordingly, as seeking to reconquer that royal doniiintm 
of Heracles in the Peloponnesus of which bis dcucciidantii 
had been wrongfully deprived by Eurystheus. Heucc tlio 
Dorian migration itself came to be called the " Iletum of the 
HeraclidsB." The migration hod two main results : — (I ) 
the Dorians, under leaders claiming Heraclid descent, over- 
threw the Achaean dynasties in the Peloponnesus, and 
either expelled or subjugated the Achwan folk ; (:2) a por- 
tion of the Aclueans, retiring northward before the Dorlau 
invaders in the south, drove the lonians on the coast of tlio 
Corinthian Gulf out of the strip of territoiy whicli won 
thenceforth called Achaia; and these lonians sought refugo 
with their kinsfolk in Attica. It is in the nature of the 
heroic myths to represent changes of this kind, which may 
have been the gradual work of generations, as efiected by 
sudden blows. Some comparative mythologers have main- 
tained with much ingenuity that the '* Eetum of the 
Heradidad" is merely one of those alternations which balance 
each other in the hundred forms of the solar mytlt It 
appears more consistent with reason to believe that there 
was really a great southward movement of population, which 
resulted in the substitution of Dorian for Achasan ascend- 
ency in the Peloponnesus. We cannot pretend to ^ 
either the exact time at which it commenced or the ix)riod 
which was requbed for its completioai. One thing may, 
however, be affirmed with probability. It cannot have 
been done all at once, as the myth says that it was. Tho 
displacement of the Achasans was accomplidied only by 
degrees, and perhajis after the lapse of centuries. 

The same remark applies to those three streams of 
migration from European Greece to the coasts of Asia 
Minor, which are represented as having ensued on the 
Dorian conquest of the Peloponnesus, and which may 
naturally be connected with the disturbance of populations 
which the southward advance of the Dorians caused. 
The Achnans, driven from their old seats in tlie south, 
moved norchwards ; and, reinforced by iEolic kinsmen 
from Boeotia and Thessaly, established themselves on the 
north-west coast of Asia Minor, where Lesbos and Cyme 
became their strongholds. By degrees their dominion 
spread inland, until they had become masters of Mysia and 
the Troad. The JEolio migration which thus created an 
Asiatic ^olis was unquestionably the slow work of genera- 
tion& The immediate causo of the Ionic migration, 
which began later than the iEolic, appears to have been 
the overcrowding of Attica by the louions driven out of 
Achaia. The iBolic settlements had been the work of a 
people migrating in large masses. The Ionic colonization 
seems to have been effected rather by smaller numbers of 
warlike adventurers, sprung from the noble Ionian families 
of Attica and the Peloponnesus, who claimed to rule over 
the Ionic communities already established on the Asiatic 
coast The Dorian colonists, following the southward 
direction of their previous conquests, settled on tho south- 
west coast of Asia Minor. The blands of Cos and llhodes 
received Dorian settlers ; and, after what was probably a 
long straggle, the Dorians subdued Crete. 

While the popnlationB had thus been settling down into 
the places wUch they were to occupy during the historical 
age of Greece, a movement had been in progress on the 
European mainland which tended to quicken among tho 
various tribes a sense of the unity of the race. This was 
the establishment of local associations among neighbouring 
tribes for the common worship of the seme god. These 
associations were of a federal character : that is, while the 
members of the association were independent in other 
matters, they were subject to a common central authority 
in all that ooncerned reli^ous worship. Such a feder^ 

SAuy stAtas.] 



usociAtioa was called an ampkidfonpt that ia, a teayw 
tf neiffkhours. The meet important of anch leagnea waa 
the Delphic amphictyony, of which the object waa to 
cooaerre the wonhip of Apollo at Delphi T\d» leagne 
arose in Tlieaaalj, where the conquerors who had come in 
from Epiroaaooght to eatabUah themselvea more firmly 
by embracing the cult of ApoUa It waa afterwarda 
extended through the aouthem districta until it included 
most of the tribes dwelling about GSta and Parnaaana The 
members of the Delphic amphictyony gave a new meaning 
and value to tlie federal compact by applying it to enforce 
certain obi igationa of humanity in war. Tliey took an oath 
that they would not raze each other'f towna, nor, during 
a siege, cut off the anpply of water. It waa in con- 
nexion with the Delphic amphictyony that the name 
J/e2/«i« appeara to have been firat dictinctly recognized aa 
die national name. The earlieat coUectiTe name of the 
nee, in Greek tradition, had been Graikoi, The m^bera 
of the Delphic amphictyony chose aa their federal name 
that of Hdlenetf — a name of sacred associations, if we may 
connect it with that of the Selloi or ffelloi^ the priests of 
the Pelasgian Zeus at Dodona, — ^in the region which, 
according to Aristotle, was the moat ancient Hellaa. The 
drenmatances which gave currency to HeQene aa a common 
appellative haTe left a reminiscence in the myth that Hellen 
was nearly related to Ampb'ctyon. 

The Homeric poems may be regaraftd by the student of 
Listoiy as great picturea of political and social life, 
iUostrating the whole variety of Greek experience down to 
the dose of that age which saw the tides of JEolic, Ionic, 
and Doric migration flow from the west to the east of the 
.^gean. It ia a distinct question how far recoverable his- 
toncal fact is embedded in their text, or how far trustworthy 
inferences may be drawn from them in regard to a aupposed 
series of eventa. But at least the legends of the Achsan 
pnncea and warriora are there, as they came tfhrough uGolic 
nunstrela to the poets of Ionia ; and, Torioua as may be 
the sges and sources of the interwoven materials, the total 
resolt may be taken as a portraiture, true in its main lines, 
of the age from which these legends had come down. In 
the political life described by the Homeric poems the king 
rales by divine and hereditary right But he ia not, like 
an Eastern monarch, even practically despotic; he ia 
bound, first, by fAtfiitutet, the traditional customs of his 
people ; next, he must consult the b<mle, the council of 
nobles and eldera ; and, lastly, his proposals require to be 
ratified by tbe offora, or popular assembly. The social life 
is the counterpart of this. It is a patriarchal life, in which 
the head of the family stands to his dependants in a 
relation like that of the king to his subjects. It is, within 
the family pale, eminently humane ; and the absence of a 
charity wlucb should include all mankind is in aome 
measure compensated by the principle and practice of hoe* 
pitali^. The position of free-bom women is high, — ^higher 
dian in the h&torical ages ; and polygamy is unknown 
among Greeks. Many of the picturea of manners, especially 
in the Odfttey, have the refinement of a noble simplicity 
ia thought and feeling, and of a genuine courtesy which is 
pecoliarly Hellenic. The uaeful arte are still in an early 
stage. The use of the principal metals is known, but not, 
apparently, the art of smelting or soldering them. Money 
is not mentioned, oxen bein^ the usual measure of value ; 
and there b no certain allusion to the art of writing. 

I IL Tkg Early Hiatory of the leading Slatei daim to 

ahoui 500 &a 

In the history of the Peloponnesus after the Dorian im- 

jnigration we begin to be on firmer ground. There may 

stQl be large room for doubt aa to particular datea or 

» but the Age left permanent records in the inatltn- 

tiona which imnrived it The first thing which should be 
borne in mind with regard to the Dorian immigration is 
that its direct influence was confined to three districts of 
the Peloponnesus. ArgoUs, Laconta, and Messenia were 
thoroughly Dorianized. Of the other three diatricta^ 
Arcadia remained almost wholly unaffected, £lia and 
Achaia were affected only indirectly, through the influx of 
the populationa which the Dorians hod displaced. The 
firat rank in the Peloponnesus was long retained by Argos. 
The ancient primacy of its Achsan princes waa inherited 
by its Dorian rulera ; and now, under the dynasty of the 
Temenidse, Aigos acquired a new prestige aa the head of a 
federative Dorian hexapolis, of which t£e otber members 
were Phlius, Sicyon, Troezene, Epidaurus, and Corinth. It 
waa only by slow degrees that the power aroae which was 
destined to eclipse Argos. When the Dorians entered the 
valley of Eurotas, they found ** hollow Lacedsemon " already 
ahared among people of other tribes. Leleges, Minyans^ 
and Achaeans had been there before them. Botb ^olian 
and Achiean elementa remained in the land. The aettle- 
meut of the Dorians was made in a strong position under 
Mount Taygetus, on the right or western bank of the 
Eurotas ; iad the fact thai, unlike moat Greek cities^ it 
waa not founded on a rocky base, but on arable aoil, waa 
expressed by the name Sparte (aown land). It waa indeed 
less a city than a group of rude hamlela^ — the camp of 
a military occupation. And, as a natural stronghold, 
defended by an alert garrison, it dispensed with walla. 
Sparta waa at first only one member of a Laconian hexa^ 
poli& It waa at a later stage that Sparta became the 
head-town of the country, and the seat of a central govern- 
ment The origin of the dual kingship may probably be 
traced to this period. Such a dualism has no parallel else- 
where among Dorians; and, aa regards one at least of 
the two royid lines, we know that the Agiade Cleomenea 
proclaimed himself an Acbean. The two royal lines of the 
Agiadae and Euiypontidas may have taken their beginning 
from a coalition or compromise between* Dorian and 
Achnan houses. Afterwards, when it waa deaired to ex- 
plain the dualism and to refer both lines to a common 
source, Agis and Euiypon were represented aa descended 
from the twin sons of Aristodemus, Eurystheua and Prodea. 
The spread of Spartan power in the Peloponnesus was 
preceded by the building up of that politiod and aoclal 
system which made the Spartan citizens a compact aristo- 
cracy, exclusively devoted to the exercises of war. The 
personality of Lycurgus is shadowy. He has even been 
classed with those beings who, like Prometheus, Hermes, 
and Phoroneus, bestow on men that gift of fire without 
which they could not have attained to a high civilization. 
But the charge of excessive credulity can scarcely be 
brought against those who hold, with E. Cnrtios, that 
'* there really lived and worked in the firat half of tiie 9tli 
century B.a a legislator of the name of Lycurgus, a man 
who, as a bom Heradide^ was called to take part in public 
af&irs." It ia another question whether he was the author 
of all the institntiona which were afterwards ascribed to 
him. The example of another legislator who atands in a 
far clearer light of history,— the Athenian Solon,— whom 
the orators aometimea credit with the work of Clisthenea 
in addition to his own, may serve to show how loose suck 
ascriptions often were. But at least the work of Lycurgus 
may be aasumed to haye marked an epoch in the history 
of tiie Spartan system. This system rested, firsts on a dia^ 
tinction of three ordera. Dorians alone were Spartiaiaif 
citizens of Sparta, aa opposed to mere Lacedaemonii, and to 
them belonged all political power. Lycurgus, said the 
tradition, assigned nine tbousand lots of land to as many 
Spartiatas ; the land descended from father to eldest aon,. 
and, failing iaine, roTerted to the aUte. .The older j^jfflBa 


B £ S C E 


Ponan popmation, settled t\a»if OH ih'e mountain slopes 
aronnd the Spartan lands, were called Ferioikoi, They 
were free farmers, who had no share in the goTemment, 
and were not required to perform military seryice. Lastly, 
the Helot$ cuitiTated the lands of the Spartans, not as 
slayes belonging to private masters, but as serfs of the 
commonwealth; hence no Spartan citixen could sell a 
Helot or remove him from the land. ' From each farm the 
Helotft had to produce annually a certain quantity of barley, 
on, and wine ; if there was a surplus, Uiey could keep it 
for themseWes. The condition of the Helots was thus in 
some respects better than that of ordinary Greek slaves. 
But it was such as constantly to remind them that they 
had once been a free peasantry. It was this, as much per- 
haps as positive ill-usage, which made it so peculiarly 
galling. The hatred of the Helots was a standing menace 
to the Spartan commonwealth. As Aristotle sayi? the 
Spartan kingship meant practically a life-tenur^ of the 
chief military command. The government was essentially 
an official oligarchy, in which the power of the irresponsible 
ephors was not importantly modified by the gerousia, while 
the popular assembly played a part hardly more active tliau 
that of the Homeric agora, with its formal privilege of 
simple affirmation or veta The military training, from 
childhood upwards, to which the whole social life of Sparta 
was made subservient, was at first a necessity.; but it soon 
became thoroughly identified with the ambition and with 
the pride of an exclusive warrior-caste. Sparta was sharply 
msrked off from the other Greek communities by this 
systematic treatment of war as the business of life. When 
the military prestige of Sparta began to decline in the 
course of the 4th century B.a, it was remarked that this 
was due to the increased attention which other ctates had 
begun to pay to the art of war, whereas in old days the 
Spartans had been like professional soldiers matched 
against civilians. 

The mountain wall of Taygetus had set a barrier between 
Laconia and Messenia, which might have seemed to forbid 
the extension of Spartan power towards the west If the 
Dorians in Messenia had fully preserved the warlike 
character of the race, they would probably have had little 
to fear, fiat they seem to have been in some measure 
enervated by the natural wealth of a country which, at the 
same time, excited the envy of their neighbours. Myths 
have grown thickly around the story of the two Messenian 
wars. This, at least, appears certain: the gradual con- 
quest of Messenia by Sparta occupied not less than a 
hundred years (about 750-650 B.a). The legend that, at 
a critical time, the stirring war-songs of the Attic Tyrtseus 
raised the sinking spirit of Sparta, agrees with tlie 
tradition of a long and doubtful struggle. Nor was the 
strife confined to the two chief combatants. Messenia was 
aided by other Peloponnesian states which dreaded a like 
fate for themselves,--AigoB, Sicyon, Arcadia. Sparta was 
helped by Elis and Corinth. When Messenia had been con- 
quered and the Dorian inhabitants reduced to the state of 
Helots, Sparta had overcome the most difficult obstacle to 
her ambition. By conquests, of which the details are 
obscure, she won from Argolis a strip of territory on the 
eastern coast of the Peloponnesus, and finally carried her 
north-eastern border to Thyreo. In southern Arcadia alone 
the Spartan arms were decisively repulsed by Tegea ; and 
the Tegeans, accepting the supremacy of Sparta, were 
enrolled, about 5C0 B.a, as honoured allies of the power 
which they had checked. 

The repulse warned Sparta that it was better to aim at 
leading the Feloponneitus than at conquering it ; and an 
o])pnnttnity was found of asserting this leadership in a 
manner far more effective than any military demonstmtion. 
At Olympia, in the valley through whicli tibe Alpheus 

passes to the western coast, there was an ancient sanctuary 
of the Pelasgian Zeu& An amphictyony, or league of 
neighbouring towns, held sacrifice and games there once in 
four years, the management of the festival being shared 
between Pua and Elis. A dispute arose between tbeso 
two states. Sparta confirmed Elis in the religious super- 
intendence of tiie festival, and at the same time arrogated 
to herself the political headship of the sacred league. 
Every effort was now mode by the Spartans to extend tlia 
popularity and enhance the brilliancy of tlie Olympic 
games. Sparta — already supreme in Laconia and ^les- 
senia, alrerdy the victorious rival of Aigos in the east of 
the land — now appears at the Olympian shrine of ZeuB in 
a character peculiarly well adapted to attmct the loyalty of 
the western Achnans. The general recognition of Sparta 
as the first state in the Peloponnestis may be said to data 
from the time when, under Spartan auspices, the Olympic 
festival acquired a new celebrity. 

For political reasons Dorian Sparta had alwoys cherished 
the traditions of the Achsean princes ; but the monarchy 
of the Achaean age, if it still existed anywhere, was a rare 
survival. The form of government which had generallj 
succeeded to it was oUgarchy, that is, the rule of a group 
of noble families claiming descent from the heroes, 
possessing certain religious rites in wliich no aliens parti* 
cipated, and claiming to be^ by a divine authority, the 
interpreters of the unwritten law. These noble families 
made up the state. The commons, who lived in or arouml 
\ the city as artisans, labourers, or farmers, were free men, 
but had no politioil righta The Dorian ascendency in 
the Peloponnesus was peculiarly favourable to ob'garchiea. 
Sparta was, in fact, such an oligarchy, though not of the 
closest kind, — the Dorian citizens being &e privileged 
class, while the Perioeci answered to the commons cIao- 
where. It was a fortunate circumstance for the political 
development of Greece that oligarchy did not, as a rule, 
pass directly into democracy. A period of transition was 
needed, during which the people, hitherto debarred from 
all chance of political education, should learn the meaning 
of membership in the state. 

This was afforded, at least in some measure^ by that 
peculiar phase in the life of the Greek commonwealtha 
which intervenes between oligarchy and democracy, — the 
ago of the tyrannies. A turannoB meant one whose power is 
both superior and contrary to the lawa An absolute ruler 
is not a turannw if the constitution of the state gives him 
absolute power ; nor is a ruler unauthorized by the laws 
less a ivmnnot because he rules mildly. The genesis of 
the tyrant was different in different cases. Most often he 
is a member of the privileged class, who comes forward aa 
the champion of the people against lus peers, overthrows 
the oligarchy with the help of the people, and establishea 
hb own rule in its stead. Such was Pisistratus at Athen& 
Sometimes he is himself one of the people j this was the 
case mth Orthagoras, who (about 676 B.C.) overthrew the 
Dorian oligarchy at Sicyon. The case of pypeelus at 
Corinth is intermediate between these two; for he 
belonged to a noble Dorian house, though not to the inner 
circle of those Bacchiadse whose rale he overthrew. Or 
the tyrant is one who raises himself to absolute power from , 
the stepping-stone of some office with which the oligarchy 
itself had entrusted him. An example is supplied by 
Phalaris of Agrigeutum, and by the tyrants of some lonio 
cities m Asia Minor. Lastly, the tyrant might be a king 
who had overstepped his constitutional prerogative. Phei- 
don, king of Argos, is adduced by Aristotle as an instance 
of this rarer case. In all cases the tyrant properly s(h 
called must be distinguished from a ruler whom a com- 
munity has voluntarily placed above the law, either tern*' 
porarily or for his Ufa Such was properly called _•% 

MUHY 1 1 III ] 

nfimPipft— or diottttor,— «B PittMU of Mitjleiie. The 
baoflfits ccmfeired on the Greek commonwealths by the 
tTnoniea were chiefly of two kinda. (1) The tTmnt often 
institated new religions f eativnia, in which the whole body 
of the citizens might take part A feeling of cine nnity 
was thus created, which oonld not exist wliile the nobles 
formed a separate caste» as ezcinaiTe in their worship as 
in their other privileges. (2) The court of the tyrant 
became a centre to which poets and artists were attracted. 
8ach a man as Periander of Corinth (62&-685) might 
aim at resembling an Eastern despot, but his enconragfr- 
rnent of liberal arts must still have given an impnlae to 
ths hi^er dvilixation of Ckvinth. Polyerotes of Samoa, 
the frinid of Anacreon, welcomed all men of fine gifts to 
hia court ; Fisistratus showed a like care for poetry, and 
for the artistic embellishment of Athens. The root of evil 
in the tyranny was its unlawful origin, and its consequent 
nljance upon forces frequently leading the tyrant to aim 
at keeping the citisens in a atate of helplessness and mutual 
i BUBtmst But the founder of a tyranny was usually a man 
vith some inborn qualities for command, and the baser 
fonos of oppression were not required until he had given 
place to a weaker successor. 

The age of the oligarchies and tyrannies coincides with 
the most active period of Qreek colonixation, which re- 
ceived an impulse both from redundant population and 
from political troubles at home. The two centuries from 
750 to 550 sia saw most of the Qreek colonies founded. 
Sicily received settlements from both the two great branches 
of the Greek race. Kaxoa^ founded by the Cholcidians of 
Eaboea (735 &a), with Leontini and Catena, founded soon 
afterwards by Kazoa, formed a group of Ionic communities 
on tiie eastern side of the island. Syracuse, founded by 
Gorinth HSi B.a), Gela, colonized by Rhodians and 
Cntans (o90 B.a), and Agrigentum, of which Gela waa 
the parent dty (582 &a), were among the chief of the 
Dorian commonwealths on the south-eastern and south- 
wmtem coasts. These Siceliot cities formed a fringe round 
the Sioeli and Sicani of the interior ; bnt, though in the 
pnsencB of non-Hellenio population^, tiiey never lost among 
themselves the sharp distinction between Dorian and Ionian 
(or^Chalddio"), a distinction which was long the key- 
note to the Inner history of the Siceliot& The earliest of 
the Qreek settlements in Italy was the Ionic Cumse, on the 
coast near Cape Miseniim, a b'ttle to the north-west of 
Naples. It was founded by Chalddians of Enboss, as 
early, sccoiding to the tradition, as 1050 &a The Dorian 
Taientum,— ft colony of Sparta, — and the Aehman (^oUc) 
settlements of Sybaris and Croton, dated from the latter 
part of the 8th oentuiy B.a Poseidonia (Psratum) was 
fonnded by Sybaris. Locri, an iEolio settlement near 
&pe Zephyrium (whence its epithet <* Epissfliyrian '), and 
the Ionic Bhegium, founded from Chalcis, complete the 
series of flourishing cities which made south-western Italy 
appear as a new and richer land of the Hellenes, as Megale 
HeUttB, Magna OrcBcia. The turning-point in its prosperity 
was the war between the two foremost of the Achsan 
cities, ending in the deatmction of Sybaris by Croton (510 
&a). By this event, just at the time when the lonians of 
AsialCinor were passing under the sway of Persia, the 
Greeks of Italy were rendered less able to make head 
against the native tribes of the peninsula. The name 
Hegale Hellas remained, bnt its old significance was gone; 
the spirit of confident progress had be^ quenched. 

Thsdbtinctive character of Greek colonisation is seen 
less vmdly where^ as in Sicily and Italy, Greek com- 
mnnitifis dnstered together, thain at those lonely outposts 
of Hellenic b'fe wbere a single dty stood in barbarian lands. 
MasKliapUrseilles) was founded by the lonians of Phociea 
ahoftt 600 &Ort and became the parent of colonies on the 

O B E E £ 


east coast of Spain. If Carthage had not fulfilled tlie 
purpose for whidi it was founded, by serving as the Jealous 
guardian of Phoenician commerce in the western Medite^ 
ranean, Greek settlements would probably have multiplied 
on those shores as rapidly as elsewhere. Cjrrene, on the 
African coast, waa a Dorian colony (630 B.a) from Thera, 
itself colonised by Sparta, and became the founder of 
Barca. Corcyra was colonized by Corinth about 700 &o., 
and joined with the mother-city in founding settlements 
(among others, Epidamnus) on the coast of Epims. The 
northern shores of the JBgean and the Propontis were 
dotted with colonies, from the group of towns planted by 
ClialcLs in the peninsula thence called Chalcidiee, to Byxan* 
tinm, — which, like Selymbria, was founded by Megara (C57 
B.a). Among the colonies on the western coast of Asia 
Minor, Miletus was especially active in creating other 
settlements, particularly for purposea of commerceu Nan- 
cratis, in the delta of the NUe, was « trading colony from 
Miletus, and flourished from 550 B.a On the southern 
shores cl the Propontis and the Euzine, Cyziqps and Sinopa 
Atself tlie parent city uf Trapezus) were daughters of 
Miletus. Here too were the remotest of Greek settle- 
ments, — Panticapsenm (Kertoh in the Crimea), afterwards 
the capital of the Greek kings of the Bosporus ; Olbia (or 
BorysUienes) on the adjacent mainland ; and Istris, at tne 
month of the Danube. The above enumeration, though 
not exhaustive, will serve to mark the wide extent of t£e 
area induded by Greek colonization. As the city wss the 
highest unit in the political conception of the Greeks, so 
eadi colony contcined within itself the essentials of a com- 
plete political life. Its relation to the parent-dty was one 
of filial piety, not of constitutional dependencCb In so far 
as the colt of the gods and heroes whom it worshipped 
was localized in the mother-countiy, it was needful that n 
link should exist between tbe religious rites of the colony 
and those of its parent ; and this religions continuity waa 
symbolized by the sacred fire which the founder (oUtank) 
carried with him from the public hearth to the new settle- 
ment For the rest, Massalia and Olbia were dties of 
Hellas in as full sense as Athens or Sparta. It was due 
to the sdf-suffldng character (atrdpKtui) of the Hellenic 
city as such that Hellas was not a geograpbical expreaaion. 
When Attica first comea into the view of hiatory, it 
already forms a single state of which Athens is the cspital : 
the kingly period is over, and, though a dose oligarchy sttU 
exbts, Uiere are signs of coming change. But the hints of 
poetiod legend, and sometimes the surer evidence of the 
ground itself, enable us to go further back, and to form at 
least a general conception of earlier chapters in the story 
of the land. Of the three plains on the northern shore of 
the Saronic gulf,— -thoae of Megara, EleusLs, and Athens, — 
the Attic plain is that which offered the greatest advantage 
to settlers. It is the most spacious; it is the best watered; 
it holds tiie most central podtion in the district which 
stretches souA-east from the chains of dthasron and 
Pames to the iBgean; it has the best seaboard for 
navigation and commerce ; and it contains the best site for 
a dty. Traces of early immigrants of various stocks sur- 
vived in the names of places, in worships, and in legends. 
Eleusis, Pirseus, Phaleron, are Minyan names ; the myths 
and cults teU also of Carians, Ldeges, Cretans, Tyrrhenians. 
But the chief influence which came to Attica from beyond 
sea must have been that of the Phoenician settlement at 
Salamis (Sakuna, the place of peace), a name which, as in 
the Cyprian worship of Zeus Sslsjninios (Baal-Salam), 
points to the Phoenician effort to establish friendly inter- 
course between alien races. Herodotus (viiL 44) distin- 
guishes four periods in the early Idstoiy of Attica, with 
each of wluch he connects an appellative. In the first 
the inhabitants were *<Pto1aagoi called Ktanaoi," In the 




Moond *< EekropicUB,*' in tlie third '* Athenians," in the 
fourth " loniana." The extensive series of rock-dwellings 
found on the south and south-west of the Acropolis are, 
by the ingenious and pi^bable conjecture of K Curtius, 
connected with the first of these periods. This primitiye 
Felasgio settlement was the Rock-town {Kpavam); its 
XE^bitants were Eranaoi, the dwellers in the rocks. The 
second period was one in which the Acropolis became thd 
seat of a small number of nobles, and of a princely family 
claiming descent from the eirth-born Cecrops. The cita- 
del becomes the centre of religious and political life; 
. beneath it dwell Pelasgic bondmen, who work for the 
Cecropidso as the Cyclopes worked for the Ferseidse at 
Argos. The city of the Oecropidie — no longer of the 
Kranaoi — ^becomes the head of the twelre cities among 
which the Attic land was divided. As the leading families 
are drawn towards the Cecropid city, rivalries ensue, 
which are mythically represented by the strife of rival 
gods on the Acropolis. Zeus, the Pelosglo god, has priority 
of possession. But his honours are disputed by Poseidon, 
the deity of the Thracians settled on the gulf of Salamis, 
and of their priesUy clan, the Eumolpide. The third 
claimant b Athens, the divinity of a race possessing a 
lugher culture, the giver of the olive to the land. The 
final victory falls to Atheua. But Zeus keeps the place of 
honour as protector of the whole community, — ^Polieos ; and 
Athena shares her sanctuary with Poseidon. The mythical 
Erechtheus,*— representing at once the ancient Poseidon and 
the nursling of Athena, — is the symbol of the victory and 
the conciliation^ This is the third period of Herodotus ; 
''Erechtheus having succeeded to power," the Cecropidse 
become Athenians. The fourth and last period is that in 
which Ionian settlers press forward from their earlier seat J 
on the bay of Marathon, and establish themselves — not 
without opposition— on the banks of the Ilissus. The wor- 
ship of the Ionian Apollo takes its place beside that of Zeus 
and Athena. The Ionic settlement on the Ilissus was in- 
cluded in an enlarged Athens, and the close of the epoch was 
marked by that union (awoUia) of Attica into a single state 
which Attic' tradition ascribed to the hero king Theseus. 

The light soil of Attica had protected it from such whole- ' 
sale changes of population as had passed over Thessaly, 
Boeotia, and the Peloponnesus. In contrast with the oc- 
cupiers of those lands the Attic population claimed to be 
indigenous ; and the daim was true in this sense that the 
basis of the popuUtion was an element which had been 
there from prehistoric times. On the other hand the 
maritime advantages of Attica liad been sufficient to attract 
foreign immigrants. Thus in Attica no one type of life 
and character prevailed to the same extent as the Dorian 
in the Peloponnesus or the uEolian iu Bceotia. The Ionian 
element was tempered by others older than itself. This 
fact is the key to that equable and harmonious development 
which so remarkably distinguished the Attic people alike 
in culture and in politics. The institutions which are 
found existing in Attica in the 7th century B.a may bo 
regarded as dating from the age which tradition called that 
ol Theseus, — ^the age, namely, in which the loose canton- 
syAem of Attica was knit together into a single state. The 
inhabitants of Attica form three classes, — ^the Eupatridie 
or nobles ; the Geomori, free husbandmen ; and the 
Bemluxgi, or handicraftsmen. The government was wholly 
. in the hands of the Eupatridse, who alone were citizens in 
the proper sense. The Eopatrid order was divided into 
four tribes, called after the sons of Ion, — Qeleon, Hoples, 
^glcoreus, Argadeus. Each tribe contained three phra- 
trial or clans, and each clan thirty gene or houses. The 
members of each cUn were united by the worship of an 
heroic ancestor, and all the clans were bound together by 
the commoa wonhip of Zeus Berkeios Aod Apollo Pittrovs. 

The transition from monarchy to oligarchy was more 
gradual at Athens than it seenrs to have been elsewhere. 
First, the priestly office of the king was taken away ; and, 
as the old name basilevt implied religious as well as civil 
authority, he was ETenceforth called simply the ruler, 
ardioiL But ths office of archon was still held for life, and 
was hereditary. The second step was to appoint tlio 
acchon for ten years only. The third and last step was to 
divide the old rogal power among nine archons aii[>ointed 
annually (633 n.a). The first arclion, called £pon}-nios, 
because his name marked the date of official documants, 
had a general supervision of affairs, and in particular rc> 
presented the state as the guardian of orphans and minors; 
the second archon was high priest (basileus); the third was 
commander-in-chief (polemarch) ; the remaining six were 
the custodians of the laws (" thesmothotse "). After tliis 
reform, two events are the chief landmarks of Attic history 
before Solon. The first is the legislation of Draco, the 
second is the revolution of Cylon. Hitherto the Eupatrida 
had been the depositaries and sole interpreters of an un- 
written law. Draco, himself a Eupatrid, was now com- 
missioned, not to frame a now code, but to write dovrn the 
laws as they existed in oral tradition. To a later age the 
laws of Draco became a proverb of severity; but their 
severity was that of the rude age from which they had 
come down, not of the man who was employed to tabulato 
them. By this code (620 B.O.), and by tho eetablishment 
of a court of fifty-one judges (ii^Toi) in capital eases, the 
people were so far secured against abuse of the judicial 
office. But the existence of serious popular discontent a 
few years later is shown by the atten^ptof Cylon (G12 B.C.). 
Stimulated by the example of his father-in-law, Tbeageuea, 
the tyrant of Megara, he resolved to seize the supreme 
power at Athens. Promises of relief and of a new agrarian 
law gained him adherents among the distressed classes; but 
when he liad succeeded in seizing the Acropolis, he found 
himself disappointed of popular support and surrounded 
by the troops of tlie archons. He escaped. His partisans 
surrendered, on the promise of the archo» Megacles that 
their lives should be spared; but, when they had left the 
altars, they were cut down. The ** Cylonian crime " was 
denounced by the people as having brought a pollution 
upon the city, and the punishment of the whole clan of 
the Alcmeonidae — to which Megacles belonged — was de- 
manded as an expiation. The Eupatridas refused to yield, 
until Solon, one of their order, prevailed on the Alcmssonidie 
to stand a trial before three hundred of their peers. They 
were found guilty of sacrilege, and were banished. 

Solon was now to come forward as the umpire of still 
graver issues. The influence of his ardent and lofty nature 
on the people is expressed in the legend that his recitation 
of his elegy, *' Sahunis," fired them to strike the blow by 
which <*the fair island" was won back from the Megarisns. 
The part which he had taken in the Alcmseon\4 a^ftir was 
well fitted to make him trusted both by the nobles and by 
the people. His legislation had a twofold scope. In the 
first place he a.imed at giving immediate relief to a class 
whoee plight was desperate. As there was little money in 
the land, those in whose hands it was had been able to 
force up the rate of interest as they pleased. The small 
farmers (geomori) were being crushed out of existence by 
a load of debt, mortgaging their farms to their creditors, 
who, in default of land, could even sell the debtor as a 
slave. Solon depreciated the value of the silver drachma 
by 27 per cent, so that a debt pf 100 old drachmas could 
be paid with 73 ; debts to the state were cancelled alto- 
gether. In a fine iambic fragment, Solon calls as witness 
of his work " the greatest of Olympian deities, the black 
earth, wherefrom I took up of yore thd pillars that had. 
been set in Qany ^ ]^^i/o^S=^b^^JseS^iJ^^^^^ 




tliat marked a mortgaged homestead. Secondly, Solon 
aimed at establishing a permanent oqailibrinm between 
dsfises. He classed the citizens by their rated property as 
(1) Pentakosio-mediainoi, (2) Hippeis, (3) Zeugitai, (4) 
Thetes. The first doss alone could hold the ardionship ; 
Uie fonrth had no political pririlege except that of votinff 
iu the assembly. Bat Solon made the assembly (hcuXfjot^ 
wliat it hod never before been, a real power. He gave 
to it (1) the right of passing laws, (2) the right of caUing 
magistrates to accoant, (3) the right of electing archons. 
At the same time he created a council of four hundred, to 
be elected annually by the people, through which all 
bTiineas should bo introduced to the assembly. Ho 
strengthened the old Eupatrid Areopagus, by adding to its 
JQrifdlction in homicide a general power of moral censor- 
ship, and provided that the archons of each year should, 
if found worthy, pass at the end of it into this senate. 
Athenians of a later age often described Solon as the 
foander of the democracy. Tlds was not hb own concep- 
tion of his work. We have his own description of it : — 
** I gave the people as much strength as is enough, without 
taking an ay from their due share (rifi^), or adding thereto. 
Bat ss for those who had power and the splendour of 
richsB, to them also I gave counsel, even that they should 
not uphold yiolence. And I stood with my strong shield 
spiead over both, and suffered neither to prevail by wrong.'* 
Solon was not a champion of popular rights^ but a philo- 
sophic mediator between classes. 

The removal of the urgent pn;ssure of usury, the sub- 
stitution of wealth for birth as the canon of privilege, and 
the bestowal of strictly limited political power on the 
people were Solon's achievements. It is no proof of their 
inadequacy that they were soon followed by the appearance 
of a successful demagogue. The Attic population was 
locallj divided into three classee, — the Diacrii or the 
** highlanders '* of the north-east district (the poorest) ; the 
Parali, the boatmen and fishermen of the coast ; and the 
" Pedieis,** the richer farmers of the Attic plain. Each of 
these classes foctued a political faction, with an ambitious 
noble at its head. The Diacrii were led by Pisistratus, 
the Parali by Hegacles, the Pedieis by Lycurgus. On the 
pretence that he had been murderously assaulted by tlie 
enemies of the people, Pisistratus obtained a guard of 50 
mea It was presently increased to 400. He then seized 
the Acropolis f560 B.c). After having been twice driven 
oat by the comoined factions of the Plain and the Shore, he 
finally established himself as tyrant in 545 B.C., and reigned 
till his death in 527 Ro. He did not abolish Solon's con- 
stitution, though ho reserved some of the higher officea Tor 
members of his own house. His government appears to 
hsve been mild and wise. He set the example of submis- 
aon to the laws. By many new enactments he promoted 
good order and mondity. The convenience of the citizens 
and the beauty of Athens were consulted by the construc- 
tion of new baildings, roads, and aqueducts. Thero were 
hut two things to remind Athenians that this paternal rule 
had been founded in force, — the presence of hired troops, 
sad the levy of tithes on private lands. Pisistratus was suc- 
ceeded by lus eldest son Hippies. In 514 &a Hipparchus, 
the brother of Hippies, was murdered by Harmodius and 
Anstogiton, in revenge for an afiont offered to the sister 
of Harmodius. The rule of Hippias, which had hitherto 
resembled that of his father, now became cruel The 
AlcmiBonidic— who had been in banishment since the final 
return of Fisistrataa in 545 — ^had won the favour of the 
Delphic priesthood by an act of Uberality. The temple at 
Delphi having been burned down, they had undertaken to 
rebuild it, and, instead of common limestone, which would 
hgn satisfied the contract, used Parian marble for the east 
«Aa of the temple^ They now exerted their Inflaence. 

Whenever Sparta or a Spartan consulted the oracle, the 
response always included a command to set Athens free. 
At last Cleomenes, king of Sparta, took Uie field. The 
children of Hippias fell into his hands^ and, to save them, 
Hippias voluntsirily withdrew from Athens (5 10 r c). The 
rule of the Pisistratid house was now at an end. In the 
phrase of the song which gave ill-merited glory to Harmo- 
dius and Aristogiton, Athens was once more under equal 

But there was a vehement strife of factions. The 
Eupatrid party, under Isagoras, wished to restore the aris- 
tocracy of prehSolonian days. The party of popular rights 
was supported by the Alcmsonidse, and led by Clisthenes, 
whose father, Megacles, had married the daughter of 
Clisthenes, tyrant of Sicyon. Clisthenes, in the words 
of Herodotus, took the people into partnership, and by 
his reforms became the real founder of the democracy. 
Abolishing the four Ionic tribes, which had included the 
Eupatridse, he instituted ten new tribes, which included all 
the free inhabitants of Attica. Each tribe vres composed 
of several deme» (townships) not adjacent to each other,—* 
thus securing that the old clans should be thoroughly 
broken np among the new tribes. The number of the 
Council (Boule) was raised from 400 to 500, — 50 member* 
being elect«>d from each of the ten now tribes. Further, it 
was arranged that each tribal contingent of 50 should take 
it in turn to act as a committee (rpvravns) of the council,— 
a board of presidents (rpt^cSpoi), and the chairman of the 
day, being again chosen in rotation from the committee. A 
new office was also instituted. The command of the army 
was given to a board of ten Generals (strategi), one being 
elected by each of the tribes. In later times the strategi 
became ministers of foreign affairs. Jury courts of citizens 
were organised out of the assembly, to share the admini»- 
tration of justice, which had hitherto belonged to the 
archons and the Areopagus. As a safeguard for the state 
against party struggles, it was provided that, if the Council 
and the Ecdesia should declare the commonwealth to be in 
danger, each citizen might be summoned to indicate by 
ballot the name of any man whom he thought dangerous, 
and that, if the same name was written on 6000 tickets 
(6<rrpaj(a)f the man so indicated should go into exile for ten 
years, without, however, loeing his civic rights or his pro- 
perty. This was the institution of ostracism. Finally, 
choice by lot was substituted for Toting m the election to 
the archonship, thus diminishing the danger of lactioue 

Isagoras, the leader of the party opposed to these 
reforms, had a zealous ally m Cleomenes, king of Sparta. 
Clisthenes, they alleged, was aiming at a tjrranny such as 
that of his grandfather and namesake at Sicron. Sparta^ 
the leading Dorian state, was in a manner the recognized 
champion of aristocracy against revolution. The Spartan 
herald summoned the Athenians to banish the accursed 
AlcmseonidsB, and CUsthenes Toluntarily left Attica. 
Cleomenes arrived at Athens with his arm^. Isagoras was 
made arclion ; seven hundred " democratic " families were 
banished ; the newly constituted Council of five hundred 
was dissolved. But now the people rose in arms. Cleo^ 
menes and Isagoras were besieged on the Acropolis. Oq 
the third day of the siege they surrendered. Cleomenes 
and his troops were allowed to withdraw. Isagoras escaped, 
but Ids Athenian adherents were put to death, disthenes 
now returned to Athens. He seems, however, to have 
excited popular indignation by promoting a treaty with 
Persia, by which the supremacy of the Persian king was 
acknowledged. He thos lent colour to the accusation of 
his enemies that he was aiming at a tyranny ; nnd he was 
banished. Geomenes presently invaded Attica a second 
time, with the Peloponneeian allies. But the other Spaitui 

XL — 13 




Idng, Demantnfl^ was opposed to liis designs. The Corin- 
tiiiins xefosed to f 611ow him, and his army broke np when 
it had advanced no further than Elensis. Meanwhile the 
Thabftns and the Chalcidians of Euboea had been imdaced 
to take up arms sgainst Athens. Freed from the danger 
ot the Peloponnosian Inyasion, the Athenians inarched 
against the Thebans. They foond them on the shore of 
As Eoripos, and routed them. Crossing die strait into 
Eubcea, they defeated the Chalcidians on the same day. 
The lands of the Chalcidian knighta (Hippobotae) were 
divided in equal lots among four thousand Athenians, who 
oconpied them, not as colonists forming a new city, but as 
non-resident citizens of Athens. This was the first kUn^ 
chia. The Spartans, incited by Cleomenes, now made a 
final effort to repress the democratic strength of Athens. 
Hippias was invited from his retreat on the Hellespont to 
Laced»mon, and a Peloponnesiaa congreas was convened 
at Sparta to discuss a project for restoring him to Athens 
as tyrant The representative of Corinth urged that it 
would be shameful if Sparta, the enemy of tyrannies, should 
help to set np a new one. The congreas was of his mind. 
The scheme ieiiled, and Hippias went back to Sigeum. 

In these ^ve years (510-505) which followed the fall of 
the PisistratidaB the future of Athens was decided. Athens 
had become a free commonwealth, in whic}i class grievances 
no longer hindered the citizens from acting together with 
vigorous spirit The results were soon io appear in work 
done by Uie Athenians, not for Athens only, but for all 

The time was now drawing near when Greece was to 
snstain its first historical conflict with the barbarian world. 
There was not, in the modem sense, an Hellenic nation. 
But there were common elements of religion, manners, and 
culture, which together constituted an Hellenic civilization, 
and were the basis of a common Hellenic character. ' The 
Graikoi of Epirus, united in the worship of the Pelasgian 
Zeus, had become the Hellenes of Thessaly, united in the 
Woxahip of Apollo. The shrine of Delphi, at first the 
centre of the most important amphictyony, had now become 
the religious centre of all Hellas. It was acknowledged as 
such by foreigners, by the kings of Phryoia and Lydia in 
the east, by the Etruscan Tarqninii in the west, as after- 
wards by the Roman republic. In political matters also 
Delphi was a common centre for the Greek states^ mediat- 
ing or advising in feuda between factions or cities, and 
giving the fiiud sanction to constitutional changes. A 
sense of Hellenic unity was further promoted by the great 
festivals. It has already been seen how Sparta lent new 
brilliancy to the gatherings at Olympia. llie Pythian fes- 
tival was revived with a fresh lustre after the first Sacred 
War ^595-585), in which Clisthenes, tyrant of Sicyon, and 
his allies destroyed Crisa, the foe of Delphi. A little later 
two other festivals were established, the Isthmian and 
the Nemean, at about tiie time when the tyranny of the 
Cypselldae was overthrown at Corinth, and that of the 
Orthagoridae at Sicyon. The games of Nemea and of the 
Isthmus were new assertions of the Dorian sentiment which 
was BO strongly opposed to tyrannies, and they exemplify 
the manner in which such festivals were fitted to express 
and strengthen national sjonpathy. In the gradual growth, 
too, of Hellenic art,~^with astamp of its own distinct from 
that of Assyria, Babylon, Phoenicia, or Egypt, — ^the Greeks 
found a bond of union, and the temples were centres at 
which the growth of such an art was encouraged and 
recorded. Above all, the Homeric poetry, in which the 
legends of the herdo age took a form that every 
branch of the Greek race, was a witness to the contrast 
between Greek and barbarikn. It was the interpretation 
of this contrast which made Homer so peculiarly the 
national poet Still the nni^ of Greece had hitherto been 

little more than an ideal The only great enterprise in 
which Greeks had made common cause against barbarians 
belonged to legend. The first historical event in which 
the unity of Greece found active expression was the 
struggle with Persia. 

UL TheJatUeJSevoii and tks Pernan War9^ 502-479 ]i.a 
The twelve Ionian cities on the western coast of Asia 
Minor formed a community which kept itself thoroughly 
distinct from the iEolian colonists to the north and tho 
Dorians to the south. The Pan-Ionic festivals preserved 
the memory of the common descent The Ionian life and 
culture had a character of its own. But the Ionian cities 
hod no political cohesion, nor had they any recognized 
leader. One after another they became tributary to tho 
kings of Lydia. The process of subjugation commenced 
at l^e time when the Lydian dynasty of the llemmado) 
(about 716 B.c) began to make themselves independent of 
A8S3rria. It was completed by Croesus, to whom, about 
550 B.a, all the Ionian cities had became subject Croesus 
was friendly to the Greeks : he respected their religion, 
and enriched its shrines; he welcomed distinguished 
Greeks to Sardi& All that was exacted from the loniana 
by Crcesus was that they should acknowledge him as their 
suzerain, and pay a fixed tribute. The Persians, under 
Cyrus, defeated Croesus and conquered Lydia about 547 
B.a The whole coast-line of Asia Minor was afterwards 
reduced by Harpagus, the general ofCyrus. Hie Persians, 
zealous monotheists, destroyed the Greek temples. Bat it 
was not till the reign of Darius, who succeeded Cambyses 
in 521 B.a, that the lonians felt tilie whole weight of the 
Persian yoke. Darius, the able organizer of Uie Persian 
empire, preferred that each Ionian city should be ruled by 
one man whom he could trust He therefore gave system- 
atic support to tyrannies. 

It is characteristic of the political condition of Ionia that 
the revolt was not a popular movement, but was the work . 
of two men, each of whom had private ends to serve. His- 
tiaBus, tyrant of Miletus, had rendered a vital service to 
Darius during his Scythian expedition (510 B.a) by dis- 
suading the other Greek leaders from breaking down tho 
bridge over the Danube, which secured the retreat of the 
Persian army. Having been rewarded with a principality 
in Thrace, he presently became suspected of ambitious 
designs. Darius sent for him to Susa, and detained him 
there on the pretext that he could not live without hia 
friend. Meanwhile Aristagoras, the son-in-law of Histiaeus, 
ruled at Miletus. In 502 Aristagoras undertook to restore 
the exiled oligarchs of Naxos, and for this purpose ob- 
tained 200 Persian ships from Artaphemes, the satrap of 
western Asia Minor. The enterprise miscarried. Aris- 
tagoras, dreading the angec of Artaphemes, now began to 
meditate revolt He was encouraged by secret messages 
from Histiasus, who hoped to escape from Susa by being 
sent to suppress the rising. Aristagoras laid down ^*s 
tyranny, and called on the people of Miletus to throw off 
Uie Persian yoke. The other Ionian cities followed the 
example. They deposed their tyrants and declared them- 
selves free. Ilie uEolian and Dorian settlements made 
common cause with them. Qyprus also joined in the revolt 
(500 B.a). Aristagoras next sought aid beyond tho 
iEgean. Sparta held aloof, but five ships were sent by 
the Eretrians, and twenty by the Athenians. Hie united 
Greek force surprised Sardis, and set fire to it, but was 
presently driven back to the coast The Athenians then 
went home. Darius was deeply incensed by this outrage. 
The whole Persian force was brought to bear on Ionia, and 
Miletus wss invested by land and sea. In & sea fight off 
Lade, an island near Miletus, the lonians were decisively 
defeated by a Persian fleet of nearly twice their number^ 

nuux VAB8.] 

G E E E E 


partlj through the ahamefal deaeriion of the flatniauB and 
Lesbians daring the battle (496 B.a). The Fenians soon 
afterwards took Miletos by storm (495 B.C.). The Greek 
cities of the Asiatic sea board and of the Thracian Cher- 
tonese saccessiTely fell before them. 

But the rengeance of Darius was not yet complete. He 
could not forget that Qneks from beyond the sea had 
helped to bum Sardis, and faaiesolyed that the ponishment 
6f Athens and Eretria should be as signal as that of his 
own vassals in Ionia. A Persian army, under Maidonius, 
Crossed the Hellespont and advanced through Thrace. But 
the Persian fleet which ascompanied it was shattered by a 
storm in rounding Mount Atiios. The progress of Mar- 
donioa was also checked by the Thracians, and he retreated 
to Asia. 

The ambition of Hardonius had been to bring all 
European Hellas under the rule of the Aehsemenida. The 
second Persian expedition, guided by more cautious counsel, 
had a narrower scope. & was directed strictly against 
those states which ihe great king had Towed to punisL 
The intrigues of the Pisistratidss were busy in promoting 
it, and Hippias was to lend his personal guidance to its 
l^ers. But before the new force set out Persian agents 
were sent through Qreeoe to demand the symbols of sub- 
mission from the cities. Most of the islands feared to re- 
foae. .^^gina, now a prosperous maritime power, complied 
from another motive tiian fear. Even Persia was welcome 
to her as an ally against Athens. The Athenians called upon 
Sparta, whom they thus recognised as the head of Greece, 
to punish this treason to the Hellenic cause ; and Cleo- 
menes, after overcoming the oppoution of his royal col- 
lea^^ Demaratus, took an arbitrary revenge on the 
iEgioetans by depositing ten men of their chief families in 
the hands of the Athenians. 

In 490 B.a. the second Persian expedition crossed the 
.£geaQ under the command of Datis and Artaphemes. 
Kizos was sacked, Eretria was betrayed. It seemed hardly 
doubtful that Athens too must fall The Persians landed 
in the bay of Marathon, enclosed by the spurs of Brileasus 
(Peoteliens) and the hills of the Diacria. Tbej thus avoided 
the dangers of a Toyage round a rocky coast ; and no part 
of Attica, Hippias told them, was so favourable to cavalry. 
The Athenians had sent for help to Sparta; but a religions 
scruple forbade the Spartans to maroh befen the time of 
the full moon. Nine thousand Athenian citizens, with the 
slaves who carried their shields, went forth to meet the 
Fenians at Marathon. On the way they were joined by a 
thousand Plateaus, — ^the whole force of that city, — ^who 
came to stand by their old proteetora. Miltiados, formerly 
the ruler of the Chersonese^ was one of the ten Athenian 
generals. Five of these voted for awaiting Spartan help. 
The other five, led by Miltiades, were for giving battle at 
once ; and the vote of the polemardi, Oallimachos, turned 
the scale in their favour. The Greeks charged down 
f n»n the hillsido upon the Persians. The Greek centre was 
driven in, but the Greek wings prevailed, and thon closed 
upon the Penian centre. Tlw Persians fled to their ships. 
Six thousand Persians feU The Greek loss was about 
192. Believing that traiton at Athens had signalled to the 
Persians to surprise the city while undefended, the army 
hastened back. The Penian fleet soon approached, but 
seeing troops on the shore^ sailed away for AbUl, 

After the victory of Marathon Miltiades was all-power- 
ful at Athena. He asked the people to give him a fleet, in 
order that ha might strike another blow at Penia while 
the effects of Marathon were fresh. His demand was 
gianted. But he employed the fleet In an attempt to 
wreak a private grudge on the ialand of Paioi. At the 
end of twenty-six days he retureed to Athani baflled, and 
luflMi^fniiiftwoundinthaiUgh. Ha wu Indietad f or 

having deceived the people, and waft sentenced to a fine of 
about £12,000. Being unable to pay it, he was disfran- 
chised as a public debtor. His wound mortified, and 
he died, leaving debt and dishonour to his son CHmon. 
Aristides wss now the meet influential man at Athena, as 
Thenustodes waa the ablest Themistocles foresaw that 
the Persians would return, and that Athens could resist 
them only on the sea. He aimed therefore at creating 
an Athenian navy. Already (491 &a) ho had penuaded 
the Athenians to set about fortifving the peninsula of the 
Pireus, which, with its three harbonn commanded by the 
height of Munychia, offered greater advantages than the 
open roadstead of Phalemm. He now urged that the 
revenues from the silver mines of Laurium should be 
applied to building a fleet The frequent hostilities 
between Athens and .£gina enforced the advice. Before 
480 B.a Athens had acquired 200 triremes. Aristidea 
was at the head of a party who viewed this morement 
with alarm. Had not tiie naval empire of Miletus, Chios^ 
and Samos been transient t The land-holding citizens who 
had fought at Marathon would give place to a mob of 
sailors and traders. An unstable democracy would carry 
the state out of the ancient ways. The strife of parties 
came to an issuer An ostracism was held, and Anstides 
was banished, — probably in 484 or 483 b.o. Themistocles 
nmained the leader of Athens in the new path which he 
himself had opened. Athens was now the first maritime 
power of Greeca 

The repulse at Marathon had probably 4iot prevented 
the Penian commanden from representing their expedition 
as in a great measure successful Darius resolved on the 
complete subjugation of Greece. But, when yast prepani- 
tions had been in progress for three years, he died, leaving 
the throne to Xerxes, the eldest of his four sons by Atossa, 
the daughter of Cyrus (485 B.O.). Xerxes was not, like 
his father, a bom ruler or a trained warrior. But he was 
profoundly convinced that all human beings were the 
natural slaTes of the Penian king ; and he was influenced 
by a strong war-party in the palace, with Atossa and 
Mardonins at its head. The house of Pisistratus, the 
ambitious Aleuads of Thessaly, and Demaratus, tlie 
exiled king of Sparta, united in urging an invasion of 
Greece. It was in Tain that Artabanns, the undo of the 
long, argued on behalf of the moderate party at tlie court 
Ordem were given to raise such an armament as the world 
had never seen, a host which should dispUy the whole 
resources of the empire from the Indus to the .£gean, 
from the Danube to the Nile. Forty-six nations were 
represented by the forces which wintered at Sardis in 481 
]i.a A fleet of 1200 triremes, and about 3000 transporta 
and smaller craft, assembled near Cyme and Phocsea on the 
Ionian coast In the spring of 480 B.a Xerxes led about a 
million of men to the Hellespont, whither the fleet went 
before to meet them. 

Greece was probably never stronger than it was at this 
time. The population of the Peloponnesus may have been 
about two millions. Athens, according to Herodotus, had 
30,000 citisens. The Boeotian towns and the islands were 
prosperous. The proportion of slaves to freemen varied 
from perhaps four to one at Athens to as much as ten to 
one at Corinth or .figina. Life was still simple and 
vigorous. Society was not divided into rich dasus ener- 
vated by luxury and poor elassea enfeebled by want 
The publio paUestras were schools of physical training 
for war. But that which Greece lacked was political unity. 
Ariatocraoy and democracy were already rival forces 
Kveiywhera the aristoerata' felt that a victory oyer Persia 
must have a national character, and moat so for be a 
victory for the people. Thev inoUned tharafore to tha 
Parrian eansa : and 4h» tted hi defanaa o( Qreeoa was 


G B E E E 


eTontnallj made by a few fitatea out j. Sparta, u the lead- 
ing citj of Greece, took the first step towards the forma- 
tion of a national party, by conTening a congress at the 
isthmus of Oorinth in the autamn of 481. Here Them- 
istodea showed his statesmanship by prevailing on the 
Athenians to abstain from disputing the hegemony of 
8parta» Mast of the Peloponnesian cities were represented 
at the congress. But Argos and Achaia, jealous of Sparta, 
held aloof. In Boeotia, Thebes, — the enemy of Athens, — 
favoured Persia. In Thessaly Uie dynasty of the Aleuad» 
were the active allies of the invader. Qelon of Syracuse 
refused to aid unless he were to lead. The Corcyreans 
promised sixty ships, but did not send them. Crete 
also failed to help. The states which fought against 
Persia were then these only, — Sparta with her Pelopon- 
nesian allies, Athens, JSgina, Megara, Platea, Thespise. 
This national league expressed indeed the principle of 
Qreek unity, but Greece was far from being united. The 
''medudng" party was strong, and it counted some adhei^ 
enta in many even of the patriotic cities. Wherever 
democracy had enemies Persia had friends. 

The first idea of the national defence was to arrest the 
torrent of invasion at some northerly point which could be 
held against great numerical odds. Tempo proving unten- 
able, it was resolved to make a stand at Thermopylsd. 
When Leonidas had fallen with hb 300 Spartans and the 
700 Thespians who shared their heroic death, the next ob- 
ject of the Peloponnesian allies was to guard the isthmus 
of Corinth. The peculiar misfortune of Athens in the war 
was her position between two gates, the first of which had 
been forced by the enemy. The Greek leaders seem to 
have assumed at first that it was vain to oppose the Persian 
land forces in an open field. Xerxes occupied Athens, and 
the flames which destroyed its houses and temples at last 
avenged the burning of Sardis. The Greek ships, which 
had gained some advantage over the Persian fleet at 
Artemisium in the northern waters of ^the Eubcean strait, 
had moved to Salamis as soon as it was knowu that the 
Persians had passed Thermopyhe. The homeless popula- 
tion of Athens had been conveyed to Salamis, ^gina, and 
Trcezen before the arrival of Aerxes. And now the fore- 
cast of Themlstocles was verified. Athens, and Greece 
itself, were saved chiefly by the Athenian ships, — 200 in 
number out of a total of 366. The Peloponnesiau leaders 
wished to withdraw the fleet to the isthmus. Tliemistocles 
saw that if it left Salamis it would disperse. He sent 
word to Xerxes that the Greeks meditated escape. The 
Persian fleet surrounded them in the night Next day the 
battle of Salamis was fought. Of 1000 Persian ships, 200 
were destroyed ; the rest fled. It was on the same day 
that Gelon of Syracuse defeated the Carthaginians at 
Himera in Sicily (480 B.a). Xerxes lost heart and re- 
treated to Asia, leaving Mardonius with 300,000 men to 
finish the war. In the summer of 479 Athens was again 
occupied and destroyed by the Persians. Now at length 
Sparta came to the rescua Pausanias, the guardian of 
the young son of Leonidas, led 110,000 of the allies into 
Boeotia, and utterly defeated the army of Mardonius near 
FlatflBa (479 B.a). On the same day the troops of the 
Greek fleet defeated those of the Persian fleet in a battle 
on the shore at Mycale near Miletus. This victory set 
Ionia free from Persia. 

The Persian wats had revealed both the weakness and 
the strengtili of Greece. The hereditary aristocracy of 
Thessaly had shown that they were eager to establish the 
supremacy of their house with the help of Asiatic despotisnt 
Such states as Argos and Thebes had not been ashamed to 
indulge Jealousy and party spirit by betrayal of the oom- 
mon cause. Even Sparta and the Peloponne8ia& alliea had 
been disposed to confine their endeavonn to the defence of 

their own peninsula, leaving Athens and the northern cities 
to their fate. On tiie other hand the struggle had broaghl 
into strong relief the contrast between absolute monarchy 
and constitutional freedom. This appeared in two tilings* 
the Greek strategy was superior; and the Greek tK>op4 
fought better. Athens, in particular, had shown hott 
both the intelligence and the spirit of citizens are raised 
by equal laws. The mistakes of the invaders, — wliich, 
to a Greek mind, might well have seemed the work 
of Ate, — were such as are natural when a vast force is 
directed by the intemperance of a single will. Artemisia 
and Demaratus advised Xerxes to occupy Cythera. The 
Thebans advised Mardonius to sow dissension among the 
Greeks by means of bribes. Both counsels were judicious, 
and both were n^lected. Time is, in war, the surest ally 
of superior numbers and resources; but the impatience 
of the Persian commanders staked everything on a few 
pitched battles. Again, the Persians, unlike the Lydiana 
of old, destroyed the Greek temples. They thus couferred 
an im mense moral advantage on their antagozust He could 
no longer doubt that he was helped by his gods. 

IV. The Period of AdieHtan Supremacy, 478-404 B.C. 

In the space from the Persian to the Peloponnesian 
War the central interest belongs to Athens. The growth 
of Athenian empire, the successive phases through which 
it iiassed, and its influence on ihe rest of Greece, the 
inner development of Athenian life, political, intellectual, 
social, — these are the salient features in a period of about 
fifty years. The first care of Themistocles after the 
repulse of the Persian invasion was to restore the fortifi- 
cations of Athens. The jealous interference of Sparta, 
instigated by iBgina and Corinth, was defeated by his 
ingenuity. A wall of larger circuit than the old one was 
built round Athens, and a strong wall was also carried 
round the Piraeus. The Persians had been driven out of 
Ionia, but they still held many pkces ou the Thracian and 
Asiatic coasts. The Spartan Pausanias, commandmg the 
Greek fleet, took Byzantium from the Persians in 478. He 
now formed the design of making himself a despot, and his 
adoption of the manners of a Persian grandee became so 
offensive to the Greek captains that they requested the 
Athenian commanders to assume the leadersliip of the fleet 
Pausanias was recalled to Sparta, and his successor found 
that the hegemony had already changed hands. The 
league, of which Athens now became the head (477 &a), 
was intended to continue the national defence against 
Persia. Its special purpose was to guard the JS^eoxk. 
Aristides was chosen to assess the rate of contribution for 
the members. The representatives of the several cities met 
at the temple of Apollo in Deloa, where the common fund 
was also deposited. Hence the league was called the Con- 
federacy of Delos. It was only gradually that this free 
confederacy, with Athens for a president, passed into an 
Athenian empire over tributary cities. At first each city 
contributed ^ps to the common fleet But the practice 
arose of allowing some cities to contribute money instead 
of ^pe. A city whidi did this had no control over 
Athens, and no protection against attack. One after 
another of &e discontented allies revolted from Athens, 
and was forcibly reduced to the condition of a subject 
Naxos was the earliest example (466 B.o.) ; Thasos was 
the next (466 &a); and as early as 449 B.a only three 
insular allies remained free, — Samoa, Lesbos, and Chios. 
The transfer of the common fund from Delos to Athc is 
(about 469 B.a) was merely the outward sign of a change 
in which moat members of the original league had already 
been compelled to acquiesce. In the earlier years of the 
Oonfederaey the work for which it had been formed waa 
not neglected. Of the sacceases gabed agfdnst Persia the 

iTsnuir sirpBucioT.] 



■icMt noteUa was tlie vietoiy of Cimoa over the Peniani, 
bodi hf kad and bj aea, at the month of EuzTinedoii (466 
&a). Bvti as Athens aanimed more and more distinctly 
sa imperial chazaeter, the common fund came to be regarded 
at a tribute which could be applied to ezelnsiTely Athenian 
objecta This was the grievance which made the veiy 
name of the <« tribute " (4^) so hateful 

Ihe years 467-455 B.a may be taken as marking the 
gnatest extension of the Athenian empire. It was in 457 
that their Tictoiy at (Enophyta in Boeotia, following on 
their defeat at Tanagra, enaUed the Athenians to break 
up for a time the oligarchical league over which Thebes 
preaided. Democracies were established in the Boeotian 
towmi, ai^d Athens was rtrtnally supreme, not only in 
B(Botia» but also in Fhoois and Locris. In 455, after a 
straggle of some yearsi Athens conquerod .^ina. But 
now the tide began to turn. In 453 the defeat of the 
Athenians at' Coronea destroyed the power of Athens in 
BcBotis, Fhodi^ and Locrisi Oligarchies were restored. 
Rnt Euboea and then Megara reFolted from Athens. 
The Spartans, released from a truce of five years (452-447), 
inTadttl Attica. They advanced, howeyer, no further than 
the Thriasian plain ; and it was believed that their leader, 
the king Flaistoanax, had taken Athenian. bribes. Freed 
from t£s danger, Pericles was enabled to reduce Euboea. 
Bat the dream of an Athenian land-empire was oTer. In 
445 a truce for thirty years was concluded between Athens 
and Sparta. Athens gave up all dependencies on the 
mainland of Qreeoe. Henceforth the Athenian empire was 
to be maritime only. 

Between the conclusion of the THrtj Tears' Truce and 
the events which led to the Peloponnesian War the most 
important incidents were — first, the revolt of Samts and 
its reduction by Athens (440 B.a) ; next, the foundation 
bj Athens of two settlements, Thnrii, on the site of 
Sybaris in southern Italy, and Amphipolis, on the Strymon, 
in Thrace. 

Meanwhile the inner political life of Athens had passed 
through great changes. Soon after the Persian wars, the 
fourth or pooreet oLass of the Solonian timocracy had been 
made eligible to the archonship This was done on the 
propoaal of Aristides himself. The maritime population 
of the Pineus was now large, and it had become impossible 
to exclude the main body of the eitisens from the cLief 
olBcea of the state. The development of Athenian demo- 
cracy had been secured by that loyal unity of civic action 
and feeling which the Persian wan had produced. Them- 
iatodeS) whose policy liad been the source of those new im- 
pulses, did not remain to direct them ; he was accused of 
complicity in the Persian intrigues of Pausanias, and ostra- 
died (about 471 &a). Aristidee died in 468.' Cimon, 
the ion of Miltiades, was now at the head of a conservative 
party. The other party, which was rather progressive tlian 
properly democratic, was led by Pericles, an Alcnueonid, 
and EpUaltes. A blow was dealt to the influence of 
Ctmou and his party when the Spartans insultingly dis- 
rnimed an Athenian force which had marched, under C^on, 
to help them in reducing the insurgent Helots on Mount 
Ithome (464 B.a). Soon afterwards some important re- 
formi were proposed and carried by Ephialtes. The powers 
of the Arec^Migus were ^bminiahed. Probably it lost its 
general censoruJ power and its veto upon legislation, re- 
taiaing its jurisdiction in homicide. The archons and 
generals were deprived of their diseretionary judicial powers. 
Henceforth the people was to be the final judge both in 
crifflinsl and in cM. causes. . The juries chosen from the 
Heliiea were now organised as a permanent system of 
coorta, every juror recMving a fee from the state for each 
day of his attendance. Cunon was ostracised; and the 
eiaspeia^oft ^ the conservative party was shown by the 

assasaination of Ephialtes (457 B.a). Cimon was succeeded 
in the leadenhip by his kinsman Thucydides^ son of 
Melesps ; and when, in 443 B.a, Thncy^Udes also was 
ostracised, there was no longer any disciplined restatance 
to the poli^ of Periclea. Athens was now strengthened 
andrembeUiahed by a series of public works. Already in 
457-456 two long walls had been built^ one from Athens 
to Phalemm, the other from Athens to the Piraeus ; and 
about 445 a third or intermediate wall, parallel to the 
latter, was built on the proposal of Pericles. The Odeion, 
a tlieatre for musical performances, arose on the east aide 
' of the theatre of Dionysus, under the Acropolis. On the 
Acropolb itself the Eractheion, the shrine of Athene Polios, 
which had been burned by the Penians, wos rebuilt on a 
greater scale ; and the Parthenon, the magnificent temple 
of the Virgin Athene, containing the chryselephantine 
statue of .the goddess by Phidias, was constructed under 
his superintendeAce from the plans of Ictinus and CalU' 
crates (4S8 &a). The Propyl«a or portds, forming a colon- 
naded entrance to the Acropolis on the western side, wen 
completed a few years later. 

The period known as "the age of Pericles" may be 
roughly defined as the years from 460 to 430 ac. The idea 
which pervades the whole work of PericLos ia that the 
Athenian people, having been called upon by cirtumstantes 
to rule over a wide alliance, must be trained to rulo 
worthily. Pericles was opposed to extending the empire 
of Athens; but he was resolved to hold it, because he 
saw the danger of giving it np. And, in order that it 
should be held securely, he saw that the people must 
be educated, first, poUticaUy, by constitutional freedom, 
and next, intellectually and so<ually, by general cultiva- 
tion. The theorieont or money given to the citizen to 
pay for his seat at the theatre, was doubtless a party 
expedient, like the pay provided for the juror and for the 
citisen-soldier ; it belonged to a plan for breaking the ex- 
clusive power of wealth. But it alao fitted into the syatem 
by which Pericles sought to bring the citizens collectively 
under the influence of art in all its noblest forma. Painting; 
music, sculpture, architecture, had each its place in this 
scheme ; but for the stateeman's object no single inatru- 
ment was perhaps so potent as the drama. It was a time 
of contending forces, in which one chief peril was lest the 
generation to which a larger future was opening should 
loee its hold on what was best in the past The religious 
tradition and the new ethical subtlety were nowhere re- 
conciled in so lofty an ideal as by Sophocles ; nor could 
any presentment of art rival the theatre in its power of 
quickening a sympathetic enthusiasm. 

The " age of Pericles " would have produced better 
resulfca for the political future of Athens if Pericles himself 
had bceu leea great As Thncydides says, the nominal 
demoerecy waa virtually the rule of one man. The informal 
sovereignty of Pericles hindered the rise of those wlio 
might otherwise have been treined to succeed him. Dur- 
ing his lifetime the need of a reetraining force was not felt 
in the reformed institutions, for that force was supplied by 
a single mind. But when ho was gone it was seen that the 
new equilibrium of the state depended on a Pericles being 
at its head. Probably Pericles himself believed that there 
were men who could continue what he had begun ; and if 
he was wrong, that cannot detract from the glory of what 
he did for hia own time. 

V. The Peloponnetian War, 431-404 B.O. The Period of 
Spartan and then of Theban Aecendeney, 404-362 &a 
In f 'gamming thc cauBes which led to the breach of the 
Thirty Tears' Truce, and to the Peloponnesian War which 
followed it^ Thucydidea distinguishes two alleged or im- 
mediate woam from a third cauee which was not alleged, 




bat which lay deeper than either of ihe otheis. The two 
alleged caoseB were — (1) the octiTe help giyen by Athens 
to the Corcyrasans in their qnorrel with Corinth ccmceming 
Epidamnns, a colony of Corcyra; (2) the Athenian blockade 
of Potld8es^ a Corinthian colony which had reTolted trom 
Athens. The more essential cause was the growth of 
Athenian power, and the alarm which this caused to the 
Lacedemonians. In tmth the affair of Epidamnns and 
the affair of Potidei were merely the sparks which hap- 
pened to kindle the flame. That long conflict which 
we call the Pelopounosian War had been prepared from 
the Ume when the AtheniaD democracy, founded by Clia- 
thenes, had become a power in Greece through the suc- 
cessful struggle against Persia. From that time there 
were two antagonistic principles, represented by t^o rival 
cities, — oligarchy by Sparta, democracy by Athens. The 
other cities grouped themselves naturally around these. 
All Greece was divided between these two ideas. The 
Peloponnesian War is the collision between them. It would 
be inconsistent with the limits and the scope of this sketch 
to enumerate the details of the war in each of its twenty- 
seven years. Yet we must aim at indicating the periods 
into which it falls, the leading characteristics and tenden- 
cies which it presents. 

1. The first period of the Pebponnesian War comprises 
the years from its commencement in 431 b.o. to the peace 
of Kicias in 421,— hence sometimes called the Ten Years' 
War. As one of its main features was the frequent 
invasion of Attica by the Peloponnesians, the latter called 
it the Attic War. The result of it was that Sparta hod 
gained nothing, and that Athens liad lost nothing except 
Amphipolis. By the peace of Kicias Athens kept all 
places which had surrendered voluntarily. Those allies of 
Sparta from which these places had been taken were 
natarally discontented. Corinth and Thebes especially 
were aggrieved. In spite of all the mistakes of Athens, 
— ^in spite of the desolating plague, — in spite .of such 
reverses as the defeats at Delium and Amphipolis, and the 
loss of the Chalcidic towns, — ^Athens remained on the 
whole triumphant; and against what Brasidas had done 
for Spaita might be set the victories of Phormio and the 
capture of Sphacteria. On the other hand the peace of 
Kicias liod bipught disaffection into the Spartan confed- 

2. The second period of the war extends from the peace 
>f Kicias in 421 to the catastrophe of the Sicilian expedi- 
iion in 413. The four years immediately following the 
peace of Kicias are the only years during which the great 
fundamental antithesis on which the whole war rested was 
temporarily obscured. Many of the allies of Sparta were 
discontented, and the intrigues of Alcibiades were active 
among them. Bat it was in vain that oligarchical allies 
were gained for the moment to the democratic cause. The 
normal relations were soon restored. Then came the 
Athenian expedition to Sicily, ending in a crushing disaster. 
Thucydides thinks that the mistake lay, not so much 
in an original miscalculation of strength, as in the 
failure at Athens to support the expedition after it had 
gon& It is indeed possible that with other guidance 
Athens might have conquered Syracuse. But at least it 
was essential that Athens should put forth its whole 
strength, if only for the reason that no people resembled 
the Athenians so closely as the Syracnsans. Yet never 
had the Athenians fought uoder greater disadvantages. 
The Athenian forte was in attack ; at Syracuse they had to 
act on the defensive. The bold and versatile Alcibiades 
was made a public enemy. Kicias, timid and in weak 
health, is opposed to Gylippns, who unites a Dorian energy 
of hatred to Athens with' something like Ionian command 
of resource, And, when everything had been lost except 

a chance of Baving the army, the pervenity of Kidai 
defeated the pmdence of Demosthenes. The Bidlioii 
disaster was the turning-point of the war. Pericles had 
warned the Athenians against needless ventuies ond e 
policy of aggrandizement They had incurred a needless 
risk of tremendous magnitude^ and had lost If they had 
won, Alcibiades would probably have raised a tyranny on 
the mins of their democracy. 

3. The third and last period of the war is from the 
Sicilian defeat in 413 to the taking of Athens by Lysander 
in 404y a few months after the battle of .£gospotami 
This is the period called the Decelcan War, because 
Decelea in Attica was occupied by the Spartans in 413, 
and continued to be a permanent base of their operatiooa 
against Athena As the sea board of Asia Minor wos the 
scene of much of the fighting, it is sometimes also called the 
Ionian War. In this lost Chapter the war takes a new dtor- 
acter. After the Sicilian overthrow Athens was real^ 
doomed. The Decelean War is a prolonged agony of 
Athenian despair. Athens had now no hope but in her 
ships ; and tne leaders had to find their own supplier 
The Spartan treasury was also empty. This want of money 
on both sides gave the mastery of the situation to Persia. 
And it was due to the factions treason of Alcibiades that 
the aid of Persia was given to Sparta. Athens was ulti- 
mately conquered, not by the Spartan confederacy, but bj 
the duloyalty of Athenians bent on ruining political oppo- 
ncnta The " Bevolution of the Four Hundred," with its 
brief success^ greatly contributed to the exhaustion of the 
city. Even at .£gospotami, even when Lysander was before 
Athens, it was the baneful influence of Athenian faction 
that turned the scale. When Athens had been taken 
and the walls destroyed, Sparta was once more the fiiat 
power in Greece. When Thrasybulus and the patriotio 
exiles had overtlirown ihe rule of the Thirty Tyrants, they 
restored the Athenian democracy, but they could not re- 
store the old Athenian power. 

Sparta itself was changed. The old Spartan institutions 
had taught a simple reliance on disciplined strength. In 
the Peloponnesian War Sparta had won the victory with 
Persian gold. Already the love of money had found its 
way into the state which had once been so carefully protected 
from it Differences of degree had arisen between the 
citisens, whose equality hod been the very basis of the old 
Spartan life. Citizens who hod been impoverished by the 
rise of prices, and who could no longer pay their shore of 
the public tables, were now distinguished as ** inferiors* 
(iirofitCavn) from those who retained their full civic rights 
(i/iotot). Spartan commanders abroad were not always 
inaccessible to bribes. The habit of military discipline 
indeed remained. Spartans were still distbgnished, as a 
rule, by gallantry in the field, by care for the dead, and bj 
attention to the ritual of the goids. Kor had the valley of 
the Eurotas remained dos^ to the higher culture of Greece. 
The old type of Spartan leader — the rough soldier incap* 
able of eloquence or of finesse— had ceas^ to be the on^ 
type. An Athenian might have envied the powers of 
persuasion and the diplomatic tact of such Spartans as 
Brasidas, Lysander, or Gylippna But the qualities of the 
old Sparta were seldom fused into a perfect harmony with 
the new accomplishments. Such men as Lichas and Cal- 
licratidas were rare. The balance of political power, os it 
existed in the old constitution, had also been unsettled. 
The kings were still, as of old, the commanders-in-chief 
on land. But the new oflSce of the admiral (vavapxos) was 
invested with the chief command at sea. The. supreme 
control of the state had passed more and more into the 
hands of the ephon, and the ephors, diosen annually, were 
not always iDCormptible. 

Sparta had wa^ the Peloponnesiau War in the none 

pxLOPoinrisLur wab.] 

G B E E E 


of f nedoffi. The Qnek eitifls were io be libented from 
the oU-^beoibing tjnxmj of Athens. Now, howerer, Sparta 
alto^ther failed to redeem these pledges. On the oontraij 
she aimed at setting np a tyranny of her own. OUgarehidd 
goremments were established, controlled in each oity by 
a Spartan garrison under a Spartan harmost or military 
goTemor. The earliest and one of the worst cases was 
the tyranny of the thirty tyrants at Athens, set np by 
Lyaander, and supported by Spartan arms until, after eight 
months, the Athonian exiles under Thrasybulns marched 
from Fhyle upon Athens. The Athenian democracy was 
formally restored in September 403 B.a ; and the liberators 
naed their Tictory wi£h a wise moderation. Four years 
later Socrates was put to death, becanee a party blindly 
aalons for the old beliefs of Athens could not see that 
such thought as his led to the only firm basis for a new 
social order. 

The retreat of the 10,000 Greeks under Xenophon, in 401 
B.a, marks a turning-point in the relations of Greece to 
Persia. It was to the Greeks a striking revelation of Persian 
wKikneas, an encouragement to schemes of Sn?asion which- 
woiJd before hare seemed wild. Sparta now began a war 
against the Persians in Asia Minor — partly to eecape from 
the reproach of haying abandoned Asiatic Hellas to the 
birbanan. Agesilaus, on whom the lesson of tlie famous 
retreat had not been lost, was encouraged by success to 
plan a bolder campaign. But in 394 Bia the Athenian 
Cofnon, commanding the fleet raised by tlie satrap Fhama- 
bazns, oiterly defeated the Spartan fleet at Cnidus. Soon 
afterwards, under his protection, the Long Walls of Athens 
trere restored. The Spartan power in Aria Minor was at 
an end. The oligarchies were OYerthrown, and the Spartan 
goYemois expelled. 

The reverses of Sparta did not end here. At the in- 
stigation of Persia an alliance was formed between Athens, 
Thebes, Argos, and Corinth. In the territory of the latter 
state the allies waged war on Sparta, to whose aid Agesilaus 
tras recalled from Asia. When the Corinthian War had 
lasted six years, the peace of Antalcidas was negotiated 
between Sparta and Persia (387 B. a ). By it the Greek cities 
in Aria, with Cyprus, were giyen up to Persia. Lemnoe, 
Imbros, and Scyros were aaaigned to Athens. All other 
Greek cities were dechured independent. The meaning of 
this was that they were to be independent of each other— 
isolated for purposes of defence — and all alike dependent 
on the Qreat King. The Corinthian War had begun from 
Peirian intrigue ; it ended with a peace dictated by Persia. 
Bat the Spartan policy had gained its own ends. The so- 
called "autonomy " of the Greek cities disarmed the riyals 
of Sparta. Kow, as at the end of the Peloponnesian War, 
a prospect of dominion was opened to her. The Persian 
kifig; whom this disgraceful peace practically recognized 
•a sozerain of Greece, was to be merely the guarantor of 
terms under which Spartan ambition might be securely 

A few years later these designs met with their flrst 
Berioos che^ In 382 B.a the Spartans treacherously seized 
the Cadmea or citadel of Thebes. They held Thebes for 
three years. But ia 379 a party of Theban exiles, under 
Pelopidaa, surprised the Spartan garrison and recoTered the 
%. A still greater duicounigement to Sparta was the 
establishment of a new Athenian Confederacy — precautions 
being taken against the members passing, as under the 
Detian Confederacy, into the condition of mere tributaries. 
Thebes joined the new confederacy, and presently suc- 
eeeded in restoring the old Boeotian league, of whi^h Thebes 
was the head. But the rise of Thebes had excited Athenian 
jealooay. Peace was made in 371 between Athena and 
Sparta. Thebes, thus isolated, was at once attacked by 
the Lftoedwmoniana They inraded Bcsotia, but were de- 

feated by the Thebana under Epaminondas at LencCi% 
371 B.a This destroyed Spartan power outside of ihm 
Peloponnesusb Epaminondas next inyaded the Pelopoi^ 
neaus itself. He lesolyed to set up riyals to Sparta on her 
own borders. He therefore united the cities of Arcadia 
into a league^ with a now city. Megalopolis, for its capital; 
and he gaye independence to Messenia, which for threo 
centuries had been subject to Sparta — claying the found- 
ations of a new capital, Messene, around the great natural 
citadel of Ithoma. The Arcadian league did not long hold 
together. Mantinea led a group of Arcadian towns fayonr- 
able to Sparta. In 363 B.a a battle was fought near 
Mantinea between the Spartans and the Thebana. The 
Thebana were yietorions, but Epaminondas feU. With 
his death the temporary supremacy of Thebes came to a^ 
end. Sparta had, howeyer, been reduced from the rank 
of a leading state. Xenophon closes his BeUeniea with 
these words : — " There was more confnsion (AKfiurin) and 
tumult in Greece after the battle than before." 

Political confnsion is indeed the general characteristic 
of the period between the end of the Pdoponnesian War and 
the Macedonian conquest of Greeoei In the preceding 
century Athens and Sparta had been the yigorons represent- 
atiyea of two distinct principlee. The oligarduc citiea 
rallied round Sparta, the democratie round Athens. But 
at the end of the Peloponnesian War Athens was exhamited. 
Sparta, now predommant, but snifering from inner decay, 
exercised her power in such a manner as to estrange her 
natural allies. Thns both the normal groups of statea were 
broken up. New and arbitrary combinationa succeeded, 
seldom lasting long, since they were prompted merely by 
the interest or impulse of the hour. In this period of un^ 
stable politics the moment moet promising, perhaps, for 
the future of Greece waa when Athens had formed a new 
nayal confederacy, and was also allied with the Boeotian 
league. But the alliance was broken by Athenian jealooay 
of Thebes, — not to be renewed until Greek independence 
was on the eye of receiying its death-blow. The work of 
Epaminondas in one sense died with him; the brief 
hegemony of Thebes passed away. But in anotilier sense 
the results which he achieyed were enduring. He had been 
for Thebes such a nmn as Pericles was for Athens — a ruling 
personal influence in a democratic conunonwealth ; and 
he had raised Theban policy to the old Athenian leyel. 
The aims of Thebana were no longer confined to the circle 
of Theban interests; Thebes now aspired to be what Athena 
had been — the champion of national freedom and greatness. 
The power founded by Epaminondaa waa transient ; but 
this krge Hellenic patriotism made itself felt in some 
degree as a permanent inspiration, preparing the Thebaai 
to stand by the Athenians in the last struma for Greel 

YL The reisiHi of Philip and Alexander, 359-323 B.a * 
Three years after the death of Epaminondas Philip came 
to the throne of Macedon. His power rapidly grew. A 
warlike people, ruled by an abia and ambitions king, waf 
now the northern neighbour of Greece. The most obyioui 
yice of Greek politics at this period was disunion ; but the 
disunion itself was only the symptom of a deeper decay. 
No one city of Greece any longer retained the yigour re- 
quired in a leader. ' Had either Athena or Sparta now 
possessed such yital force aa they showed in the Persian 
wars, no local or temporary feuds would haye preyented th^ 
organization of national defence. Nothing marks the decay 
of the Greek conunonwealths more significantly than the 
fact that they did not eyen recogniae the urgency of the 
danger. Demoethenea had the old Greek spirit ; but he 
stood almost alone. The principles on which be constantly 
inaistedy and which giye unity to his entire career, are mainly 


G B E E G E 


two : — ^firat, tke daty of the Athenian citizen to aaerifioe 
personal ease and gain to the eeryice of Athens ; secondly, 
the duty of Athens, as the natural head of free Greece, to 
consnlt the interests of all the Qreek cities. The energy of 
Demosthenes was not first roused by the progress of Philip. 
Before there was danger from the quarter of.Macedon, 
Demosthenes had seen clearly that the decav of public 
spirit threatened the destruction of Hellenic life. As he 
said to the Athenians afterwards, if Philip had not existed 
they would have made another Philip for themselres. And 
the condition of Athens was at least not wone than that 
of any other city which could have aspired to lead. 

A strategiat so keouHsighted as Philip must early liaye 
percelTcd that he had little to fear from combined resistance, 
so long as he was careful not to attack too many separate 
intereeta at the same time. Greeks, he saw, were past 
fighting for each other as Greeks. ThiB was Uie key-note 
of his policy to the last While making aggressions on one 
Greek city or group of cities, he always contrived to hare 
others on his side. 

Philip's career in relation to Greece has two periods. 
The end of the first period is marked by his admission to 
the Amphictyonic Council ; the end of the second, by tlie 
battle of Cheronea. During the first period Philip is still 
a foreign power threatening Greece from outside. He takes 
Amphipolis from the Athenians ; he destroys Potidea ; he 
acquires towns on the Tbracian and Messalian coasts ; he 
defeats the Fhosians under Onomarchus, and even advances 
to Thermopyls, to find the pass guarded by the Athenians; 
finally, he destroys Olynthns and the thirty-two towns of 
its confederacy. In the second period he is no longer a 
foreign power. Having intervened in the Sacred War and 
crushed the Phocians, he has taken the place of Phocis in 
the Amphictyonic Council, and has thereby been admitted 
within the circle of the Greek states. The First Philippic 
and the three Olynthiac speeches of Demosthenes belong to 
the first of these periods. The speeches On the Peace, On the 
Embassy, On the Chersonese, and the two later Philippics, 
belong to the second. In Ihe Third Philippic, the dimaz 
of hb efforts before Chsronea, Demosthenes reviews the 
progress of Philip from the Hellenic, not merely from the 
Athenian, point of view. Philip has destroyed Olynthns, he 
has ruined ' Phocis, he has sown dissensions in Thessaly ; 
Thebes is afraid of him ; he lias gained Euboea and the 
Peloponnesus; he is supreme from the Adriatic to the 
Hellespont; and the last hope of Greece is in Athena. 
Demosthenes succeeded in winning back Byzantium to the 
Athenian alliance, and in persuading Thebans to fight by 
the side of Athenians ; but he could not avert the cata- 
strophe of Ch»ronea. 

After the victory which made him master of Greece, 
Philip deprived Sparta of her conquests in the Pelopon- 
nesus. The Messenians, Arcadians, Argives, recovered 
their old possessions. A congress was then summoned 
at the isthmus of Corinth. Macedonia and the Greek 
states were united in a federal league. A federal council 
was constituted to guard the federal laws ; and the Delphic 
Amphictyony was recognised as a tribunal to which this 
council should refer any breach of those laws. Philip, 
representing Macedonia, the most important member of 
the league, was acknowledged as its head or president 
His position in regard to the Greek cities was thus in form 
much the same as tliat of Athens or Sparta in former days. 
It was nominally an hegemony, with somewhat more 
stringent powers, corresponding to the more systematic 
organization of the league; in practice it was military 
kingship over Greece. Yet Demosthenes had not failed. 
The condition of the Greek states under Philip was favour- 
able in proportion as they had ^ven him trouble. Thessaly 
bad actively helped him^ and had been completely subju- 

gated. The Peloponnesian rivals of Sparta had not been 
active either in lidpmg or i^esisting him, and they were now 
more dependent on Pyiip than they had formerly been on 
Sparta. Athens alone had effectively resisted him, and 
Athens was treated by him with the pnident respect due to 
a serious antagonist 

If Greek b'berty had received a faital blow in Greece 
proper, there was another part of Hellas in which, almost 
simultaneously, it liad been vindicated with splendid suc' 
cess. While Demosthenes was making his heroic resistance 
to the designs of Macedon, the enemies of Hellenic free- 
dom in Sicily had been encountered with equal vigour and 
happier fortune by Timoleon. A few years after the defeat 
of the Athenian armament in 413, Sicily had suffered two 
invasions of the Oarthaginiana. Selinus and Himem, 
j^grigentum, Gela, and Camarina, had successively fallen. 
The first Diouysius, in consolidating his own tyranny at 
Syracuse, had been content to leave half the islMid in the 
hands of the foreign foe^ The feeble misrule of his son, 
Diouysius IL, produced a series of revolutions. A party 
at Syracuse Invoked the aid of Corinth. Timoleon was 
sent with only 1200 men (843 B.a). His first work was 
to deliver Syracuse from the contending forces of Dionysins 
and a rival named Hicetas, and to restore the Syracusan 
democracy. His next work was to drive the Carthaginians 
out of Sicily. He defeated them with crushing effect at 
the river Crimesus (340 B.C.). The Sicilian Greeks were 
now free. Sicily entered on a new period of prosperity, 
which lasted until Agathocles became tyrant of Syracuse 
(317 &a). Thus the brightest days, perhaps, of Hellenic 
Sicily coinddod with those in which the cities of the 
Hellenic mainland were learning to bear the Macedoniau 

The time seemed now to have come for an enterprise 
which, since the retreat of the Ten Thousand, had been the 
dream of many Greek captains, but which none had yet 
been in a position to attempt Philip, fai the forty-seventh 
year of his age, had declai^ war against Persia, and was 
preparing to invade Asia at the head of an army gathered 
from all Greece, when he was assassinated by a young 
Macedonian noble in revenge for a private aStoat (336 blc). 
Alexander, Philip's son and successor, was only twenty. 
Marching into Greece, he promptly repressed an insurrec- 
tionary movement, and was recognized by a new assembly 
at Corinth as commander-in-chief of the Greek armies. Ha 
next marched against the tribes on the northern borders ot 
Macedonia. While he was absent on this expedition, the 
Thebans rose against the Macedonian garrison. Alexander 
returned, took Thebes, and razed it to the ground (335 B.a). 
At Corinth he received the homage of the Greek states, 
and then returned to Macedonia. 

Alexander was now free to execute the design of Philip. 
As captain-general of HeUas, he sets forth to invade the 
Persian empire, and to avenge tlie wrongs suffered by 
Greece at the hands of the first Darius and of Xerxes. The 
army with which he crossed the Hellespont in 334 B.a 
numbered perhaps about 30,000 infantry and 4000 cavalry. 
It was composed of Macedonians, Greeks, and auxiliaries 
from the barbarian tribes on the Macedonian borders. The 
devotion of native Macedonians to their hereditary king was 
combined with the enthusiasm of soldiers for a great gene- 
ral. Even if the military genius of Alexander hod not been 
of the first order, his personal authority over his Macedonian 
troops, and through them over the rest, would still have 
been greater than was ever possessed by a Greek citizen 
commanding fellow-citizens. 

Alexander's career of conquest has three stages, marked 
by his three great battles. The victory at the Granicus 
(334 B.a) gave him Asia Minor. The victory at Issus (333 
B.O.) opened his path into Syri& and Egypt Tlte vbtoir 

PBXUP AXD iLBunsn.] 

O B E E E 


at AtMa (dSl B.a) made him tempoiiiy muter of the 
vhole EuL Jn aocompluhing the fizst two of these stages 
Alexander was not compelled to aasnme any new character. 
The king of MaeedoOy the electiTe c^taln-genend of Qreece, 
needed no other titles by which to hold the lands to which 
he came as a deliverer from Ferua. The later hlstoiy of 
these lands is 'the prooL Asia Minor was by degrees 
thoronghly Helleniaed, and remained Greek till the Tnrks 
came in the 11th centory. Syria and Sgypt were not 
indeed Helleniaed as whole conntries, bat their capital 
citiea, Antioch and Alexandria, were Hellenio; and the 
control establiahed by Alexander was retained by Macedonia 
or by Bome for centories. At the third stage, however, 
Alexander's conqnests entered npon an entirely new phasSi 
and compelled him to take np an altogether new position. 
Neither in his Hellenic nor in his Macedonian capacity 
could he pnt forward any effective daim to hold the Fenian 
empire proper, — ^the empire stripped of its Egyptisn, 
Phoenidany and Hellenic dependencies^ He oonld hold 
Persia only as a Persian king, as the snccessor of those 
Acluemenid kings whose dynasty he had overthrown. The 
constitutional kmg of Macedonia, with limited prerogatives, 
the elective aq»tain of Qreece, must now assume a third 
sad distinct character. He must be also a Persisn king, a 
eonatitntional despot The merely European influences re- 
presented by Alexander might leaven the East, but they 
could not lastingly possess or transform it Hellenic eulti- 
Titian, like Roman power, was not permanently introduced 
over any wide area east of the Euphrates. This fact is 
enoo^ to illustrate the enormons difficulty of the task 
which Alexander had undertaken. It seems not impossible 
that policy may have been mingled with vanity in his ex- 
action of divme honours. Greeks or Macedonians could 
never pay him the slavish homage which Persian subjects 
rendered to their king. But the contrast between European 
tnd Asiatie royalty would at least be less glaring if the 
master of Persia were abo acknowledged as the son of Zeus 

The colonies planted by Alexander in his progress 
throngh Asia nuJce the beginning of a new poiod in 
Hellenic liistory. Hitherto we have had to do with a 
people whose Hellenio unity rests, not merely on conunnnity 
of language and civilisation, but also npon conunnnity of 
Uood. Now, by the side of this natural Hellenio nation, 
there arises an artificial Hellenic nation, with a common 
language and di^lisation, but not exdusively of Hellenic 
blood. The Macedonians may be regarded as the founders 
of this artificial nationality. They were doubtless of a stock 
kindred to the Hellenic ; in what degree, it is lees easy to 
iaj—but (with the exception of their kings) they were 
genenlly regarded by the Greeks as sti^ing half-way 
between Greeks and barbarians. Philip did much to 
HeQeniae Macedonia; and the Macedonian colonies of 
k\mwmnAtkr becams in their turn centres from which the 
inflaence.of Hellenic civilisation was diffused through Asia. 
Heneeforih there are two HeUenie types: the Greek of 
Greece proper, who preeervee in some degree the marked 
individuality of the old Greek character; and the Asiatic 
Greek, more readily affected by foreign surroundings, more 
pliant and less independent The Mitory of the modem 
Greek nationality datea from the days of Alexander. 

The results of Alexander's conquests were beneficent 
chiefly m two ways: first, by liberating the hoarded 
treasoree of the Eastern kings, and so stimulating industry 
and commerce; secondly, by opening Asia to a new civilisa- 
tion, which helped to promote intellectual and moral pro- 
gress, even in those places where its influence was limited 
or transient In the process of doing this much that was 
Tilnahle may have been dastroved. But it can hardly be 
qoeationed that on the whole Cm gain far outweiglied the 

loss. If Alexander had not died at the age of thirty-two^ 
leaving his work unfinished, it would perhaps have been 
easier to judge how far he deserves the credit of having con- 
templated these benefits to mankind. There is nothing to 
show that he intended to govern otherwise than as an 
absolute ruler, with a better machinery for controlling his 
subordinates than had been possessed by tlie Persian longs. 
Such a view is not inconsistent with the fact that his coloniee 
eigoyed municipal freedom. Nor can it be proved that he 
meant lus colonies to be anything more than military strong* 
holds or commercial centres. But it may at least be said 
that^ if his object had been to diffuse* Hellenio cultivation 
over Asia, he could have adopted no more effectual meansL 
It is conceivable that^ in his vision of that complex empire 
which imposed such almost irreconcilable tasks upon its 
ruler, the idea of engrafting Eastern alwolntism on Gre^ 
politics may have co-existed with the idea of Hellenicing 
Asiatic society. 

In that period of Hellenio history which dosee with 
Alexander we are tracing the gradual development of a 
race witili special gifts of mind and body, which strongly 
distinguish it from all other races. The Hellenee set the 
Hellenic stamp on everything which they create, — ^first, oq 
their language itself, then on their politics, their literature, 
and their manners. Every element of their life receives its 
mature shape from themselves, even when the germ has 
been borrowed ; the Hellenee are an original people in the 
sense that they either invent or transform. At a very 
early time they have the political life of cities, and they 
never rise from the oonception of the city to tlie higher 
unity of the nation. Their love of dear ontline and Uieii 
sense of measure shrink from every vague abstraction; the 
principle of order itself is by them identified with ** the 
limit " ; the indefinite is a synonym for disorder and evil. 
The dty,' an easily comprehended whole, satisfies this 
instinct ; but there is room within its framework for the 
gradations of monarchy, oligarchy, democracy; for the 
various modes of acting and thinking which characterixo 
Achnans, Dorians, lonians. Am the leading conunonwealtha 
grow to maturity, two prindples of government stand out 
m contrast,— oligarchy and democracy. Each is represented 
by a great dty round which the lesser states are grouped. 
The bevLtable coUidon comes, and the representative of 
democracy is at last vanquiahed But in the hour of victory 
oligarchy is discredited by the selfish ambition of its cham- 
pion. A time of political confodon follows, in which no one 
city can keep a leading pUu». Separate interests prevail 
over principlee; public spirit declines. The disunion of 
the atiee — ^incurable, because aridng from a deep inner 
decay— enablea the crafty king of a hdf-barbarian country 
to make himself the military dictator of Greece. But just 
when the better days of Hellenic civilisation seem to be 
over, a new career la opened to it Men who are not of 
Hellenio blood hdp to diffuse the Hellenio language^ 
thought, and manners over a wider field : and the life of 
the modem Greek nation begins. («. a J.) 


The later history of the Greeks, from the end of 
Alexander the Great's reign to tiie taking of Constantinople 
by the Turks, may be divided most naturally into five 
periods^ via.— L The period of Greek subjection: from 
the death of Alexander to the acoeedon of Oonstantine the 
Great as sole emperor, 323 B.a to 323 a-d. IL The period 
of Greek revival: from Oonstantine the Great to Leo HL 
(die laauzian), 323-716 a-d. HL The period of Bynntine 
proeperi^: from Leo IIL to Isaac L (Comnenus), 716- 
1057 AJ). IV. The period of Bynntine dedine: from 
Isaac L to the taking of Constantinople by the Latfai% 

XL — 14 




1057-1204 A.JK y. The period of Greek surviTal : from 
the taldDg of Ck>nfitantinopl6 by the Latins to its oonqaeat 
by the Turks, 1204-1453 ^.d. 

In the limited space of an article like the following, it is 
impossible to enter into detail with reference to the erents 
of any of these periods. It may be well therefore if we 
torn onr attention especially to the causes which were from 
time to time at worl^ to the characteristics and tendendee 
of varions ages, and to the changes that came o^er society. 
The history wtadi we thus enter upon is of importance and 
interest in a different way from that of the daasical age of 
Greece. That age was a unique development in res^t 
of national life and character, of social and political institu- 
tions^ and of every form of cultivation, and was marked by 
concentrated energy and intense vigour. The later period 
is important because of ifaB wide-reaching influence on the 
world at large, and because it is one, and that the more 
continuous, of the two great chains of events, in eastern 
and western Europe respectively, which connect the earlier 
and kter history of dvilised man. To the younger student, 
who is already acquainted with *the previous history of 
Greece and Bome, and has learnt something of the condi- 
tion of the modem world through the history of England, 
no other period is probably so instructive and suggestive. 
He is led into byways of history and remote countries, 
which have in themselves an element of romance. He 
comes into contact with races from every branch of the 
human family in the f reshnees of their early vigour ; and 
amongst many other lessons he learns one, which cannot 
be lemt too early, and which historians and students of 
history are disposed to overlook, that the unfortunate are 
not therefore to be despised. To more advanced students 
its value consists In its explaining the existing state of 
things in a considerable part of Europe and .Asia, which 
cannot be explained otherwise ; and still more m the illus- 
trations it affords^ both by way of similarity and contrast, 
to circumstances in the history of western Europe; such, 
for instance, as the abolition of serfdom, tiie relations of 
immigrant races to the original inhabitants, and systems of 
law and finance. Besides this, so much dvilisation filtrated 
from the East to the West in the course of the Middle Ages 
that a knowledge of Bynntine history is necessary to a 
proper imderstanding of that of western Europe. It will 
nf^Bti tiMO, if properly studied, that while batties, sieges, 
and other salient events may be the tuming-pointe of history, 
the inhabitonts of any particular country are more affect^ 
by influences which lie below the surface— by alterations 
of iradfr-routes and changes in the tenuis of land, by the 
effiscts of judicbus or injudicious taxation, by the adminis- 
tration of justice^ and 17 the relations of difierent classes 
to one another. 

It is desirable at starting to notice two misconceptions 
whieh have prevailed, and in a less degree still prevail, 
with regard to different portions of this period. The first 
of these concerns the character of tiie Greeks during the 
time of thdr subjection to the T^Afnana^ aod in particular 
under the early emperors, in which age they are often sup- 
posed to have been a denwralized and unprincipled race. 
Such expressions as the ** Grssculus esuriens " and " Grascia 
mendaz* of Juvenal, and similar ones wUch are found in 
Tadtus and other writers of that time, have become pro- 
verbial, and have been taken to describe, as those authors 
imdoubtedly intended them to describe, the people at large. 
There was some justification for the retort of Ludan, that 
the Bomans spoke truth only once in their lives, and that 
was when ihey made thdr wlUs. The fact is that these 
descriptions represented faithfully enough the lower dass 
of Greek adventurers who came to Bome from Alexandria 
■nd the Aaiatio dties to seek tbdr fortunes; and the 
Bomen wxitenb with tiieur mnal contemptuous i^poranoe of 

everything provincial, confused these with the Greek nation. 
The later Greeks no doubt had degenerated from tiieb great 
forefathers ; but it is only fair to remember that this was 
to a great extent the result of their circumstences. The 
rapid growth of Greek culture and Greek political ideas 
was naturally followed by rapid decay. In sculpture the 
early ardiaie style devdoped in a few decades of years into 
the manly and perfect styb of Phidias, and the chimge was 
equally rapid to the luxurious style of Fraxitoles, in which 
the demento of decadence were already traceable. The 
same thing is apparent in the history of the drama. And 
in like manner in politics, the constitutions of tiie various 
stotes, which were so well suited to the development of 
Greek individuality, contained in themselves no eMient of 
permanence^ owing to tiie opponng elemente v^eh were 
brought face to face within so narrow an area ; and in their 
relations to one another, all combination on a large scale 
was prevented by what has been aptly called the *' centri- 
fugal'' character of Greek political, so that they were 
destined inevitebly to fall under the dominion of any great 
empire that should arise in thdr neighbourhood. Again, 
it must never be forgotten that the splendid producto of 
Greek genius and Greek character sprang from the blade 
soil of slavery, and could not have exist^ without it ; so 
that here too we find an dement of rottenness, which was 
sure in the end to produce decay. Consequently, from the 
time the Greeks.lost thdr liberty, they ou^t in all faimeas 
to be judged by a diflbrant standard from &eir predecessors, 
and we ought to be satisfied if we find in them such good 
qualities as diaracterize a more ordinary people— industry, 
respectability, intelligence, good dtimndiip, capadty for 
local eelf-govemment, and readiness to make the most of 
thdr opportunities. In all these respeeto the Greeks were 
among tiie best of the provincials of the Boman empire.. 

The other misconception rdates to the Byzantine empire^ 
whidi has been commonly regarded as a period of steady 
decline and feebleness and decrepituda The author who 
is mainly responsible for the prevalence of this view is 
Gibbon ; and it is strange that a writer who was gifted 
with such profound htstorioal insight should not have per- 
ceived that the stote which accomplished such great things 
could not have been powerless. The passage in which he 
expresses himself on this subject is wdl known. ^ I should 
have abandoned without regret," he says, " the Greek sUvea 
and their servile historians, had I not reflected that the fate 
of the Byzantine monarchy is passivdy coimected with the 
most splendid and important revolutions which have 
dianged the state of the world." Yet it was this same 
empue which beat back for centuries, and ultimately sur- 
vivBd, first tiie Saracens and afterwards the SeQuks^ both 
of which peoples would otherwise have overrun Eiurope, and . 
which, even in ite dedine, kept at bay, for more than a 
hundred years, the Ottomans when at the height of their 
power, thereby providing the Western nations with a breath- 
ing space, without which the career of Turkish conquest 
would certainly not have been arrested at Vienna, but might 
have extended to the Elbe or the Sein^ During the 8th, 
9th, and 10th centuries its military power was the strongest 
in Europe, and the individual prowess of ite aristocracy wna 
unrivalled, while at the same time ite long succession of 
able emperors and administrators is such as no other mon- 
archical government ean show. Ite influence ii further 
shown by ite missionary efforts, resulting in the converdaii 
to Christianity of the south Slavonic nations and the 
Bnssians, and the consequent spread of dvilisatloQ through- 
out the countries they inhabited; by ite widely extended 
commerce both by land and sea; and by ite ait^ espedaUy 
ite ardiitecture^ which oontributed to the formation of other 
styles from Egrpt to the north of Bnssia, and from Indm 
to Spain. Finally, ite sodd and political cxodlence 


G B E £ G E 


ippean in the etato of edaoation, in the regokrity of its 
adminirtratioii, especially in the matter of juatioe, and, 
above all, in the legal standard of the coinage being main- 
tained in?anable from first to last, which is a rare proof of 
s highly organised system. "When its sitnation in the 
midst of barbarons nations is ccmsidered, and the inter- 
mediate position it occnpiod between Asia and western 
Eoropey it may safely be pronoonoed one of the moat 
powerfal oiTifijong agencies tiiat the world has seea 

L Period of Greek Sul^vm: from the Death ^• 
Alexander to the Aceeetion of Cotutantine the Oreat 
OM eole Smperor, 323 B.a to 328 ▲.D. 

The eonqoests of Alexander the Great differed from thoea 
of ahnost every other great conqueror in this that they 
were followed np by a scheme of cltiI govemmenti the 
object of which was to secure the well-being and promote 
the dyilication of all his subjects. That he was not the 
ambitious madman which he is often represented as being 
b amply proyed by the forethought with which his cam- 
paigu were planned, and by his attention to the commia- 
mriat and to other detaib connected with the transport and 
maintenance of his Tast armies. But hia true greatneea is 
moat dearly shown by his endeaTouring to introduce unity 
loto his Tast empire^ not by subjecting one race to another, 
or emahing out the hope of further resistance by an iron 
rale^ bat l^ eetabliahing in it centres of permanent institu- 
tions and common culture. These were the Greek cobnies 
with municipal government which he founded at intenrala 
throughout Asia. By these the subject countries, without 
being forced into a common mould, or organised in defiance 
of their feelmgs and prejudicea and without reference to 
their national institntions, were gradually learened by the 
gyitem that existed among them, and obtained a certain 
infusion of the Hellenic character and Hellenic modes of 
thooght Though Alexander himself did not surrive to 
complete his project, yet enough had been accomplished at 
the time of his death to leave its influence firmly imprinted, 
even when his empire fell to pieces and was partitioned 
among his generals. The consequences of this to Asia 
were of incalculable importance^ and continued unimpaired 
ontil the tide of Mahometan conquest swept over the 
Bonntiy ; and even then it was from Greek literature and 
ait that the Ataba obtained the culture for which tb^ have 
been cebbrated. But its effect was hardly less marked on 
the Greeka themselves. The Hellenic world was henceforth 
divided into two sections — ^the Greeks of Greece proper, 
and the Macedonian Greeks of Asia and Egypt Bietween 
these there existed a common bond in simuarity of educa- 
tion, religion, and social feelings, in the possession of a com- 
mon language and literature, and in their exdusiveness, 
whether ss a free population ruling a large alave dement, 
or as a privileged class in the midst of less favoured racea ; 
but the diffarencea were equally striking. The former re- 
tained more of the independent spirit of the andent Greeks^ 
of their moral character and patriotism ; the latter were 
more cosmopolitan, more subservient^ mora ready to take 
the impraas of those among whom they wero thrown ; in 
them the Ulysses type of Greek character, If we may so 
speak-4tB astuteness and versatilify— -became predominant 
Tbu distinotion is all-important for the subsequent history, 
Bnoe,in the earlier period, it is ratherthe Greeks of Hellas 
who attract our attention, whereaa after the foundation of 
Constantinople the Macedonian Greeks occupy the most 
prominent podtion. At the same time a dmnge passed, 
over the Gneek language ; while the andent dialects were 
retained, more or less, in the provinces of Greece proper, 
the Attic dialect became the court language of the 
Maiwdnman monarBhs, and was used almost exdndvely by 
pnae wxiten* Oradually Macedonian and other provindal- 

isma crept into ii^ and it was modified by simpler exprea- 
dons, and words in more generd use, being substituted for 
those preferred by the classic writen of Athens ; and thna 
was formed what was called the common or generally used 
dialect The non-Greek inhabitants of the countries in 
which the Greeks were settled were described as " Hd- 
lenidng," and consequently their language, such as we 
find it in the Beptuagint and the New Testament^ waa 
called Hdlenistic Greek The literary spirit abo migrated 
to Alexandria, whidi became for a time the home of the 
principal Greek culture^ and nurtured the genius of Theo- 
critus, the first of pastord poets, the taste and erudition 
of Aratua and Apdlonius Bhodius, and the research of 
Aristarchua and other eminent Homeric critics. 

The period of somewhat less than two centuries (323-146 
B.a) which intervened between the death of Alexander and 
the-conquest of Greece by the Bomans was a sort of twili^t 
between liberty and subjection. The Lamian War, as the 
contest between a number of the Grecian states, with Athens 
at their head, and Antipater, one of Alexander's immediate 
suocessorain Macedonia, was caHed from the dege of Lamiai 
which was Us most pnmunent events soon convinced the 
Greeks that it waa idle for them to strogg^ single^ianded 
with thdr great neighbour. After that the country formed 
a bone of contention between the ndj^ibouring potentatea 
in Macedonia, Asia Minor, Syria, and Qgypt ; anid most of 
the states, with the exception of Sparta, were in the power 
sometimes of one sometimes of another of them, thou^ 
tilie contests of thdr masters secured them from time to time 
a partid independence. At length the constant danger to 
wliich their liberties were exposed suggested tiie necesdty 
of some kind of combination on the part of the separate 
states, and the famoua Achaean league arose (280 B.a), 
whidi revived the dying energies of the Green, and has 
thrown a lustre over th^ period of dedine. For the origin 
of thia federation we must go back to the early histoiy of 
the district of Adiaia in nortiiem Pebponneeos, the inhabit- 
ants of which, from bdng isolated from other races by their 
podtion between the Arcadian mountains and the Corinthian 
Gulf^ and occupying a sucoeadon of valleys and small plains, 
found a federal union to be the most natural politicd 
system by which tihey could be hdd together. Throughout 
the greater part of thdr hiatoiy tins people exercised ^i&tlo 
infiuence on the fortunes of Greece^ but in bar time of 
greatest need they came forward as her champions. The 
league was now revived, with a more definite <»ganisation 
and a wider politicd object^ and Under the leadership ai 
Aratns, the gieateat of its early ** stretegi," it wrested Sicyon 
from the power of its tyrant, and Corinth from the hands 
of the Macedonians, until at last it embraced Athens, and 
dmoat the whole of the Pdoponnesos. Unfortonatdy 
Sparta hdd ahwf. That dty, which had succeeded in 
mdntaining its independence, had fdlen into tilie hands of 
a narrow oligardiy of wedthy proprietors, who rose in 
violent opposition to their reforming kingB— men whose 
namea wodd be a glory to any period — Agis and Cleomenes^ 
and succeeded in putting the fint to deatii, while the latter 
was enaUed to overpower them through the influence won 
by his militaiy successes. But circumstances invdved 
Aratns in a war with Sparta, and, here the old Greek spirit 
of discord betrays itsdf. '^en hscrd pressed by Cleomenes, 
the Achaean leader applied to the Macedonians, and the 
result was that Antigonua Doson invaded the oountry, and 
at Sdlada Inflicted a find and cradling blow on the Spartan 
power (221 B.a). The same spirit appean in the Sodal 
War, which occurred shortiy after this between the Adueatfa 
and the ^Btolian league, a similar confederation in northern 
Greece, and waa fomented by Philip Y. of Macedon. Sub- 
sequentiy, when the Bomans made war on Philip for assist- 
ing the Carthaginians in the Bocoud Punic War^ tiie oonml 




FlAmininus persuaded both these powers U> join in attaeldDg 
him. At Qynosoephals in Thessoly, not far from the scene 
of a greater battle, Pharsalia, the power of the Macedonian 
monarchy was broken (197 B.a), and Philip renounced his 
Bnpremacy over the Greeks, to whom Flamininns proclaimed 
their freedom at the ensuing Istlunian games. The final 
overthrow came in the time of Perseus, the son of Philip^ 
who was defeated at I^jrdna (168 &a), and his dominions, 
with the adjacent parts of Greece, were reduced to the form 
of a Boman province. The later years of the Achtsan 
league had been illumined by the leadership of Philoposmen, 
''the last of the Greeks," as Plutarch has called him, in 
whose time the whole of the Peloponnesus, including even 
Sparta, was for a time indnded in the alliance. But the 
days of Greece were numbered, and the only question was 
how soon the remainder should be absorbed by the advancing 
•tide of Boman concniest At last a pretext for interference 
presented itself, and the reduction of the oountiy to Ixmdr 
Age was signalized by the pillage and destruction of Oorinth 
under Mummins (146 B.a). The entire area southward 
of Macedonia and Epirus Was constituted the province of 
Achaia, the title of which thus perpetuated the name of 
ihe Achnan league. The struggles in which that and the 
^tolian confederation had taken part are an evidence of 
the revival of a spirit of patriotism in the breasts of the 
Greeks, and we may well lament over the ruin of their in- 
dependence ; but the truth must be told that this was not 
the feeling of the majority of the population at the time. 
The selfishness and cupidity of the Greek aristocracy, such 
as those whom we have already noticed at Sparta, had 
imposed so heavy burdens on the people that the great 
body of them cheerfully acquiesced in tlie Boman rule. 
Polybins has preserved to ns the saying which expressed 
the sentiment of the time : ** If we had not been quickly 
ruined, we should not have been saved.** 

From the time of the Boman conquest the existence of 
Cresce was merged in that of a greater political unity, so 
that for the next four centuries, until the commencement of 
the barbarian inroads, it can hardly be said to have a his- 
tory of its own. But we must not on this account suppose 
that the Greeks occupied exactly the same position as the 
rest of the Boman provincials. In this respect there is a 
marked difference between the results of the Boman con- 
quests in the West and the East The inhabitants of the 
western portion of the empire were at the time of their sub- 
jection in a low state of civilisation, and destitute of any 
element of strength in their social and national life. It was 
natural, therefore, that nations so undeveloped should easily 
receive the impress of Boman institutions, and should adopt 
the manners and ideas of their conquerors. The Bomans 
in fact treated them for the most part as inferior beings 
and did not at first even regard them as absolute proprietors 
of the lands they cultivated. But in the East the case was 
different There the Bomans met with a civilisation more 
advanced than their own, which they had already learned to 
respect, and an elaborate system of civil government and 
social usages which could not be set aside without undeo^ 
mining the whole fabric of society. Hence the Greeks, 
while subjected to the Boman administration, were allowed 
to retain a great part of their institutions^ together with 
their property and private rights, and, from their superiority 
to the other conquered peoples, remained the dominant 
power in the East Even in Ana the despotism of Borne 
was mudi modified by the municipal system of the Greek 
colonies and by the influence of Greek cultnreL Thus it 
came to pass that, while the Western nations wer6 assimi- 
lated to Bome, in the East the Boman empire became Greek, 
though the Greek nation in name became Boman. The 
effects of this are visible at every turn in the subsequent 
history, and to this eanse must be referred nuinyiooimiBeo 

which are traoeabiD at the present day in the condition of 
eastern Europe. 

It was a part of the Boman policy, in dealing with con- 
quered countries, to treat them at fint with mildness, untfl 
tiiey became inured to the yoke, and when this was the case^ 
and precautionary measures had been adopted to prevent 
tho possibility of suooessfnl revolt, to deal with them more 
harshly and increase their burdens. This waH what 
happened in the case of Greece. For some time the people 
at huge had no reason to regret the change. Tlie fact of 
their subjection was not impressed too forcibly upon them, 
and several cities, such as Athens and Sparta, were allowed 
to rank as allied states. Their taxes were not increased, 
and they did not at once perceive the difference cansed hy 
tlie money that was levied being taken out of the country 
instead of being spent in it This was, however, the most 
systematically ruinous part of the Boman system. The 
Government never paid attention to the provinces for their 
own sake, but regarded them as an instrument for maintain- 
ing the greatness and power of Bome. The immense sums 
that were drained from them never returned, but were 
expended in the maintenance of the Boman army, and in 
the public games and architectural embellishment of the 
metropolis. Objects of local usefulness, such as roads, 
ports, and aqueducts, received no attention from the central 
authorities, and no money was supplied towards their 
maintenance. Within a century also, when these evils were 
beginning to make themselves felt, the Boman rule became 
very oppressive. Though the custom duties were not un- 
reasonable in their nominal amount, they became exorbitant 
through the system of farming and subletting, and as a 
specifd tribuuii existed for the enforcement of the coUeetors* 
claimfl^ the farmers exerdsed a most tyrannical power over 
the mercantile population of the shores of the Mediterranean. 
In the wake of these harpies followed the usuren^ to meet 
whose claims proprietors had constantly to sell their posses- 
sions. The direct wdght of the public burdens was further 
increased by the exemptions ei^pyed by Boman citizens in 
the provinces, and by privileges and monopolies which were 
granted to merchants and manufacturers ; and large sums 
had to be paid to the Boman governors, both for the main- 
tenance of their establishments, and to ohtain exemption 
from the quartering of troops. But these more or less 
authorized exactions bore no proportion to the illegal extor- 
tions of the proconsuls, who simply pillaged the provinciala 
No more perfect scheme could hate been devised for pro- 
moting oppression than that under whioh these ofScers were 
appointed. While on the one lumd they superintended the 
fixumcial administration, on the other they exercised the 
judicial power ; and the only tribunal to which they were 
responsible was that very senate by which they were 
appointed, and of which duty themselves were members. 
A governor like Yerres had it in his power to ruin a pro- 
vince for several generations^ and such instanres were not 
rara The treatment of Greece in this respect was no ex- 
ception to the general rule. 

The period, however, during which the greatest iigury 
was infiicted on Greece was that of the Mithradatio War 
(86 B.O.). At tiie commencement of that struggle many of 
the leading men and states dedared in favour of Mithradates, 
thinking that under his anspioes they might regain their 
freedom. But the appearance of Sulla with an army soon 
undeceived them, and they laid down their arms, with the 
exception of Athens, which was only reduced after an 
obstinate defence. When the dty was at last taken by 
storm, the minority of the cifciiens were put to the sword^ 
their possessions seised by the soldiers, the Pirsus utterly 
destroyed, and Attica ravaged. In the same campaign 
Delphi and the other principal ahrinee were plundered, and 
an immense amount of pr o perty was mined throngfaout the 

OBBIE sDBnonoH.] 



coantiy. Qreat iignry -wu also inflicted by the Cilidan 
pintos. Tbe existence of these was a lesolt of the jealoosy 
with which the Boman Goremment regarded the mainten- 
ance of armed forces by the provincials, either by land or 
Rea, lest they should bo made an instnunent of revolt ; and 
siaee they had no interest in maintaining order, except 
where their own authority was threatened, the subject 
nations were so far from profiting by their protection that 
they were exposed to attack without possessing the power 
of defending themselTee. The confined seas and numerous 
biys and islands of Greece haye always been favourable to 
piracy, and at this time the evil reached such a height that 
the welfare of the state was threatened, and Pompey was 
entrusted with the office of eradicating it ; but before this 
was aecompUshed many of the wealthiest citiea in Greece 
and Asia Minor had been attacked and pillaged. With the 
accession of Augustus a brighter era seemed to have dawned ; 
and under the early emperors, who desired to strengthen 
themselves against the senate, tiie interests of the provincials 
were more considered. Greater regularity also was intro- 
duced into the taxation, by the land and capitation taxes 
being regulated by a periodical census. But the old evils 
to a great extent remained, and these were further aggra- 
Tsted at a later time by the depreciation of the coinage, 
which proceeded with fearful lapidt^, and caused wide- 
gpmd distress among the commercial and labouring classes. 
The result of these changes is traceable in the condition 
and character of the Greek people. The conquests of 
Alexander the Great suddenly threw into circulation the 
accumulated treasuree of the Persian empire, and a great 
part of these passed into the hands of the Greeks, both in 
Asia and Europe. The facilities thus created for obtaining 
wealth increased the material prosperity of the Greek race 
at hrge, so that in all probability it never was more numer- 
vxa titan during the period immediately preceding its sub- 
jugation by ilie Romans. Tliongh all calculations respect- 
ing the numbers of the population in ancient states are 
nocessarily hazardous, yet it seems probable that the Greeks 
at that time may have amounted to more than seven 
miQions. But with Greece proper the case was different 
There the increase of wealth raised the standard of living 
considerably above what it had been in earlier and more 
frugal times, so that the less moneyed class were tempted 
to emigrate in large numbers to seek their fortunes in the 
great Asiatic cities, and in the service of the Eastern 
monarehs, where so great openings presented themselves. 
The decrease of this class produ<»d a larger accumulation 
of property in the hands of large owners, and greatly aug- 
mented the number of slaves. Under the Bomans the 
wealth of the country, great as it was, was soon dissipated 
lij fiscal exactions, by plunder in war and the private pillage 
of officials, and by the confiscation of the possessions of in- 
diTidoals, with a view to which a system of accusations 
was regularly promoted. The natural result of this, com- 
bined with the self-indulgent habits which had grown up 
among the upper classes, was a steady diminution of the 
population. The first of the Bomans who perceived the 
evils arising from this state of things, and endeavoured to 
remedy them, was the emperor Hadrian, who had the merit 
of personally visiting the provinces, and whose tastes natur- 
ally led him to sympatiuze with the Greeks Though 
m;ich of the money which he expended in the country in 
the construction of temples and other splendid edifices 
tended to the gratification of his private fancies, yet a real 
improvement in the condition of Uie people was effected by 
his restoration of the roads which had fallen out of repair, 
and the erection of baths and aqueducts. He also Ughtened 
the taxation, and raised tlie Greeks to tbe rights of Boman 
citizenship, thereby anticipating the edict of CaracaUa, by 
which that privilege was extended to all the free inhabitants 

of the empire (212 A.D.). The- depopulation of Greece, 
however, continued; but while in tkis way the power of 
the nation was being weakened, and its material resources 
diminished by the loss of much of the capital that had been 
invested in the improvement of the country, the actual con- 
dition of the inhabitants was for the time improved, be- 
cause the decrease in their numbers had been more rapid 
than the destruction of property. Possessing the necessaries 
of life in abundance, and having but little money to spend 
on anything beyond, they sank into that condition of in- 
difference uid ease in which at last the barbarian nations 
found them. 

It has already been remarked that the character of the 
Greeks at this period ought not to be judged from the pre- 
judiced statements of Boman writers, nor by reference to 
the standard of their great forefathers. Tbe introduction 
of the wealth of Persia had undoubtedly a demoralinng 
effect on the nation, both in Asia and Europe ; but when 
we consider that throughout a great port of the area that 
they occupied they were long the dominant class, and had 
hardly any check to restrain them in the indulgence of 
their passions, it is rather a matter for wonder that they 
resisted temptation so far as they did. At least they never 
sank to such a depth of degradation as the Bomans of the 
imperial times, and in Europe the struggles of. the Achaean 
league show that a value was still set on manly virtues. 
After this the Greeks became the educators of the Bomans, 
whose upper classes resorted for instruction to the univer« 
sity of Athens ; and if the rhetoric and philosophy which 
was taught there partook sometimes of the nature of liter- 
ary trifling, and the instructors themselves were character- 
ised by vanity and pedantiy, they maintained at all events 
the standard of cultivation in the world at that time. The 
love of art still prevailed amongst them, and the quiet, 
studious life of the Greek cities formed in the eyes of many 
a favourable contrast to the violent struggles and inordinate 
passions of Boma But the disbelief in the national religion 
which had grown up among the educated classes, notwith' 
standing the maintenance of the temples and their worship^ 
tended to cause a separation between the upper and lowes 
grades of society ; and thia^ together with the isolation prO' 
duced by the great size of the estates, which withdrew 
individuals from the scrutiny of their fellow eitisens, 
weakened the force of public opinion, and thus lowered the 
moral standard. It can hardly be doubted that the con- 
sciousness of this, and the feeling of the need of a higher 
morality, was one main cause of the eagerness with which 
philosophy continued to be pursued by the Greeks, since in 
it they hoped to find the groundwork of truth and justice. 
Thus during a period of six centuries the European Greeks 
had gradually degenerated, though for the most part from 
causes external to themselves ; they seemed to have become 
an insignificant and almost conunonplace people. Yet the 
outline of the character was the same, though the colours 
had faded ; and considering tbe length of the time, and the 
agencies at work, we may be surprised at finding that the 
change had not been greater. It remained to be shown 
that the finer qualities and more vigorous elements were 
only dormant ; and this was brought to light in the latter 
half of the third century by two influences, which we must 
now proceed to explain. 

The first of these was the invasions of the Gotha These 
were the earliest of the barbarians to break through the 
Boman frontier, and the defeat and death of the emperor 
Dedus in Moesia (251 ▲.!>.), and the subsequent incursions 
of the Goths into Thrace and Macedonia, warned the 
Greeks of the peril that impended! over them. Immedi- 
ately the walls of Athens were repaired, the fortifications 
across the isthmus of Corinth restored, and vigorous pre- 
parations made for defenoei The invaders soon made their 


G R E E E 


appearuiee botK by Umd and sea, and one division, landing 
iX the Pirsus, succeeded in eanying Athens bj storm ; bnt 
an Athenian of ranic csUed Dexippns, afterwards the his- 
torian of these events, succeeded in assembling a sufficient 
force to compel tb em to retire. This reverse was the prelude 
to their total overthrow, for snocouis were meanwhile arriv- 
ing from Italy, by which their separate bands were attacked 
in detail and destroyed. Some years later, after other 
inroads, during which many cities of Qreece successfully 
defended themselvca^ the power of the Goths was broken 
by the emperor Claudius IL at the great battle of Naissns 
(2G9 A.D.). Bat it was clearly proved at this tune that the 
spirit of the Qreeks, which had had no opportunity of dis- 
playing itself since the siege of Athens by SnUa^ was not 
extinct, and that, if they had been unwa4ike in the interraly 
it was mainljf because their, masters had denied them the 
use of arms. It is not to be oyerlooked that^ when the 
same barbarians subsequently attacked the Western empire, 
it went down before them, the reason being that the nations 
of the West hod no such distinctive nationality as the 
Greeks, and no such municipal institutions to rally round. 
Anyhow the Greek character was benefited by. the public 
spirit thus evoked, and by the activity infused into society 
by the feeling that erery man might be called on to defend 
his person and property. 

• The other and far more important inflaence which re- 
generated the Greeks at this time was Christianity. This 
religion, which had long been working in secret, though in 
ways wlkich it is almost impossible to trace, now began to 
produce a marked impression on Greek society. Its power 
was the greater because it had worked from bdow upward, 
and had permeated to a great extent the lower and middle 
classes. It improved the moral condition of the Greeks by 
elevating their views of life, by quickening the conscience, 
and by infusing earnestness into Uie character ; and it reno- 
vated their social condition by pointing out to them their 
duties to one another, by encouraging corporate feeling^ and 
in particular by purifying the domestic rdations through its 
influence on the female sex. At the same time the habit 
of meeting for the administration of their communities 
accustomed the Christians to discnssbn and action in com- 
mon, and the fact that they formed a powerful corporation 
independent of the state, which was the season, why thej 
were persecuted by the Roman authorities, was in itself a 
means of political education. Bnch an influence, which not 
merely pervaded every relation of life, but penetrated ahp 
to the motives and springs of action, is sufficient of itself to 
account for the regeneration of the Greeks^ which the his- 
torian traces in its eflects at the end of the 8d century. 

The scene now changes, and from the land of Hellas our 
attention is transferred to the city of Constantinople. 

IL Period of Greek Sevivai: from OonetmUine the Great 
to Leo III. {the leaurian), 323-716 a.d. 

The principal events of the first half of this period, the 
two centuries which intervened between Constantine and 
Justinian, are^the foundation of Constantinople (330 a.i>). ; 
the emperor Julian's attempted restoration of Paganism 
(361) ; the defeat of Talens by the Goths near Adrianople^ 
and his death (378); the establishment of Christianity 
by Theodosius the Great as the religion of the empire 
(388) ; the partition of the Roman empire between Arcadius 
and Honorius (395) ; the publication of the Theodosian code 
(438) ; and the extinction of the empire of the West (476). 
The reign of Justinian (527-565) comprises the great cam- 
paigns of Belisarius and Narses, whereby the kingdom of 
the Vandals in Africa was overthrown, and Sicily, Italy, 
and southern Spain were recovered to the Roman empire, 
the Greek possessions in Italy being henceforth governed 
by an exarch, who resided at Ravenna ; the building of 

the ohnroh of 8t Sophia at Constantinople; and the 
reformation of the Roman law. Finally, in ^e eentniy 
and a half between Jnstinian*s death and tlie accession of 
Leo m, occurred the birth of Mahomet (571) ; .the victori> 
ous expeditions of Heraelins against the Persiaoa (622-8); 
and the seven years' siege of Constantinople by the Saracens 
in the reign of Constantine Fogonatns (668-675). 

The reforms ofibcted by Constantine formed one of the 
greatest revolutions the world has ever seen, and hia sagacity 
is shown by the completeness with which tiiey were carried 
out, and by t&e permanence of their ofiects^ for from them 
proceeded both the strength and the iignrionanesB of the 
Byzantine system, which lasted even to the latest days of 
the empire. Ta describe them in brief, — he centralized the 
executive power in the emperor, and constituted a bnreao' 
cracy for the administration of public business ; he consoli- 
dated tiie dispensation of justice throughout his dominions ; 
he rendered tiie military power, whii^ had Mtlierto ^ — 
the terror and bane of the state^ subservient to tlir 
power; he adopted a new religbn, i 
capital. • Henceforth the world } 
and his household, and this adminis 
sponsible ; and as the interests of the i 
connected with those of any nationalit;^ 
subjects, there was sure to be a contin 
the mlers and those whom they gove. 
the emperor might be regarded as a 
order from the people, he and his coi 
by lavish s[^ndonr ; and in order to 
minent danger of robellton through pret 
'the offices of the court were made m 
that ambitious persons might fed that 
be obtained by a safer method than civi 
these expenses, and at the same time t* 
f ul army, an elaborate system o( taxal 
taxation, in fact^ came to be regarded 
government, and the inhabitants of ti 
poverished for objects in which they ha 
The principal instrument which Const 
forcing this was the Roman municipal . .«< 

introduced into Greece, notwithstanding cue existence of a 
national and traditional organization. Aocording to thie^ 
each town, with the agricidtnral district in its neighbom^- 
hood, was administered by an oligarchical senate called the 
curia, elected from among the landed proprietors ; by them 
the municipal officers were appointed, and the land-tax 
collected, for the amount of which they were made rtapon^ 
sible; whib thoee who did not possess land, such as 
merchants and artisans, paid the capitation tax,' and formed 
an inferior class. As wealth declined, the oppressivenees of 
this system was more and more felt, espedally as the private 
property of members of the curia was confiscated when the 
required amount was not forthcoming ; and hence^ in order 
to prevent a further diminution of the revenue^ an elaborate 
caste-system was subsequentiy introduced, wUch fixed the 
condition of every clsss^ and required a son to follow the 
calling of his father, leet the number of persons liable to a 
certain kind of taxation should decrease. With the same 
view, the free rural population came to be tied to the soil, to 
prevent the ground from falling out of cultivation. Since^ 
however, it was foreseen that such a system would produce 
discontent^ the people eveiywhere were carefully disarmed, 
and the possession of arms was made a thing apart, tiie 
military dass being separated from all others. For the 
same reason barbarians were much used as troops, because 
they could have no sympathy with the dtisens. llie harsh- 
ness of this system caused general poverty, and deep^eated 
hatred of the centnd government, often resulting in a dis- 
position to call in the barbarians ; while its je^ousy was 
the origin of the weakness of the empire^ because tiie pro- 




nndaHa, vrho were raJly sbroiiger than their i&Taden» were 
neTor flJUowed to defend themaelYea. In the West it contii- 
bated greatly to the orerthrow of the empire, and in the 
East it repressed the spirit of Hellenic life by interfering 
with the ancient city commnnitiee ; and though the force 
of the Qreek character, and the aodal condition of the 
conntriea they inhabited, saved them from destruction, yet, 
as we look down the long vista of succeeding ages^ we may 
see its baneful effects producing ever-increaaing miseiy. 

Yet we must not OTerlook the strong points of Ck>nstan- 
tine's systeuL The first of these was the regular adminis- 
tntion of justice which he introduced. This the infaabi- 
taots of tiie empire felt they could not obtain elsewhere, 
and the poeseesion of it reconciled them to many others 
wise intolerable grievances. 60 conscious were succeeding 
emperors of this that we find strictness observed in this 
matter untO quite a late age of the Byzantine empire 
Anodier was the amount of a£ility and experience which it 
secored for the public service. We have called the adminis- 
kators of public affiiirs a bureaucracy, and the household 
of the emperor, but they were net the less a body of most 
hi^y trained officials, thoroughly organised in their various 
mrvioea. Each department of the state formed a profession 
of itself, as completely subdivided, and requiring as special 
an education, as the legal profession at the present day. 
The perfection of this machineiy accounts for the empire 
Bot having fallen to pieces in tames of internal dissension, 
Bometimes accompanied by foreign invasion; and the 
faeOitiea it afforded for developing talent are seen in the 
loiigiucces9io£7)f able administrators which the system pro- 
duced, and which came to an end at the commencement of 
the nth centuiy, when it began to be disused. And 
besides this^ though the rigorously oppressive taxation was 
injudicious as wdl as injurious, yet it maybe doubted 
whether any other system than the high-handed centralisa- 
tion which has been described could have prevented dissolu- 
tion. Its force is certainly proved by its vitality, and the 
fint great dismemberment in particular was brought about, 
not by internal causes, but by the power of the Saracens. 

The choice of the site of New Bome--iwhich is perhaps 
the finest position in the world, hs it commands the meeting- 
point of two great seas and two great continents, and rises 
in seven hills on its triangular promontory between the Fro- 
pontis and its land-locked harbour the Golden Horn— ^is an 
additional proof of the penetration of Constantine ; and the 
event justified his selection, for on nmnerous occasions no- 
thing else than the impregnability of the seat of government 
coold have saver^ tho'cmpire from destruction. Though the 
establishment of a new capital was in itself a consummate 
stroke of genius, yet to some extent it was forced upon tlie 
emperor by his conversion to Christianity, for this pUced him 
in direct antagonbm to Old Bome, which was still the head- 
qnsrters of paganism. And whatever might be the f eeUhgs 
of the people, on the part of the administrators themselves 
the prepossessions to be overcome in deciding on such a 
change were less than might be supposed, for the govern- 
ment, absorbed as it was in the unceasing care of maintain- 
ing and defending the empire^ had long ceased to be 
Roman in its sympathies, and had become cosmopolitan. 
The new city at the time of its foundation was Roman : its 
senators were transported thither from Rome ; the language 
of the court was Latin ; and the condition of the lower 
clssses was assimilated to that of the old capital by their 
being exempted from taxation and supported by dtetribu- 
tioDs of grain. But from the first it was destined to become 
Ckeek ; for the Greeks, who now began to aall themselves 
Romans, an appellation which they have ever siuAe retained, 
held &st to their language, manners, and prejudices, while 
t% availed themselves to the full of their rights as Bomap 
Hence, in Justinian's time^ we find all the highest 

officea in the hands of Greeks — not Hellenic Greeks, but a 
Graeco-Boman caste, the descendants of the MacMlonian 
conquerors of Asia ; and Greek was the prevailing language. 
The turning-point in this respect was the separation of the 
East and West in the time of Arcadius and Honorius. Still 
the Boman system remained permanent, especially in the 
community of interest created between the emperors and 
the populace by the largesses and the expenditure on public 
amusements, the money for which was drained from the 
provinces; and this fact explains the antagonism that 
remained between the provincials and the inhabitants of 
the capital, and the toleration which the latter showed of 
the tyranny of their rulers. How deeply these abuses were 
rooted in the city of Constantinople is shown by the circum- 
stance that Heraclius, in despair of otherwise carrying out 
his schemes of retrenchment and reform, conceived the 
deaign of removing the seat of government to Carthage — a 
plan which he would have carried out had he not been pre- 
vented by the unanimous oppositbn of the Greeks. 

Whether the conversion of Constantine to Christianity 
was due to sincere belief or to policy, or, as is perhaps most 
likely, to a combination of «the two motives, there can be no 
doubt that religion had before that time obtained a great in- 
finence over the Greeks, and that the cause of the Christian 
Church and that of the Greek nation were already closely 
interwoven. Nothing could show more clearly the mastery 
obtained by the new faith than the subsequent failure of 
the emperor Julian to revive paganism. We have already 
seen how lifewand energy were restored to Greek society by 
this influence before the end of the 3d century ; it was also 
the unanimity with which it was adopted by that people 
which inspired' them to combine in self-defence, and saved 
them from the fate of the disunited Western empire. From 
that early period dates the feeling of brotherhood which 
pervaded the Greek Church, and the strong attachment 
which has always existed between the Greek clergy and 
their flocks, further cemented as it was at a later period 
by the influence which the clergy exercised in maintaining 
the people's rights and defending them against aggression. 
Paganism, however, continued to be recognized until 
the time of Theodosius the Great, when Christianity was 
substituted for it by legislative enactments. But the 
orthodoxy of the Eastern Church, which came to be, and 
still is, its most distinctive feature, and the identification 
of the Orthodox Church with the Greek nation, dates from 
a different time, viz., from the reigns of the Arian successors 
of Constantine^ to whose personal opinions the people were 
st^ngly opposed. The political effect of this union ulti- 
mately became very great, and resulted in the loss of im- 
portant provinces to Uie empira When the Orthodox had 
the upper hand, they soon began to clamour for the perse- 
cution of heretics, and the emperors being on the same side 
acceded to their demand. The natural effect of this was 
disaffection in those regbns, such as Syria and Egypt, 
where the minority of the population were either Nestorians 
or Entychians; and the evil was aggravated by the 
suspicion to which the provincial clergy. were exposed, 
because they were not Greeks, of being heterodox. Tho 
alienation from the central government thus produced 
greatly facilitated the conquest of those countries by the 
Saracens. It should also be noted that from the time of 
Constantine the emperors claimed, and were acknowledged, 
to be supreme over the church in all civil and external 
matters — a power which, as we shall see, proved to be of 
great importance at the time of the iconoclastic controversy ; 
and the eznmflve judicial and administrative authority 
which Theodosius conferred on the bishops wad the origin 
of that political subserviency, and at the same time of those 
simoniacal practices, which have been the opprobrium of 
their order in the Eastern Church. 




The reign of Justinian, wliieh, from the important eTcnts 
wliiclk it contained, lias naturally much attracted the notice 
•f liistorians, was a period of false brilliancy. The char- 
acter of that emperor in many respects resembles that of 
Lonis XIV. Both were men of moderate ability, gifted 
with great industry and application to business, and with 
a remarkable power of employing the talents of others; 
both were fond of splendour and foreign conquest ; and both 
impoTerished and ruined their subjects. At the time of 
hlB accession Justinian found in the exchequer a large sum 
of money amassed by Anastasius L, and liad he employed 
this in lightening taxation and improving the position of 
his subjects, instead of wasting it in wars of his own seek- 
ing and laWsh expenditure on public buildings, he would 
have greatly strengthened his kingdom. No doubt the 
conquests of his generals were splendid, and testify to the 
greatness of the armies of the empire at this tima No 
doubt also the compilation of the PaJidectt, Code, and 
iMtUuteM was a magnificent work, which has left indelible 
traces on the legal systems of Europe. And it b an honour 
to any age to have developed the Byzantine style of archi- 
tecture, a style thoroughly Greek in its unity and propor- 
tion ; for, whereas the Romans had borrowed the ancient 
Greek style, and, adding to it the arch, had used it for 
wholly incongruous purposes, the Greeks in turn appropri- 
ated tlie arch and dome, and created a new and harmonious 
style. But the effects of his reign on his dominions were 
ruinous. He riveted tighter the fetters which Constantino 
had invented, but he lacked the penetration of Constantine 
in perceiving the needs of his time. He dissolved the pro- 
vincial militia, which to some extent stQl existed in Greece. 
The population were ground down by taxation, the revenues 
of the free cities in Greece were seized, and at last the 
fortifications fell into disrepair, and a great part of the 
army was disbanded, so that when Zabergan, king of the 
Kntigur Huns, invaded the country from the north in the 
year 559, he was able to approach within 17 miles of Con- 
stantinopla How great the demoralization was is shown 
by the state of the empire under Justinian's L^imedlate 
successors. Within less than twenty years after his death 
the convictioa of a great change impending was so widely 
spread that a story was rife that it was revealed to the 
emperor Tiberius IL in a dream that on accotint of his 
virtues the days of anarchy should not commence during 
hu reign. The condition of things has been described as 
^'nniversal political palsy." 

The 400 years which elapsed between Constantine and 
Leo IIL were the great period of the barbarian invasions. 
Tlie Goths, who, as we have seen, had overrun Greece 
in the latter half of the 3d century after their great defeat 
at Naissus (Niech), were more or less kept in check, and 
became in some degree a civilized and Christian people 
in the country of Dacia, to the north of the Dannbe, which 
they had permanently occupied after the Boman colonies 
in that countiy were withdrawn by Aurelian. But in 
the reign, of Talens, when tho Huns were overrunning 
Europe, they were pressed onwards by those invaders, and 
occupied Moesia between the Dannbe and the Balkan, 
which province was peacefully ceded to them. It was 
only in consequence of treacherous treatment by the 
Homans that they afterwards entered the empire as 
enemies, and fought the campaign which ended in the 
defeat and death of that emperor (378). They were 
again checked by Theododns, and persuaded to e«dist in 
great numbers in the imperial service; but during the 
reign of his sncceesor Arcodin^ the famous Aloiio roused 
the spirit of his countrymen, and nvaged the whole of 
Greece even to the Peloponnesus (395), before he turned 
his thoughts to the invasion of Italy For a time both 
Goths and Romans were the vieCims of Attils, who with 

his hordes of Hnns swept over the lands south of the 
Dannbe (442-7), and was only induced to retire by an 
agreement on the part of Theiodosins IL to pay him an 
annual tribute. But again, in the reign of Zeno (475), 
the empire was in imminent danger from the Goths under 
Theodoric, who^ like Alaric, had lived at Constantinople, 
and like him also withdrew into Italy. Towards the 
beginning of the fith^ntnry the Goths make way for more 
barbarous invaders, Bulgarians of Turanian origin, and 
various Slavonic tribes, for whose pastoral habits the now 
depopulated country was better suited than for a more 
civilized population. But they in turn were soon swallowed 
up by the Avars, whose vast monarchy occupied a great 
part of eastern Europe, and whose armies, in the time of 
Ueraclius, threatened Constantinople itselt It was in 
order to impose a permanent check on that people that thia 
emperor induced the Servians and Croatians to occupy the 
districts eostward of the Adriatic, Dalmatia and Illyriciim, 
which were deserted, owing to their constant inroads. 
These Slavonic settlers paid allegiance to the empire, and 
as they formed agricultural communities, mtrodnced on 
element of permanence into the eonntiy. The Avar power 
disappeared as suddenly as it had risen, and at the end of 
the 7th century its place is taken by the Bulgarian kingdom, 
which lasted for nearly 350 years^ and was the great 
antagonist of the Byzantine empire in its most flourishing 
perimL At the close of this long enumeration of invasions, 
we cannot help being astonished at the successful resistance 
that was offered to tiiem. No doubt the conformation of 
the European provinces of the Eastern empire, with their 
successive mountain barriers, was a source of strength from 
the ease with which they could be defended; but thia 
could hardly have saved the Greeks, had it not been for the 
number of iheir walled cities, their superiority in the art of 
war, the courage of the people when called out by ctrcnm* 
stances, and the strong position of the capital 

On the side of Ana, during the same period, a long 
struggle was maintained with Persia. The dynas^ of the 
Sassanides, which arose on the ruins of the old Parthian 
kingdom, had raised that country to great power and pros- 
perity. The second in order of its princes, Sapor I., hod 
taken the emperor Valerian prisoner (257), and a cen- 
tury later Jnlian lost his life when fighting in Persia. Hie 
ill success of Justinian in his Persian wars ought fairly to be 
ascribed as much to the ability of his great opponent^ 
Choeroes Nnshirvan, as to his own shortcomings ; but the 
fact remains that even Belisarins won small glory from 
those contests, and after a struggle of twenty years' dura- 
tion a treaty was condnded, which required the European 
monarch to pay an annual subsidy of thirty thousand pieces 
of gold. War, however, continued during the reigns of his 
successors Justin H and Tiberius IL, until an honourable 
peace was concluded by Maurice, the son-in-law of the last 
named emperor, at whose court Ghosroes IL, the rightful 
sovereign, had been received when he was an exile. This 
prince, when he was reinstated on his paternal throne^ 
showed his gratitude to the Romans. But when If anrice 
was dethroned by the rebel Phocas, the Persian monarch 
declared war, professedly with the design of avenging his 
benefactor. The greater part of the Asiatic provinces were 
laid waste, and a Persian army was for a time encamped 
on the shores of the Bosphoms, so that it seemed as if the 
Roman empire was about to be conquered by Persia. Frcun 
this it was saved by Heradius, who was not only one of the 
ablest of the emperors, hot one of the greatest of military 
leaders. He warded off the impending danger, and in seven 
campaigns, by a series of brilliant victories, dealt a death* 
blow to the Persian power. The struggle was unavoidable^ 
and Heradius, in entering upon it^ was actuated by no vain 
desire of military renown ; but the eiB9cts of it were disae- 


G B E E Jfi 

tnoB to thA Bomans alaa llie pwiod when it oceomd 
was that of tha rise o( the SaiioeD^ Md the tthanstion 
caoaed by it oontribated in no alight degree to the ezten- 
uon of their power. 

We torn now to the condition of ihe Greeks during this 
period. In the internil between the first Gothic ioTiiions 
and the aooeasion of Constantine the material prosperity of 
Qieece had increased, owing partly to the devastation of the 
frorinees to the north of that country, the wealthy inhabi- 
lantB of which were forced to take refuge in Greece^ and 
psitly to the insecnrity of the Bed Sea, 4gypt» and Syiia, 
whieh caused the commerce of Cei^ral Asia to take the 
roate of the Black Sea, whence the trade of the Mediter- 
ranean passed once more into the hands of the Greeks. It 
can kard^ be said that the reforms of Oonstantine benefited 
the population, becanse of tiie severe exactions they intro- 
daeedj for, as has been already mentioned, the rich were 
forced to supply from their own incomea any deficiency that 
might occur in their district, and by this means, before 
Jostmian's time, the class of great landed proprietors had 
been ertingniahed. Bat the fixed position whim Uie deigy 
and the lawyers obtained under Constantino's system was e 
general advantage, becanae tlds constitutional check modified 
(he oppnsaiveness of the Government in its dwOinga with 
the people. In the case of the latter of theee two orders 
the effect would have been grMter, had not Latin been the 
kngoage of legal business until after the time of Justinian. 
His period of 120 years between the death of Arcadius 
ind that emperor's accession was e time of improvement 
During the long reign of Theodoeiua IL the power was in 
the himds of his sister, the philanthropic Pulcheria, and of 
hie miniatecB, and these seem to have rded judiciously ; and 
the five succeeding emperors, Maroian, Leo L, Zeno the 
Innrian, Anastasios, and Justin, were all men bom in the 
Biiddle or lower class of society, and of provincial origin, 
and had come to the throne at a mature age. The sympathy 
which they thus had with the body of their snbjects accounts 
for their economy, and for their endeavours to restore the re- 
sooTces of the empire and alleviate its burdens, and senerally 
tomtroduce regular forms of procedure into public bnsinees. 
Far diffiarent was the case with Justinian, whose severe 
demands for money distressed all classes of his subjects. 
Bat it was on Athens that his hand was most heavily laid. 
That city was atill e literary capital where HeDenic learning 
vas cnltivated; and if the Emt. and LeaneUr of Husnus 
sad that graceful pastoral romance) the DajoAnw ofMf C%/m 
of Longus, are to be assigned to so late e date as the fifth 
eentozy, the spirit of the ancient literature had not kmg 
heea extinct among the Greeks. The ancient buildings still 
existed in all their splendour; the citiaens lived aUfe of 
quiet, aelf-cpmplacent ease; and the paganism, of which it 
vas now the centre, had been purified from its vices by the 
maxima of philosophy and the influence of Christianity. It 
reoiained for Justinian, in his meroiless centralisation, to 
dose its schools and confiscate their revenues. At the same 
time the Olympian games wero brought to an end. From 
this time onward the inhabitants of Hellas are but little 
heard of, and at the beginning of the 8t^ century we find 
them spoken of by Byzantine writers under the contemp- 
tnooa title of HeDadici, while the Greek nation is repreeented 
by the population of Constantinople and Asia Minor. Yet 
this period was not wholly disadvantageous to Greece. As 
the danger from the invading barbarians increased, its 
dtiaens reguned the power of using arms, and revived e 
mmiicipal administration to direct their efibrta. It was also 
in Joatinian's reign that silkworms were introduced from 
Chma, and the manufacture of silk became a profitable 
Bonrce of revenue to Thebes and other towns. 

One reaolt of the fimvndftl legidation of this time was a 
change which, though the lawgivers certainly did not foresee 


it» was most benefidal in its effiMts. This was the gradual 
extinction of slavery in the Eastern empire. The power 
that effected this was not Christianify, for that religion had 
reoomiaed alavery aa an institntion, nor yet dvulsation, 
lor ttuiX among the Greeka waa intimate!^ connected with 
the employment of skvea. It was rather produced by aa 
alteration that was takma dace in the cooimtion of certain 
classes, which amuhikted the distinctian between the free- 
man and the slavoi When the oppressiveness of taxation 
had deatroyed the wealthy proprietors, and, in order to pre- 
vent the land from lal&ng out of euItivatioB and &ua 
diminishing the revenue, the cultivatora of the land were 
tied to the soil, the poorer dass of freemen began to sink 
down Into the condition of serfik On the other hand the 
alaves who were employed in agriculture became for the 
same reason an object of solicitude to the legislature^ and 
their proprietors were forbidden to alienate them. They 
thus acquired a recognised position, not &r removed from 
serfdom ; and when all the lower dass were reduced to the 
same state of poverty, the diiference in the political status 
of the two orden came to be oblitented. Many oenturiea 
elapaed before this change fully worked itself out The 
skve trade waa still an important branch of commerce in 
the Boman empire, and freemen w«re sold as slaves if Uiey 
fruled to pay their tazea ; but henceforth the mtem was 
doomed to ultimate extinction. When we consider the ex- 
tent to which slavery prevailed in the ancient world, and 
the misoy which it caused, we cannot regret the eircnm- 
stances whidi cansed it to disappear, even thouj^ they were 
accompanied by much suffering. 

It is important also to remark, now that we are 
approaohiog the period of change from ancient to modem 
sodety, that the decline of dvQisation in the later Boman 
empire was not owin^ to degeneration in the people them- 
sdves, or to an inevitable downward tendency in highly 
dvilised commnnitiea. It is a nustake to attribute to 
decay in hunum character changea that are clearly trace- 
able to the need of such external resources as are indUa- 
pensaUe for its development. The prohibition to cany 
arms neceasarily renden a people nnwarlike. Where 
munidpal institutiona are discouraged, public opinion soon 
becomes powerless. When the resources whidi might be 
employed in conatmcting roads are withdrawn, communica* 
tion ceases, and with it the interdiange of ideas and other 
influences by which thaintellect is quickened. The degra* 
dation waa produced by the iignstice of the Government^ 
which pillaged its suljects, and systematically destroyed all 
independence among them. Whenever the iron hand was 
removed, they showed signs of renewed life and vigour, but 
the strength of the central power was too great to encourage 
any hope of resisting it succeesfully. They had no choice 
but to sit down under it^ and suffer it to drain their life-blood 
by sbw degrees. 

At the commencement of the 8th century the eztinetioa 
of the empire of Uie East appeared to be imminent The 
same causes which had overthrown the Western empire wen 
threatening it with deatmction. Tlie Saracens had overrun 
all its Asiatic possessions, and had attadced the capital 
itsdf, while in Europe it was threatened by the Bulgarians. 
The provinces were falling off: Syria, Egypt, Africa, and 
the conquered provinces of Spain were wholly lost, and 
in Italy the dominions of the OTsrchate were greatly droum- 
scribed by the Lombards. At heme rebellion prevailed in 
the army, and anarchy in the government^ six emperon 
having been dethroned within the space of twenty-one yeaca. 
It seemed as if the Greek race itself would be destroyed ; 
in the countries conquered by the Saracens the Greeks were 
almost exterminated, and Greek dvilisation proscribed,' 
while HeUas was threatened with occupaticm by the bar- 
barians. But at this moment the helm of the state wu 

XL — 15 


O B E E G B 


aeiied by a man who, by bis force of dbaiactor and bis 
great abilities^ inangorated a new state" of tbinga, and 
gave tbe empire a new lease of life. Tbis man was Leo 

nL Period of Byzantine Froeperity: from Leo IIL to 
leaae L {Comnenue), 716-1067 A.D. 

Considerable difference of opinion bas existed as to tbe 
precise time at wbicb tbe Boman empire of tbe east may 
be said to bave ended, and tbe Byzantine empire to bave 
commenced. Gibbon remarks tbat ** Tiberias by tbe Arabs, 
and Maurice by tbe Italians, are distingoisbed as tbe first 
of tbe Greek Csosara^ as tbe founders of a new dynasty and 
empire." Tbe question turns on modifications of tbe old 
Boman system of administration, and tbe introduction of a 
new order of tbings, wbicb lasted trntQ tbe overtbrow of tbe 
state. Tbese commenced, no doubt, sbortly after tbe deatb 
of Heradius, and were closely connected witb tbe victorious 
advance of tbe Saracens, wbicb necessitated a reform, and 
at tbe same time concentrated tbe empire, and confined it 
more and more witbin tbe districts inbabited by Greeks. 
But tbe altered state of tbings did not become apparenl^ 
nor were tbe obanges systematized, until tbe time of Leo 
IIL, and tberefore be may most rigbtly be regarded as 
having inaugurated tbe Byttntiue empire. Tbe first cen- 
tury and a balf of tbe present period embraces tbe icono- 
clastio controversy, wbile tbe two remaim'ng centuries 
coincide witb tbe rule of tbe Basilian dynasty. It was a 
time of great men and great acbievements, botb in gover- 
ment and war, and tbe events it contains amply suffice to 
defend tbe Byzantine empire from tbe imputation of feeble- 
ness and decrepitude; and tbose wbo deligbt to find in 
bistoiy strongly marked cbaracters and stirring incidents 
will he amply rewarded bere. Few personages stand out 
in stronger relief tban tbe rutbless, yet ascetic^ warrior 
Basil, the slayer of tbe Bulgarians ; and few occurrences 
are more romantic tban tbe deatb of Leo the Armenian, 
wbo defends himself with the crucifix in bis chapel, where 
be was chanting tbe prayers in tbe early morning, wbile 
bis successor lies in fetters in the neighbouring dungeon. 

We must finst notice tbe reforms, which caused tbe reign 
of Leo IIL to be an era in the history of tbe empire. 
Tbese extended to almost eveiy branch of the administra- 
tioD. In respect of the army, be reorganized tbe military 
establishment by placing tbe vaiioik bodies of soldiers m the 
different ''.themes,'' or departments, each witb a geneial of its 
own, thereby providing for local defence, and avoiding tbe 
danger of rendering the mib'taiy commanders too influ- 
ential— a system which defended tbe empire for five cen- 
turies. . The geographical arrangement in themes was intro- 
duced by Heradius, but reorganized by Leo, and bore 
somewhat the same relation to tbe previous division into 
provinces tbat tbe departments in France bear to tbe earlier 
distribution of tbat country. In respect of finance, be 
brought the taxation immediately under the emperor's 
cognizance, so tbat thenceforth the emperors were their own 
finance ministers. All local agencies for collecting tbe taxes 
were abolished, and their functions transferred to tbe im- 
perial officers, who took census regularly. By tbis means be 
raised more money than bis predecessors, but tbe increased 
prosperity of the people showed tbat tbe burden did not fall 
Bo heavily. In respect of justice, in order to obviate the 
difficulties which had arisen in the administration of 
Justinian's elaborate laws, especially since the facilities for 
conmiunication throughout the empire bad decreased, be 
published in Greek an abridged manual called tbe JBdoga^ 
and codified tbe military, agricultural, and maritime laws. 
In respect of religion, he aimed at counteracting the ele- 
ment of superstition which bad crept into tbe church, and 
through it was corrupting tbe public mind. But tbis last 

point calls for sepaiate consideration, since iheWorahqi or 
prohibition of images became the burning questiim of the 

Tbe history of iconodasm is tbe history of Constantinople 
during Che 8th century and the first half of the 9th, and 
involved a great part of the empire in its distrsctiona. 
There can be little doubt that^ in his opposition to image 
worship, Leo represented the opinion of a huge part oT tbe 
enlightened laymen of his time, wbile the great body of 
tbe clergy, but especially the monks, togeUier witb the 
mass of the populatbn, were passionatdy attadied to the 
statues and picture^ as objects of reverence, not to say of 
adoration. But tbe &ct that tbe stronghold of iconodasm 
was Asia Minor, and especislly tbat part of it which 
bordered on the countries occupied by the Saracens, suggests 
that it was in part owing to tiie sproad of Mabometanism, 
tbe rigidly guarded spirituality of which creed was a stand 
ing protest against more material conceptions of rdigion. 
Nor should we overlook the deeply rooted feeling in tbe 
mind of Orientals of the opposition between spirit and 
matter, which would naturally cause them to be alive to 
sudi questions of controversy. The emperors of this time 
were tiiose of the Isaurian, Armeiuan, and Am<man dynas- 
ties, all which names remind us tbat they came from tbe 
Asiatic provinces; whereas tbe great restorer of images, 
the empress Irene, during whose regency the second council 
of Nicea in their favour was bdd ^787 a.d.), was an 
Athenian. But the matter was complicated by a further 
issue ; the question of images was closdy coimected in the 
minds of tbe emperors, and especially of Leo in. and his 
bard-banded son Constantine Copronymus, witb that of 
their supremacy in matters of religion. They viewed witb 
jealousy tbe independent power of the dmrcb« and were 
gladof the opportunity this controversy afforded of strength- 
ening their control over this department, and claiming 
to the full those ecclesiastical rights whidi, from the time 
of Constantine tbe Great onward, bad attached to the im- 
perial authority. As this move was only part of a system 
of centralimtion, the monks and others who supported 
imsge worship were from one point of view the assertors of 
lib^ty against aggression, and they were recognized' as sndi 
by a certain number of thinking men, who watched witb 
anxiety the growth of despotism. As toleration was un- 
known to the age, persecution was carried on by both sides 
vrith equal fierceness, and tbe contest swayed to and fro, 
until it was brought to an end by the final ipestoration tk 
images under Midiael m., the last of tbe Amortan line 
^842). Its effects on sodety bad been remarkable. At 
nrst its influence was bracing,* as was shown by Ibe re- 
newed vigour whidi pervaded tbe empire ; for both sides 
were thoroughly in earnest, and among the iconodasts in 
particular an element of Puritan energy was evolved. But 
in its later stages, when the people at large were weary of 
the strife, and the struggle was felt to be in reality one 
between church and state, the prevalent hypocrisy generated 
disrespect for religion, and this was followed by general 
immorality. It farther tensed tbe loss to tbe empire of its 
dominions in central Italy. So great was the alienation 
produced by this movement in tiie minds of the popes 
Gregory IL and IIL that thenceforward the holy see was 
for tbe most part either active in its opposition to the 
Byzantine power or lukewarm in support of it At last^ 
in 751, Bavenna was captured by tbe Lond)ards^ and tbe 
Greek exarch retired to Naples. 

The subsequent eodesiastical affairs of this period must 
be briefly dismissed, though they exercised an important 
influence on tbe fortunes of the Greeks. The final separa- 
tion of the Eastern and Western Churcbee took place in 
1053, though events bad long before been leading up to it 
Already in the middle of the 9tb century, when the pcpa 


O R E E G E 


intefferad between the riTd patrkrdiB Ignatios and Fh^ 
a ntphire was rery nearly oocnning ; and at laal, thoagh 
the foimal canses of diviaion wera theological, yet the 
BBsnmptiona of the aee of Borne and political ant^niama 
wore in nall^ more influential motiTea. The bittemeaa 
thus created eolminated in the captnre of Oonatantinople 
bj the Lasina at the time of the fourth cnuade ; and the 
BabseqneDt refnaal of aid by the Weetem nationa to the 
Greeks greatiy facilitated uie ancceea of the Ottomans 
From thu» the greatest breach In the Cfaiiatian world, we 
ton wiih thankfnlneaa to the miaaionaiy efforts of thia age. 
In the middle of the 9th centoiy two brothers, Qyril and 
Metiiodiofl, preadied the goepel to the sonthem SUTonianSi 
ind conTerted them to Chziatianity. ^y Qyril the alphabet 
sailed Cyrillic was invented, whidi was generally adopted 
by thd Slayonic peopleei Abont the same time the Bol- 
gukns tenonnced their paganism, throng the inflnance of 
ft sister of their kin& Bogoris, who had been edooated aa a 
prifloner at Constantinople^ and afterwards restored to her 
nativB country. The rest of the nation had been prepared 
for this chauge by the numerous Christian alavea who had 
{fferionsly been carried off by them in war. A century 
later Ghnstiamty waa introduced by Greek influence among 
the BoBsians^ whose capital waa now at Kie£^ and who 
were among the moat dreaded foes of the Eastern empire. 
If the missionary spirit is the best evidence of the vitality 
of a chnrch, it ia dear that that of Constantinople, however 
much corrupted by formalism, was still animated by the 
spirit of true religion. 

The Persian monarchy, which for 400 years had been the 
rifsl of tiie Roman power in Asia, had now anoenmbed to 
the TictoiiouB anna of the Snracena; and that people again, 
dnriog the next four centuries, were engaged in almoet con- 
tinual war with the Byzantine empireb In the reign of 
Conatantine Pogonatus, the caliph Moawyah beaieged Con- 
stantinople for aeven yeora by land and sea, the invaders 
retiiing to Qyzicua for the winter (672-9); but^ owing 
in great measure to the newly invented Greek fire^ he waa 
obliged at last to deaist from the attempt^ and almost 
the whole of his force waa destroyed. Notwithstanding 
this revene, the attempt was renewed within a year after 
Leo IIL's accession by Moelemah, brotilier of the caliph 
Suleiman, with an enormoua host; but the akill of Uie 
Bjantines in military defence, whidi waa equal to that of 
the fiomans in their beat days^ baffled lua attempta, and a 
winter of extraordinary severity ensuing ruined tiie attack- 
ing army. The importance of this reeult was incalculable 
to Eorope^far greater than that of the victory of Charlea 
Martel at Tours. The Saracen empire waa now at ita 
hei^t^ and reached from the Indua to the Atlantic; and 
it vaa ^ full brunt of thia power, now in full tide of 
eonquflst^ which was resisted at Constantinopla Had that 
eitf fallen, there was no power that could have prevented 
it f roin overrimning Europe. After this, Asia Minor ean- 
tianed for agea to Iw the battleground of the two opposing 
empires^ until it was sodevaatataid and depopulated 1^ auo- 
ceniTB campaigna as to be fit only for the occupation of the 
nomad tribea who were to succeed. In the midst of these 
strag^es the invaaions of Haroun al Bashid, the aplendonr 
of whose court obtained for him a reputation ip Uie Weat 
which he did not enjoy among his contemporariea in the 
bat) appear hardly more than plundering incuraiona. The 
Bymntine nobles, who were trained in thia aohool of war, 
were distinguished for their militaiy apirit and peraonal 
prowess; and the troops of which the armies were compoeed 
were so powerful and well-disciplined that the Sancena 
would never meet them in the field except with far auperior 
DOfflbers. By aea, however, the empire waa leas successful 
than by land. During the first half of the 9th century both 
Crete and Sicily were conquorcd by tlioAe enemies^ and in 

the year 904 ooeured the memorable sack of Thesaalonica. 
A Saracen fleet appeared before that city, and, after atormr 
ing the aea-wall, pillaged the whole place and bntchered the 
dtinna without respect of aez or aga The moat famous 
anoceasea were thoaaof Kioephorua Phocaa and lua auocesaor 
John Zimiacea Tha former of these great commanders, 
who before he became emperor had reconquered the island 
of Crete^ at the end of a brilliant campaign in Syria 
obtained poaaeasion of Antioch (968) after it had been in 
the hands of the Hahometana for 328 yeara. ¥lve yean 
later Zimtsoes carried hia vietorions arms even to Uie banks 
of the Tigria. But while the diBorganiaed^ atate of the 
caliphate of Baghdad, in the early part of the 1 1th century, 
removied all f eara from that quarter, aiiew enemy began to 
appear on the eastern frontier of the empire — ^the Be^jnk 
Turks. Unfortunately, at this critical ooiguncture, a &tal 
mistake waa mada The safety of that frontier had long 
hem guaranteed by the Armenian kingdom of the Bagra- 
tlaA$i whose conntiy waa admirably adapted for defence^ 
and whoae population were a hardy race of Christian 
mountaineers. In the year 1045 the emperor Constantino 
IX. destroyed this kingdom, and thereby laid his dominiona 
open to the invaders. 

In Europe, at the same time, the empire waa expoaed to 
the attacks of a foe hardly leea formidable^ and in doaer 
proximity — tho Bulgarians. After the extinction of the 
Avars, this people^ who had long been in snbjecti<m to them, 
had founded an important monarchy in the ancient Moasia 
at the end of the 7th century; and henceforward the Byian- 
tinea had to defend their Buropean possessions^ not as before 
agalnat a auccession of migratory tribes, but againat tiie 
concentrated force of a aingle nation. In the time of Con* 
atantine Copronymua we find that it required all the energy 
and military talenta of that emperor to keep them at bay, 
and on one occaaion they carried their ravagea up to the 
neighbourhood of the capital In the begiiming of the 9th 
century their king, Crumn, defeated and alew ue emperor 
Niorahoma L, who had invaded hia territory, in a ni^t 
attack on his camp, and converted hia aknll into a drinking* 
cup for his table. We have already noticed how, later in 
that century, the nation embraced Chriatianity, and at the 
aame time a tract of countiy on the aouthem aide of the 
Balkan range waa ceded to them, and received )rom them 
the name of Zagor& By thia time also they had imper- 
ceptibly changed their nationality and their language^ for 
by intermingling with the more numerous Slavonian tribea 
of the countriea in which they settled, they lost the tracea 
of their Hunnish origin, and became to all intents and pur- 
poses a Slavonic race. By the neighbourhood of Constan- 
tinople^ and the trade between that city and the German 
and Scandinavian peoplea which paased through their 
oountiy, they became a commercial nation, and advanced 
in the arte m lifa But the rapacify of the Qreeka in im- 
poeing heavy cuatoma on their traders involved them again 
m war with the empire, and when peace was re-established, 
the treaty between Bomanus L and their king^ Simeon, 
waa made under the very walls of Constantinople (923). 
In the reign of Kicephorua Phocaa the Bussians, who had 
not long before appeared on the scene of action, were invited 
by the Greeka to invade Bulgaria, and they so effectually 
crashed the Bulgariana (968) that lus successor, John 
Zimisces^ was obl^;ed to come to their aid, in order to aave 
hia own territory from falling a prey to the new comera. 
It waa shortly after this that the great and final atruggia 
oommenced. Under their chie^ Samuel, a man of great 
vigour and abili|^, tliey extended their conquests over 
Macedonia and Theaaaly, and made plundering incnraions 
into Greece and tihe Pdoponuesus. But finding that the 
plains of Bulgaria were unfavourable to him as a seat of 
war, on account of the superior discipline of the imperial 




forces, Samuel transferred Im seat of government to Achrida, 
on the confines of Macedonia and Albania, and thence he 
extended his kingdom from the Adriatic to the iBgean, 
so that the country he ruled was as extensive as the 
European portion of the Byzantine tmpire. But these 
events coincided with the culminating period of Byzantine 
greatness, and Samuel found a worthy rival in Basil II., 
who from his subsequent victories obtained the title of 
** Slayer of the Bulgarians." By him the Bulgarian power 
was brought to an end ; and the whole people submitted to 
the dominion of the Qreeks (1018). 

The third people with whom the empire had to contend 
at this time was the Russians. Ii^ the reign of Michael 
IIL, the last of the Amoriau dynasty (866), the inhabi- 
tants of Constantinople were astonished oy the appearance 
in the neighbourhood of the city of a fleet of 200 small 
vessels, which passed down the Bosphorus from the Black 
Sea. The enemy contained in these was the Russians, 
who not long before had established themselves at Kieff on 
the Dnieper, and whose restless spirit and bve of plunder 
prompted them to attack the strongest city in the world. 
Their ignorance of the art of war rendered them no for- 
midable foe to the Byzantine forces, but their daring and 
cruelty produced a profound impression on tlie civilized 
and peaceful citizens. Similar attacks were made in 907 
by 01^ and in 941 by Igor, but the influence of trade 
and the introduction of Christianity into Russia gradually 
promoted more peaceful relations, and the Byzantines em- 
ployed the powerful tribe of the Patzinaks, who occupied 
the northern shores of the Black Sea, to counterbalance 
their opponents. But the campaign of John Zimisces on 
the Danube in 971, which followed on the negotiations of 
his predecessor for the subjugation of the Bulgarians, 
showed how important a military power the Russians had 
become, for he found in their chief, Swatoslav, an enters 
prising and powerful adversary, whom it required all his 
skill to overcome. Once more, in the time of Constantine 
IX. (1043), the Scandinavian Varangians, by whom the 
Russians were mostly represented in their marauding ex- 
peditions, appeared before Constantinople, but with no 
better success than before ; and from this period the alliance 
of that people with the Byzantines was long uninterrupted, 
and the two nations were bound together more and more 
by religious sympathy. In the days of the Comneni the 
Varangians regularly formed the bodyguard of the emperor. 

Constitutiomd changes were usually of alow growth in the 
Byzantine empire, yet at the end of this period we find con- 
siderable alterations to have been elFected. Under the 
early iconoclastic emperors thero was a tendency towards 
the greater concentration of power in the hands of the 
sovereign, but Basil I. converted the government into a pure 
despottsuL This he effected by abolishing the legislative 
functions of the senate, which body, though now a shadow 
of its former self, had existed in one form or another all 
along^ and exercised a certain influence in controlling the 
absolute power of the emperor. When this restraint was 
removed, and the senate reduced to an administrative 
council, no further check remained except the fear of revolu- 
tion. Basil also tacitly introduced what^ strange to say, 
had never existed in the Roman empire, and even now was 
only partially recognized — ^the principle of legitimacy in 
succession. With a view to this he estabHshed the custom 
that his descendants should be bom in the '* porphyry 
chamber," so that the name Porphyrogenitus might become 
a title of legitimacy. In this way a partial antidote was 
created to that inveterate disease of the Byzantine empire 
which a French writer has called la mcUaeUe du trdne — the 
ambition to be emperor at all hazards, notwithstanding the 
risks involved both in the attempt and the possession of the 
office, The growth of the idea is proved by the loyal^ 

shown a centniy and a half later to the empress Zoc, an 
aged, profligate, and incapable woman, on account of the 
Intimacy of her descent But the greatest change uf all, 
and one that contributed greatiy to the subsequent decline 
of the empire, was effected at the end of this period. This 
was the abolition of the system of training officials to con- 
duct the various departments of the state, and the entrust- 
ing those offices to eunuchs of the imperial household. The 
object of this was to lessen the power of the territorial 
aristocracy, and to diminish the chance of rebellion, by 
placing the government in the hands of men who could not 
found a dynasty ; but from this time onward tbe efficiency 
of the administration began to wana It was tiie disregard 
of the aristocracy involved in tins change that caused tho 
conspiracy of the nobles in Asia Minor which set Isaac 
Comnenus on the throna It should also be noticed tliat 
few of the emperors throughout this period were Greeks, 
most of them being either Armenian or Slavonian by extrac- 
tion. Iliis circumstance accounts for a certain freedom 
from prejudice and independence of view which may be 
traced in their actions, but at the same time it caosed them 
to be wanting in sympathy with their subjects. 

During a considerable part of this period, notwithstand- 
ing the desolating wars which we have described, the pros- 
perity of the ix£abitants of the empire was very great. 
Finlay, who is excellently qualified to judge in a matter of 
this Idnd, gives it as his opinion that under the iconoclast 
emperors their moral condition was superior, not only to 
that of all contemporaiy kingdoms, but to that of any equal 
number of the human race in any precedbg period. The 
society of this time has been too much judged of by the 
murders and mutilations which were rife in consequence of 
the struggles for the Uirone ; but it should be remembered 
that these were confined almost entirely to the court and 
its surroundings, and did not affect the mass of the people. 
And their material prosperity was equally great The 
emperor Theophilus^ notwithstanding his lavish expendi- 
ture, is recorded to have left at his death a sum equal to 
five million sovereigns — an amount of money which could 
hardly have been extorted from a people otherwise than 
wealtiiy. This was the result of the commerce of their 
immense mercantile marine, which had in its hands the 
whole of the carrying trade between Asia and western 
Europe. To this it d^ould be added that, under. Basil the 
Macedonian and his successors, care was taken to moderate 
the burden of taxation, a policy that accounts in great 
measure for l^e duration of his dynasty, whidi occupied the 
throne of Constantinople longer than any other. Unfortu- 
nately the riches thus obtained tended after a time to accu- 
mulate in the hands of the few, and Irom tiie reign of Basil 
IL the middle class, that element which society can least of 
all afford to dispense with, began rapidly to diminish. As 
a consequence of this, in the 11th century manufactures 
declined in the cities, while in the country the immense 
estates of the aristocracy were cultivated by Mahometan 
slaves or Slavonian serfs ; and this higher class itself began 
to feel tiie lethargy of wealth, and though still nnconscions 
of coming change, was on the eve of impending decline. 

In the year 747, during the reign of Constantine 
Copronymus, the empire was visited by a fearful pestilence, 
which, both in the mortality and the demoralization of 
society it produced, must have rivalled, to judge by the 
accounts left us by the Byzantine historians, those of 
Florence and London, of which Boccaccio and Defoe liave 
drawn such vivid pictures. As this calamity was the 
primary cause of the immigration of foreign settlers into 
Greece, it is intimately connected with the question of 
modem Greek nationality ; and consequently the present 
appears a fitting pUce briefly to discuss this subject, on 
which great difiereDces of opinion, turning mainly on the 

nzittaa DMum.] 



medisval hUtoiy of the eoontry, hftva proToiled. The 
eoDtroyeisy oiigiiiated in the famous thesis of Profoasor 
Fallmerayer of Munich, that, owing to the great influx 
first of Slavonian and afterwarida of Mbanian coIoniatBy not 
a single drop of Hellenic Uood flowa in the veina of the 
Greeks at the present day. The diacnaaion of thia point 
has enlisted mndi abilitj and learning on both aidea, but 
the question appeara now to have been pretty well aet at 
test by the abandonment of Fallmenyer'a hypotheaiL How 
early barbarian aettlementa began to take place in Greece 
it is difficult to determine ; but though the occupation of 
Uie Feloponnese by Avara and Slayoniana at the end of the 
6t]i centuiy, on which much atreaa haa been laid, ia doubt- 
fally buBtoiicalf yet coloniea of thoee lacea probably eatab- 
lished themselyes in the northern part of Qreece. But that 
the great diange in thia reapect waa produced by the pesti- 
lence is shown by the oblivion of Hellenic namea of places 
which datea from that time. For, though a fair number 
of ancient namea of seaport towns, such aa Fatraa^ Corinth, 
and Epidaums, and some namea even in a district ao ex- 
tensi?eiy occupied by Slavonians aa Arcadia, have been pre- 
serred to the preaent day, yet the great minority of the 
modem namea are now, and have been ainoe the 8th centuiy, 
either Slavonic or of later Greek origin. Not only waa the 
ooantzy greatly depopulated by the plague^ but a consider- 
able portion of the native middle claisa was induced by the 
emperor to migrate to the capital, in order to fill up the 
void in the habitants which had been caused by its 
rafagesL The districts which were thus left vacant were 
soon after occupied by Slavonian tribea, ao that until the 
middle of the 9th centuiy they formed a large part of the 
population. But in the latter part of that century the 
Greeks began to recover a numerical auperiority, and from 
this period datea the process of the absoiption and HeUenis- 
ing of the Slavonians^ so as to form the mixed race of 
which the greater part of the population of Greece is now 
compoeed. In effectmg thia change the Greek Church 
played an important part The affinity between the ancient 
and modem Greeks has been traced by several lines of 
reasoning. It has been pointed out how great is the resem- 
blance of character between them, and that too in points 
presenting the sharpest contrast to the character of the 
SlsTonic lacea. The survival of old beliefs and classical 
snpeistitioiis at the present day has been caref oUy observed. 
Hie language ia a lineal deacendant of the ancient apeech, 
and contains next to no Slavonic element ; and leat it diould 
be thoQght that this hmgnage had been imported into the 
prorinees from one or more great centres, and had not sur- 
Tifed in the districts themselves, it is proved that numerous 
daasical words and forms, which have been loat to the 
hagnage at laige, atill survive in the local dialects. Tliua, 
thcmgh the phyacal connexion between the modem Greeks 
and the ancient Hellenes,, in certain districts at all events, 
nay be slight, as seems to be implied by the difference of 
physiognomy, yet in all that really oonstitntee a people, 
their character, f eelinga, and ideas, the former are the lineal 
diseeodanta of the ktter. 

lY. Period of Bymmime Dedme : from ttaao L to the 
taUng of Corulaniinople hjf the Laiine^ 1057- 
1204 JuD. 

At the commencement of the preceding period there waa 
a prevailing fear among the inhabitanta of the empire that 
its eztmctioQ was imminent, and we have aeen how this 
vas foDoired by an age of unexampled proeperity. The 
feeling of the time on which we now enter waa completely 
the opposite of thia, and yet it waa a period of declina 
The hag duzation of the empiie^ notwithatanding numerous 
ricissitadea, its auperiority to contemporary nationa In 
power and wealth, and its ^»parani security from foreign 

enemies, inipind iSie people with a belief in its permanency, 
and blinded them to the aeeds of disease that were already 
working. Yet before the end of the lltli centuiy the 
Se^ouk Turks had occupied all the inland part of Asia 
Minor, and had established their capital at Nicsa, in the 
immediate neighbourhood of Conatantinople. It would, 
however, be a mistake to suppose that, in its external 
rektions at aU events, the whde of the Comnenian period 
waa a time of decay. On the contrary, during a conaide^ 
able period it witneaaed a remarkable revival; and tlie 
three great emperora of that dynasty, Alexiua, John, and 
Manuel Comnenua, whose long reigns extend over an entire 
century (1081-1180), were men who would be conspicu' 
ous figures in any age. All of them were distinguished 
by personal courage and skill in war, by literary culture, 
and by sagacity in politica ; but in oUier reapecta they re- 
presented very different types. The firat. Alexins, was in- 
defatigable in business, patient in maturing his schemes^ 
and active in carrying them out, but vainglorious, unprin- 
cipled, and fond of artifice. From this Ulyasean phase of 
Greek character we turn to a trae Achilles, his son Jolm^ 
the most amiable character that ever occupied the Byzantine 
throne — a man irreproachable in morals, open-hearted, 
generous in action, pradent in council, and pious without 
superstition. The last of the three, Manue^ preaenta us 
with a nature spoiled by the early possession of absolute 
power, but gifted with most of the features admired by his 
contemporaries^handsome in peiaou, tall of stature, and so 
powerful that^ at a tournament at Antioch in which the 
cluvaliy of the West took part, he unhoraed every antago- 
niat — but passionate in temper and ill-regulated in mind. 
In an age which produced men like theae it may well be 
inquired, What were the aourcea of decline t 

In the firat place, the emperora were almost tlie only 
capable men. This was the natural effect of the central- 
ixation of the system. The neglect of the education of 
persons intended to be employed in the administration, 
and the employment of creatures of the court for offices of 
trust, were now bearing their fruit Eveiy thing depended 
on the exiating sovereign ; and it only required the vices of a 
thoroughly profligate man like Andronicus Comnenus, the 
last of his dynaaty, to ruin the atate. Aa might be ex- 
pected also imder these circumatances, diaorder aoop crept 
into every branch of the public aervice. The cenans, which 
for eleven centuriea had been carefuUy compiled, waa now 
neglected; justice, which more than anything else liad 
united the provinces to the empire, was more imperfectly 
administered ; and the army became inferior to those off 
Western nations. This last change was produced partly 
by the degeneracy of the nobles in militaiy spirit, owing to 
the growth of Inxury, partly by the officers being appointed 
by &LVonrttism, and the habit of disbanding troops at the 
end of a campaign, in order to save money to defray the 
expenses of the court At the same time the great diminu- 
tion of the middle class, owing to the extension of the large 
properties, lessened the number of those who were willing 
to defend their liberties against invaders. The privilegea 
also^ in respect of trade, which were conceded by Alexius 
L to the Venetians and by Manuel to the Genoese aod 
Fisanlb, to the detriment of the native merchants, commenced 
the decline of Greek commerce ; and this was accelerated 
by the piracy that arose, when the money that had been 
contributed by the commercial communities for the main- 
tenance of local squadrons of galleys was ordered to be re- 
mitted to Constantinople. To all this must be adiUd the 
mfiuence of tilie higher Greek clergy, whose subservim<y to 
the state had increased since the separation frorx the 
Western Church, and the conservatism of whose vMeaa 
discouraged all attempta at progress on the part ol the 




Flamininas pennaded both these powen to join in attacklDg 
hinL At Oynoscephale in Thesaaly, not far from the scene 
of a greater battle, Fharsalia, the power of the Macedonian 
monarchy was broken (197 B.a), and Philip renounced hia 
anpremacy over the Greeks, to whom Flamininns proclaimed 
their freedom at the ensning Istlmiian games. The final 
overthrow came in the time of Perseus, the son of Philip^ 
who was defeated at Pydna (168 B.a}, and his dominions, 
widi the adjacent parts of Greece, were reduced to the form 
of a Boman province. The later years of the Achaean 
league had been illumined by the leadership of Philopoemen, 
''the last of the Greeks," as Plutarch has called him, in 
whose time the whole of the Peloponnesus, including even 
Sparta, was for a time included in the alliance. But the 
days of Greece were numbered, and the only question was 
how soon the remainder should be absorbed by the advancing- 
•tide of Boman conquest At last a pretext for interference 
presented itself, and the reduction of the country to bond- 
age was signalised by the pillage and destruction of Ooiinth 
tinder Mummius (146 B.O.). The entire area southward 
of Macedonia and Epims Vas constituted the province of 
Achaia, the title of which thus perpetuated the name of 
the Achaean league. The struggles in which that and the 
^tolian confederation had taken part are an evidence of 
the revival of a spirit of patriotiBm in the breasts of the 
Qreeks, and we may well lament over the ruin of their in- 
dependence ; but the truth must be told that this was not 
the feeling of the mcgority of the population at the time. 
Tba selfishness and cupidity of the Greek aristocracy, such 
as those whom wo have already noticed at Sparta, had 
imposed so heavy burdens on the people that the great 
body of them cheerfully acquiesced in the Boman role. 
Folybius has preserved to us the saying which expressed 
the sentiment of the time : ''If we had not been quickly 
rained, we should not have been saved." 

From the time of the Boman conquest the existence of 
Oreece vros merged in that of a greater political unity, so 
that for the next four centuries, until the commenoement of 
the barbarian inroads, it can hardly be said to have a hia- 
toiy of its own. But we must not on this account suppose 
that the Greeks occupied exacUy the same position as the 
rest of the Boman provincials. In this respect there is a 
marked difference between the results of the Boman con- 
quests in the West and the East The inhabitants of the 
western portion of the empire were at the time of their sub- 
jection in a low state of dvilization, and destitute of any 
element of strength in their social and natbnal life. It was 
natural, therefore, that nations so undeveloped shonld easily 
receive the impress of Boman institutions, and should adopt 
the manners and ideas of their conquerors. The Bomans 
in fact treated them for the most part as inferior beings 
and did not at first even regard them as absolute proprietors 
of the lands they cultivated. But in the East the case was 
different There the Bomans met with a dvilixation more 
advanced than their own, which they had already learned to 
respect, and an elaborate system of dvil goYemment and 
Booal nsages which could not be set aside without nnde^ 
mining the whole fabric of society. Hence the Greeks, 
while subjected to the Boman administration, were allowed 
to retain a great part of their institutions, together with 
their property and private rights, and, from their superiority 
to the other conquered peoples, remained the dominant 
power in the East Even in Aria the despotism of Borne 
was mndi modified by the munidpal system of the Greek 
colonies and by the influence of Greek culture. Thus it 
came to pass that, while the Western nations wer^ assimi- 
lated to Bome^ in the East the Boman empire became Greek, 
though the Greek nation in name became Boman. Thid 
effects of thu are visible at every turn in the subsequent 
history, and to this cause must be lef aired maqygnomaQea 

which are traceabie at the present day in the condition of 
eastern Europe. 

It was a part of the Boman policy, in dealing with con- 
quered countries, to treat them at first with mildness, untfl 
they became inured to the yoke, and when this was the case, 
and precautionary measures had been adopted to prevent 
tho possibility of successful revolt^ to deal with them more 
harshly and Increase their burdens. This waS what 
happened in the case of Greece. For some time the people 
at large had no reason to regret the change. Tlie fact of 
their subjection was not impressed too fordbly upon them, 
and several dties, such as Athens and Sparta, were allowed 
to rank as allied states. Their taxes were not increased, 
and they did not at once perceive the 4ifference caused by 
tiie money that was levied being taken out of the countr^F 
instead of being spent in it This was, however, the most 
systematically ruinous part of the Boman system. The 
Government never paid attention to the provinces for their 
own sake, but regarded them as an instrument for maintain- 
ing the greatness and power of Bome. The immense sums 
that were drained from them never returned, but were 
expended In the maintenance of the Boman army, and in 
the public games and architectural embdlishmcnt of the 
metropolis. Objects of local usefulness, such as roads, 
ports, and aqueducts, received no attention from the central 
authorities, and no money was supph'ed towards their 
maintenance. Within a century also, when these evQs were 
beginning to make themselves felt, the Boman rule became 
very oppressive. Though the custom duties were not un- 
reasonable in their nominal amount, they became exorbitant 
through the system of fanning and sabletting, and aa a 
spcdfd tribunal exbted for the enforcement of the collectora* 
claims, the farmers exerdsed a most tyrannical power over 
the mercantile population of the shores of the Mediterranean. 
In the wake of these harpiea followed the usurers, to meet 
whose claims proprietors had constantiy to sell their posses- 
sions. The direct weight of the public burdens was further 
increased by the exemptions ergoyed by Boman dtizens In 
the provinces, and by privileges and monopolies which were 
granted to merchants and manufacturers ; and large suma 
had to be paid to the Boman governors, both for the main- 
tenance of their establishments, and to obtain exemption 
from the quartering of troops. But these more or less 
audioriaed exactions bore no proportion to the illegal exto^ 
tions of the proconsuls, who simply pillaged the provindala 
No more perfect scheme could hate been devised for pro- 
moting oppreedon than that under whidi these officers were 
appointed. While on the one hand they superintended the 
finandal administration, on the other they exerdsed the 
judicial power ; and the only tribunal to which they were 
respondble was that very senate by which they were 
appointed, and of which ikey themselves were members. 
A governor like Yerres had it in his power to min a pro- 
vince for several generations, and such instances were not 
rara The treatment of Greece in this respect was no ex- 
ception to the general mle. 

The period, however, durii^ which the greatest ixgury 
was inflicted on Greece viraa that of the Mithradatio War 

S6 B.O.). At the commencement of that struggle many of 
e leading men and states declared in favour of Mithradates, 
thinking that under hia auspices they might regain their 
freedom. But the appearance of Sulla with an armj soon 
nndecdved them, and they laid down their arms, with the 
exception of Athens, which was only reduced after an 
obstinate defence. When the dty was at last taken hy 
storm, the majority of the dtiiens were put to the sword, 
thdr poasesdooa seiied by the soldiers, the Piraua utterly 
destroyed, and Attica ravaged. In the same campaign 
and the other prindpal shrines were plundered, and 
amount of property was mined throo^^iont tho 




eoontiy. Great ituniy wu ako inflicted l>7 the Cilidan 
pirates. Tbe existence of theee was a result of the jealousy 
mih which the Roman GoTerament regarded the mainten- 
sncs of armed forces by the protrincialsi either by land or 
Rea, lest they should be made an instrument of revolt ; and 
UDce they had no interest in maintaining order, except 
where their own authority was threaten^ the subject 
nations were so far from profiting by their protection that 
they were exposed to attack without possessing the power 
of defending themselves. The confined seas and numerous 
b\js and islands of Greece have always been favourable to 
piracy, and at this time the evU reached such a hei^t tliat 
the welfare of the state was threatened, and Pompey was 
entrusted with the office of eradicating it ; but before this 
was accomplished many of the wealthiest cities in Greece 
and Aaia Uinor had been attacked and pillaged, l^ith the 
accession of Augustus a brighter era seemed to have dawned ; 
and nnder the early emperors, who desired to strengthen 
themselTes against the senate, the interests of the provincials 
were more considered. Greater regularity also was intro- 
duced into the taxation, by the land and capitation taxes 
being regulated by a periodical census. But the old evils 
to a great extent remained, and these were further aggra- 
Tated at a htter time by the depreciation of the coinage, 
which proceeded with fearful rapidity, and caused wide- 
igtnd distress among the commercial and labouring classes. 
The result of these changes is traceable in the condition 
and character of the Greek people. The conquests of 
Alexander the Great suddenly threw into circulation the 
accamnhited treasures of the Persian empire, and a great 
part of these passed into the hands of the Greeks^ both in 
Asia and Europei The facilities thus created for obtaining 
wealth increased the material prosperity of the Greek race 
ai Urge, so that in all probability it never was more numer- 
uns tlian during the p<Sriod immediately preceding its sub- 
jogation by tlie Romans. Tliough all calculations respect- 
ing the numbers of the population in ancient states are 
necessarily hasardous, yet it seems probable that the Greeks 
at that time may have amounted to more than seven 
millions. But with Greece proper the case was different 
There the increase of wealth raised the standard of living 
considerably above what it had been in earlier and more 
frugal tiffles, so that the less moneyed class were tempted 
to emigrate in large numbers to seek their fortunes in the 
great Asiatic cities, and in the service of the Eastern 
monarchs, where so great openings presented themselves. 
The decrease of this class produced a larger accumulation 
of property in the hands of large owners, and greatly aug- 
mented the number of slaves. Under the Romans the 
wealth of the country, great as it was, was soon dissipated 
by fiscal exactions, by plunder in war and the private pillage 
of officials, and by the confiscation of the possessions of in- 
dividnals, with a view to which a system of accusations 
was regaUrly promoted. The natural result of this, com- 
bined with the self-indulgent habits which had grown up 
among the upper classes, was a steady diminution of the 
population. The first of the Romans who perceived the 
evils arising from this state of things, and endeavoured to 
remedy them, was the emperor Hadrian, who had the merit 
of personally visiting the provinces, and whose tastes natur- 
ally led him to sympsAhize with the Greeks. Though 
moch of the money which he expended in the country in 
the construction of temples and other splendid edifices 
tended to the gratification of his private fancies, yet a real 
improvement in the condition of tiie people was effected by 
his restoration of the roads which had fallen out of repair, 
snd the erection of baths and aqueducts. He oho lightened 
the taxation, and raised tlie Greeks to the rights of Roman 
citizenships thereby anticipating the edict of CaracaUa, by 
which that privilege was extended to all the free inhabitants 

of the empire (212 A.i>.). The depopulation of Greece, 
however, continued ; but while in uis way the power of 
the nation was being weakened, and its material resources 
diminished by the loss of much of the capital that had been 
invested in tiie improvement of the country, the actual con- 
dition of the inhabitants was for the time improved, be- 
cause the decrease in their numben had been more rapid 
than the destruction of property. Possessing the necessaries 
of life in abundance, and having but b'ttle money to spend 
on anything beyond, they sank into that condition of in- 
difference uid ease in which at last the barbarian nations 
found them. 

It has already been remarked that the character of the 
Greeks at this period ought not to be judged from the pre- 
judiced statements of Roman writers, nor by reference to 
the standard of their great forefathers. The introduction 
of the wealth of Persia had undoubtedly a demoralising 
effect on the nation, both in Asia and Europe ; but when 
we consider that throughout a great part of the area that 
they occupied they were long the dominant dass, and had 
hardly any check to restrain them in the indi:dgence of 
their passions, it is rather a matter for wonder that they 
resisted temptation so far as they did. At least they never 
sank to such a depth of degradation as the Romans of the 
imperial times, and in Europe the struggles of .the Aduean 
league show diat a value was still set on manly virtues. 
After this the Greeks became the educators of the Romans, 
whose npper classes resorted for instruction to the univer* 
sity of Athens ; and if the rhetoric and philosophy which 
was tanght there partook sometimes of the nature of liter* 
ary trifling; and the instructors themselves were character- 
ized by vanity and pedantry, they maintained at all events 
the standard of cultivation in the world at that time. The 
love of art still prevailed amongst them, and the quiet^ 
studious life of the Greek cities formed in the eyes of many 
a favourable contrast to the violent struggles and inordinate 
passions of Bom& But the disbelief in the national religion 
which had grown up among the educated classes, notwith* 
standing the maintenance of the temples and their worship, 
tended to cause a separation between the npper and lowei 
grades of society ; and this, together with the isolation pro* 
duoed by the great size of the estates, which withdirew 
individuals from the scrutiny of their fellow dticens^ 
weakened the force of public opinion, and thus lowered the 
moral standard. It can hardly be doubted that the con- 
sciousness of this, and the feeling of the need of a higher 
morality, was one main cause of the eagerness with which 
philosophy continued to be pursued by the Greeks, since in 
it they hoped to find the groundwork of truth and justice. 
Thus during a period of six centuries the European Greeks 
had gradually degenerated, though for ihe most part from 
causes external to themselves ; they seemed to have become 
an insignificant and almost commonplace people. Tet the 
outline of the diaracter was the same, thougli the colours 
had faded ; and considering the length of the time, and the 
agendes at work, we may be surprised at finding that the 
change had not been greater. It remained to be shown 
that the finer qualities and more vigorous elements were 
only dormant ; and this was brought to light in the latter 
half of the third century by two influences, which we must 
now proceed to explain. 

The first of these was the invasions of the Gothsi These 
were the earliest of the barbarians to break through the 
Roman frontier, and the defeat and death of the emperor 
Decius in Mcesia (251 iuD.), and the subsequent incursions 
of the Goths into Thrace and Macedonia, warned the 
Greeks of the peril that impended^ over them. Immedi- 
atdy the walls of Athens were repaired, the fortifications 
across the isthmus of Corinth restored, and vigorous pre- 
parations made for defence. The invaders soon made their 




appeaxanee botK l>7 land and Boa, and ona division, landing 
ife the Firffios, succeeded in carrying Athens by storm ; but 
an Athenian of ranlc called Dezippns, afterwards the his- 
torian of these STents, succeeded in assembling a sufficient 
force to compel tb em to retire. This reTarse was the prelude 
to their total oyerthrow, for succours were meanwhile arriT- 
ing from Italy, by which their separate bands were attacked 
in detail and destroyed. Some years later, after other 
inroads, during which many cities of Qreece successfully 
defended themselvei^ the power of the Gk>ths was broken 
by the emperor Claudius IL at the great battle of Naissns 
(2G9 A.D.). But it was clearly proved at this tune that the 
spirit of the QreekB, which had had no opportunity of dis- 
playing itself since the siege of Athens by Sulla, was not 
extinct, and that, if they had been unwazUke in the interral, 
it was main]/ because their, masters had denied them the 
use of arms. It is not to be overlooked that, when the 
some barbarians subsequently attacked the Western empire^ 
it went down before them, the reason being that the nations 
of the West had no such distinctive nationality as the 
Greeks, and no such municipal institutions to rally round. 
Anyhow the Greek character was benefited by. the public 
spirit thos evoked, and by the activity infused into society 
by the feeling that evezy man might be called on to defend 
his person and property. 

• The other and far more important infioence which re- 
generated the Greeks at this time was Christianity. This 
re}igion, which had long been working in secret, though in 
ways which it is almost impossible to trace, now began to 
produce a marked impression on Greek society. Its power 
was the greater because it had worked from bdow upward, 
and had permeated to a great extent the lower and riddle 
classes. It improved the moral condition of the Greeks by 
elevating their views of life, by quickening the conscience, 
and by infusing earnestness into tiie character j and it reno- 
vated theb social condition by pointing out to them their 
duties to one another, by encouraging corporate feelings and 
in particular by purifying the domestic rdations through its 
influence on the female sex. At the same time the habit 
of meeting for the administration of their communities 
accustomed the Christians to discussion and action in com- 
mon, and the fact that they formed a powerfnl corporation 
independent of the state, which was the aaason. why they 
were persecuted by the Roman authorities, was in itself a 
means of political education. Such an influence, which not 
merely pervaded evezy relation of life, but penetrated alsp 
to the motives and springs of action, is sufficient of itself to 
account for the regeneration of the Greeks, which the his- 
torian traces in its effects at the end of the 3d century. 

The scene now changes, and from the land of Hellas our 
attention is transferred to the city of Constantinople. 

IL Period of Greek Sevivai : from CongUuUine the Great 
to Leo III. {the leaurian), 323-716 iuD. 

The principal events of the first half of this period, the 
two centuries which intervened between Constantine and 
Justinian, are^tlie foundation of Constantinople (330 A.d}. ; 
the emperor Julian's attempted restoration of Paganism 
(361) ; the defeat of Yalens by the €k>ths near Adrianople^ 
and his death (378); the establishment of Christianity 
by Theodosius the Great as the religion of the empire 
(383) ; the partition of the Roman empire between Arcadius 
and Honorins (395); the publication of the Theodosian code 
(438) ; and the extinction of the empire of the West (476). 
The reign of Justinian (527-565) comprises Uie great cam- 
paigns of Belisarius and Narses, whereby the kmgdom of 
the Vandals in Africa was overthrown, and Sicily, Italy, 
and southern Spain were recovered to the Roman empire, 
the Greek possessions in Italy being henceforth govmied 
by an exarch, who resided at Ravenna ; the building of 

the church of St Sophia at CoDitantmople; and tho 
reformation of the Roman law. Finally, in the centuiy 
and a half between Justinian's death and tlie accession of 
Leo m, occurred the birth of Hahomet (571) ; the victori- 
ous expeditions of Heradius against the Persians (622-6); 
and the seven years' siege of Constantinople by the Saracens 
in the reign of Constantine Pogonatus (668-675). 

The reforms effected by Constantine formed one of the 
greatest revolutions the world has ever seen, and his sagacity 
is shown by the completeness with which diey were carried 
out, and by t&e permanence of their effects^ for from them 
proceeded both the strength and the injnriousness of the 
Byzantine system, which lasted even to the latest days of 
the empire. To* describe them in brief, — ^he centralized the 
executive power in the emperor, and constituted a bnrean' 
cracy for the administration of public businiBss ; he eonsoli'' 
dated the dispenaatbn of justice throughout his domlniona ; 
he rendered tiie military power, which had hitherto been 
the terror and bane of the state^ subservient to the civil 
power ; he adopted a new religion, and established a new 
capital • Henceforth the world was ruled by the emperor 
and his household, and this administration was wholly irre- 
sponsiUe ; and as the interests of the €k>vemment were un- 
connected with those of any nationality and any class of its 
sulgects, there was sure to be a continual struggle between 
the rulers and those whom they governed. . In order that 
the emperor might be regarded as a beingof a different 
order from the people, he and his court were surrounded 
by lavish splendDur ; and in order to check the ever im- 
minent danger of rebellion throng pretenders to the throne^ 
'the offices of the court were made magnificent prizes^ ao 
that ambitious persons might fed that advancement could 
be obtained by a safer method than dvil war. -But to meet 
these expenses, and at the same time to mftinfatm a power- 
fnl army, an elaborate system o( taxation was necessaiy ; 
taxation, in fact, came to be regarded as the first aim of 
government, and the inhabitants of the empire were im- 
poverished for objects in which they had no direct conoem. 
The prindpal instrument whidi Constantine used for en- 
forcing this was the Roman munidpal system, and this he 
introduced into Greece, notwithstanding the existence of a 
national and traditional organiation. According to this^ 
eadi town, with the agricidtnral district in its neighbonr- 
hood, was administered by an oligarchical senate called the 
eurta, dected from among the landed proprietors ; by them 
the munidpal officers were appointed, and the land-tax 
collected, for the amount of which they were made ztospon- 
sible; while those who did not poeseas land, such as 
merchants and artisans, paid the capitation tax,' and formed 
an inferior class. As wealth declined, the oppreedveness of 
this system was more and more f dt^ espedaUy as the private 
property of members of the curia was confiscated when the 
required amount was not forthcoming'; and Iience^ in order 
to prevent a further diminution of the revenue^ an daborate 
caste-system was subsequentiy introduced, whidi fixed the 
condition of every class, and required a son to follow the 
calling of his father, lest the number of persons liable to a 
certain Idnd of taxation should decrease: With tiie same 
view, the free rural population came to be tied to the soil, to 
prevent the ground from falling out of cultivation. Since, 
however, it was foreseen that such a system would produce 
discontent, the people everywhere were carefully disarmed, 
and the possession of arms was made a thing apart, the 
military dass being separated from aU others. For the 
same reason barbarians were much used as troops, because 
they could have no sympathy with the dtizens. The harsh- 
ness of this system caused general poverty, and deep-seated 
hatred of the central government, often resulting in a die* 
position to call in the barbarians ; while its jeSlousy was 
the origin of the weakness of the empire^ because the pro- 


G B E E C E 


rindab, who were xeaUy stroDgor Uiaii their invBderBy were 
DeveraUowed to defend themselyeB. In the West it contii- 
bated greatly to the OTerthrow of the empiie, and in the 
Easfc it repressed the spirit of Hellenic life by interfering 
with the undent dty communities ; and though the force 
of the Qreek character, and the social condition of the 
countriee they inhabited, saved them from destmction, yet, 
as we look down the long vista of succeeding ages^ we may 
see its baneful effects producing ever-increasing misery. 

Tet we must not overlook the strong points of Constan- 
tiae'B system. The first of these was the regular adminis- 
tntion of justice which he introduced. This the inhabi- 
taots of the empire felt they could not obtam elsewhere, 
and the possession of it reconciled them to many other- 
win intolerable grievances. 60 conscious were succeeding 
emperors of this that we find strictness observed in this 
matter until quite a late am of the Byzantine empire. 
Another was the amount of sSility and experience which it 
secored for the public service. We have called the adminis- 
trators of public affiurs a bureaucracy, and the household 
of the emperor, but they were net the lees a body of most 
hig^y trained officials, thoroughly orggnixed in their various 
aervicea. &ch department of the state formed a profession 
of itself, as completely subdivided, and requiring as spedal 
an education, as the legal profession at the present day. 
The perfection of this machinery accounts for the empire 
not having fallen to pieces in times of internal dissension, 
lometimes accompanied by foreign invasion; and the 
fadlities it afforded for developing talent are seen in the 
long sttccesaoiTof able administrators which the system pro- 
dnrad, and which came to an end at the commencement of 
the 11th century, when it began to be disused. And 
besides this, though the rigorously oppressive tazatbn was 
injadicious as well as ii^urious, yet it may be doubted 
whether any other system than the high-handed centralisa- 
tion which has been described could have prevented dissolu- 
tion. Its force is certainly proved by its vitality, and the 
first great dismemberment in particular was brought about, 
not by internal causes, but by the power of the Saracens. 

The choice of the site of New Rome— ^which is perhaps 
the finest position in the world, as it commands the meeting- 
point of two great seas and two great continents, and rises 
in seven hiUs on its triangular promontory between the Fro- 
pontis and its land-locked harbour the Golden Horn— 7is an 
additional proof of the penetration of Constantine ; and the 
event juatified his selection, for on numerous occasions no- 
thing else than the impregnablltty of the seat of government 
eonld have saver) the empire from destruction. Though the 
establishment of a new capital wos in itself a consummate 
stroke of genius, yet to some extent it was forced upon tlie 
emperor by his converdon to Christianity, for this placed him 
in direct antagonism to Old Bome, which was still the head- 
qnarters of paganism. And whatever might be the f eeHhgs 
of the people, on the part of the administrators themsdves 
the prepossessions to be overcome in dedding On such a 
change were leas than might be supposed, for the govern- 
ment^ absorbed as it was in the unceadng care of maintdn- 
ing and defending the empire, had long ceased to be 
Roman in its sympathies^ and had become cosmopolitan. 
The new dty at the time of its foundation was Roman : its 
senators were transported thither from Bome ; the language 
of the court was Latin ; and the condition of the lower 
daases was assimilated to that of the old capital by thdr 
being exempted from taxation and supported by dtetribu- 
tions of grain. But from the first it was destined to become 
Greek; for the Greeks, who now b^gan to sail themsdves 
Bomans, an appdlation which they have ever since retained, 
hdd fsst to thdr language, manners, and pr^ndioes, while 
th^ availed themsdves to the full of their rights as Bonuu» 
otunis. Hence, in Justinian's time, we find all the highest 

offices in the hands of Greeks— not Hellenio Gredo, but a 
Graeco-Boman caste, the descendants of the Macedonian 
conquenm of Asia ; and Greek was the prevailing language. 
The turning-point in this respect was the separation of the 
East and West in the time of Arcadius and Honorius. Still 
the Boman system remained permanent, especially in the 
community of interest created between the emperors and 
the populace by the largeases and the expenditure on public 
amusements, the money for which was drained from the 
provinces; and this fkct expldns the antagonism that 
remained between the provincials and the inhabitants of 
the capital, and the tderation which the latter showed of 
the tyranny of their rulers. How deeply these abuses were 
rooted in the dty of Constantinople is shown by the circum- 
stance that Heraclius, in despdr of otherwise carrying out 
his schemes of retrenchment and reform, concdved the 
design of removing the seat of government to Carthage — a 
plan which he would have carried out had he not been pre- 
vented by the unanimous oppodtbn of the Greeks. 

Whether the converdon of Constantine to Christianity 
was duo to sincere belief or to policyi or, as is perhaps most 
likdy, to a combination of«ilke two motives, there can be no 
doubt that religion had before that time obtained a great in- 
fluence over the Greeks^ and that the cause of the Christian 
Church and that of the Greek nation were dready dosdy 
interwoven. Nothing could show more dearly the mastery 
obtdned by the new fdth than the subsequent failure of 
the emperor Julian to revive paganism. We have already 
seen how lifoAud energy were restored to Greek society by 
this influence before the end of the 3d century ; it was also 
the unanimity with which it was adopted by that people 
which inspired' them to combine in self-defence, and saved 
them from the fate of the disunited Western empire. From 
that early period dates the feeling of brotherhood which 
pervaded the Greek Church, and the strong attachment 
which has dways existed between the Greek clergy and 
their flocks, further cemented as it wos at a later period 
by the influence which the dergy exercised in maintdning 
the people's rights and defending them agdnst aggression. 
Paganiam, however, continued to be recognized until 
the time of Theodoaius the Great, when Christianity was 
aubstituted for it by legtdativa enactments. But the 
orthodoxy of the Eastern Church, which came to be, and 
still is, its most distinctive feature, and the identification 
of the Orthodox Church with the Greek nation, dates from 
a different time, vis., from the reigns of the Arian successors 
of Constantine, to whose personal opinions the people were 
strongly opposed. The politicd effect of this union ulti- 
matdy benme very great, and resulted in the loss of im- 
portant provinces to Uie empire. When the Orthodox had 
the upper hand, they aoon began to clamour for the perse^ 
cution of heretics, and the emperors being on the same side 
acceded to their demand. The natural effect of this was 
disaffection in those regions, such ss Syria and Egypt, 
where the majority of tlie population were either Kestorians 
or Eutjrchians; and the evil was aggravated by the 
suspicion to which the provindd dergy were exposed, 
because they were not Greeks, of being heterodox. Tho 
alienation from the central government thus produced 
greatly facilitated the conquest of those countries by the 
Saracens. It diould also be noted that from the time of 
Constantine the emperors claimed, and were acknowledged, 
to be supreme over the churdi in all dvil and external 
matters— a power which, as we shdl see, proved to be of 
great importance at the time of the iconoclastic controversy ; 
and the ezcenOve judicid and administrative authority 
whidi Theodosius conferred on the bishops was the origin 
of that politicd subserviencyp and at the same time of those 
dmoniacd practices, which have been the opprobrium of 
their order m the Eastern Chuidk 


O B E E E 


The reign of Jnsttniaii, wliich, fromtlie important events 
which it contained, lias naturally mnch attracted the notice 
•f historians, was a period of false brilliancy. The char- 
acter of that emperor in many respects resembles that of 
Louis XIY. Both were men of moderate ability, gifted 
with great industry and application to business, and with 
ft remarkable power of employing the talents of others; 
both were fond of splendour and foreign conquest ; and both 
impoyerished and ruined their subjects. At the time of 
his accession Justinian found iu the exchequer a laige sum 
of money amassed by Anastasius L, and had he employed 
this in lightening taxation and improving the position of 
his subjects, instead of wasting it in wars of his own seek- 
ing and lavish expenditure on public buildings, he would 
have greatly strengthened his kingdom. No doubt the 
conquests of hu generals were splendid, and testify to the 
greatness of the armies of the empire at this timei No 
doubt also the compilation of the PandecU, Code, and 
InttUuUt was a magnificent work, which has left indelible 
traces on the legal systems of Europe. And it is an honour 
to any age to have developed the Byzantine style of archi- 
tecture, a style thoroughly Greek in its unity and propor- 
tion ; for, whereas the Romans had borrowed the ancient 
Greek style, and, adding to it the arch, had used it for 
wholly incongruous purposes, the Greeks in turn appropri- 
ated the arch and dome^ and created a new and harmonious 
stylei But the effects of his reign on hb dominions were 
ruinous. He riveted tighter the fetters which Constantine 
had invented, but he lacked the penetration of Constantino 
in perceiving the needs of his time. He dissolved the pro- 
vincial militia, which to some extent stOl existed in Greece. 
The population were ground down by taxation, the revenues 
of the free cities in Greece were seized, and at last the 
fortifications fell into disrepair, and a great part of the 
army was disbanded, so that when Zabergan, king of the 
Kutigur Huns, invaded the country from the north in the 
fwt 659, he was able to approach within 17 miles of Con- 
stantinople. How great the demoralization was is shown 
by the state of the empire under Justinian's Inimediate 
successors. Within less than twenty years after his death 
the conviction of a great change impending was so widely 
spread that a story was rife that it was revealed to the 
emperor Tiberius IL in a dream that on accoiiint of his 
virtues the days of anarchy should not commence during 
his reign. The condition of things has been described as 
'' nniversal political palsy." 

The 400 years which elapsed between Constantino and 
I«eo IIL were the great period of the barbarian invasions. 
The Goths, who, as we have seen, had overrun Greece 
in the latter half of the 3d century after their great defeat 
at Naissus (Niseh), were more or less kept in check, and 
became in some degree a civilised and Christian people 
in the country of Dacia, to the north of the Dannbe, which 
they had permanently occupied after the Boman colonies 
in that country were withdrawn by Aurelian. But in 
the reign . of Yalens, when the Huns were overrunning 
Europe, they were pressed onwards bv those invaders, and 
occupied Moesia b&tween the Danube and the Balkan, 
which province was peacefully ceded to them. It was 
only in consequence of treacherous treatment by the 
Romans that they afterwards entered the empire as 
enemies, and fought the campaign which ended in the 
defeat and death of that emperor (378). They were 
again checked by Theodooius, and persuaded to enlist in 
great numbers in the imperial service; but during the 
reign of his successor Arcaidius, the famous Alario roused 
the spirit of his countrymen, and ravaged the whole of 
Greece even to the Peloponnesus (895), before he turned 
his thoughts to the invasion of Italy For a time both 
Goths and Romans were the victims of AttUa, who with 

hb hordes of Huns swept over the lands south of the 
Danube (442-7), and was only induced to retire by an 
agreement on tue part of Theodosius H to pay him aa 
annual tribute. But again, in the reign of Zeno (475), 
the empire was in imminent danger from the Goths under 
Theodoric, who, like Alaric, had lived at Constantinople, 
and like him also withdrew into Italy. Towards the 
beginning of the fith^^ntury the Goths make way for more 
barbarous invaders, Bulgarians of Tnranbn origin, and 
various Slavonic tribes, for whose pastoral habits the now 
depopulated country was better suited than for a more 
civilized population. But they in turn were soon swallowed 
up by the Avars, whose vast monarchy occupied a great 
part of eastern Europe, and whose armies, in the time of 
Heraclins, threatened Constantinople itselt It was in 
order to impose a permanent check on that people that this 
emperor induced the Servians and Croatians to occupy the 
districts eastward of the Adriatic, Dalmatia and niyricnm, 
which were deserted, owing to their constant inroads. 
These Slavonic settlers paid allegiance to the empire, and 
as they formed agricultural communities, introduced an 
element of permanence into the country. The Avar power 
disappeared as suddenly as it had risen, and at the end of 
the 7th centnry its place b taken by the Bulgarian kingdom, 
which lasted for nearly 350 years, and was the great 
antagonist of the Byzantine empire in its most flourishing 
peri^ At the dose of thb long enumeration of invasions^ 
we cannot help being astonbhed at the successful resistanoe 
that was offered to tiiem. No doubt the conformation of 
the European provinces of the Eastern empire, with tlieir 
successive mountain barriers, was a source of strength from 
the ease with which they could be defended; but thu 
conld hardly have saved the Greeks, had it not been for the 
number of iheir walled cities, their superiority in the art of 
war, the courage of the people when called out by circom- 
stances, and the strong position of the capital 

On the side of Ana, during the same period, a long 
struggle was maintained with Persia. The dynasty of the 
Sassanides, which arose on the ruins of the old Parthian 
kingdom, had raked that country to great power and pros- 
perity. Hie second in order of its princes, Sapor I., bad 
taken the emperor Yalerian prisoner (257), and a oeo- 
tury later Julian lost hb life when fighting in Persia. The 
ill success of Justinian in hb Persian wan ought finirly to be 
ascribed as much to the ability of hb great opponent^ 
Choeroes Nushirvan, as to hb own shortcomings ; but the 
fact remains that even Belisarius won small glory from 
those contests^ and after a struggle oi twenty years' dura- 
tion a treaty was concluded, whidi required the European 
monarch to pay an annual subsidy of thirty thousand pieces 
of gold. War, however, continued during the reigns of hb 
successors Justin XL and Tiberius IL, nntil an honourable 
peace was concluded by Maurice, the aon-in-Iaw of the last 
named emperor, at whose court Chosroes IL, the rightful 
sovereign, had been received when he was an exile. Thb 
prince, when he was reinstated on hb paternal throne^ 
showed hb gratitude to the Romans. But when lAaurice 
was dethroned by the rebel Fhocas, the Persian monarch 
declared war, professedly with the design of avenging his 
benefactor. The greater part of the Asiatic provinces were 
laid waste, and a Persian army was for a time encamped 
on the shores of the Bosphorus, so that it seemed as if the 
Roman empire was about to be conquered by Persia. From 
thb it was saved by Heradius, who was not only one of the 
ablest of the emperors, but one of the greatest of military 
leaders. He warded off the impending danger, and in seven 
campaigns, by a series of brilliant victories, dealt a death- 
blow to the Persian power. The struggle was unavoidable^ 
and Heradius, in mtering npon it, was actuated by no vain 
desire of military renown i but the effects of it were disae- 



troos to tin Bomaaa tlao. The period wlien it oconmd 
was tfaftt of ilw rise of the Bancens^ aad the Th^ii ffti on 
caosed by it oontribated in no Blight degree to the ezten- 
sion of their power. 

We torn now to the condition of the Greeks daring this 
period. In the interval between the first Ctothio inTadons 
and tbe aeeession of Constantino the material prosperity of 
Qneoe had increased, owing partly to the doTastation of the 
prorinces to the nordi of that country, tiie wealthy inhabi- 
tants of which were forced to take refnm in Gnece^ and 
partly to the insecnrity of the Bed SeaT^gypt^ and Syiia^ 
whidi caused the oommerce of Central Asia to take the 
loate of the Black Sea, whence the trade of the Mediter^ 
raaean passed once more into the hands of the Greeks. It 
can hsrdly be said that the reforms of Constantine benefited 
the population, because of the seyere exactions they intro- 
duced; for, as has been already mentioned, the rich were 
forced to anpply from their own incomes any deficiency that 
might occur in their district, and by tlds means, before 
Jutinian's time^ the class of great landed proprietors had 
been e rtin guiahed. But the fixed position which the clergy 
and the lawyers obtained under Constantine's aystem was a 
general advantage, because Uiis constitutional check modified 
the oppressiTeneas of the Government in its d^ngs with 
the people. In the case of the latter of theee two orders 
the effect would have been greater, had not Latin been the 
langoage of legal business until after the time of Justinian. 
Ihe period of 120 years between the death of Arcadius 
and that emperor's accession was a time of improrement 
During the long reign of Theodosius IL the power was in 
the hands of his sister, the philanthropic Pulcheria, and of 
hit ministers, and theee seem to haTe rided judiciously ; and 
the five succeeding emperors, Mardan, Leo L, Zeno the 
Innrian, Anastasius, and Justin, were all men bom in the 
middle or lower class of society, and of provincial origin, 
and had come to the throne at a mature afle. The sympathy 
which they thus had with the body of their subjects accounts 
for thttr economy, and for their endeayours to restore the re- 
Booicea of the empire and alleviate its burdens, and generally 
tomtrodnoe regular forms of procedure into public businees. 
Far difbrent was the case with Justinian, whose severe 
demanda for money distressed all dassea of his subjects. 
Bat it was on Athens that his hand was most heavily laid. 
That city was still a literary capital where HeQenic learning 
was caltivated ; and if the Hero, and Leander of Husadus 
and that graoef ol pastoral romance, the Daphnu and Chloe 
dLottgos, are to be assigned to so late a date as the fifth 
eentmy, the spirit of the ancient literature had not long 
been extinct among the Greeks. The ancient buildings still 
existed in all their splendour; the dtiaens lived a life of 
qniet, self-opmplacent ease ; and the paganism, of which it 
vas now the centre, had been purified from its vices by the 
maxims of phUqeophy and the Influence of Christianity. It 
remained for Justinian, in his meroiless centralisation, to 
doie its schools and confiscate their revenues. At the same 
time the Olympian games were brought to an end. From 
this time onwsud the inhabitants of Hellas aro but little 
heard of, and at the beginning of the 8th century we find 
them spoken of by Byzantine writers under the contemp- 
taooa title of Hdladici, while the Greek nation is repreeented 
hy the population of Constantinople and Asia Minor. Yet 
this period was not wholly disadvantageous to Greece. As 
the danger from the invading baiWians increased, its 
dtinns regained the power of using arms, and revived a 
monicipol administration to direct their efforts. It was also 
in Justinian's reign that silkworms wero introduced from 
China, and the manufacture of sUk became a profitable 
aoQice of revenue to Thebes and other towns. 

One reaolt of the fitianciftl legisla